HOME
The Info List - Nabatean


--- Advertisement ---



The Nabataeans, also Nabateans (/ˌnæbəˈtiːənz/; Arabic: الأنباط‎ al-ʾAnbāṭ , compare Ancient Greek: Ναβαταῖος, Latin: Nabataeus), were an Arab[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] people who inhabited northern Arabia
Arabia
and the Southern Levant. Their settlements, most prominently the assumed capital city of Raqmu, now called Petra,[1] gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Arabia
Arabia
and Syria, from the Euphrates
Euphrates
to the Red Sea. Their loosely controlled trading network, which centered on strings of oases that they controlled, where agriculture was intensively practiced in limited areas, and on the routes that linked them, had no securely defined boundaries in the surrounding desert. Trajan
Trajan
conquered the Nabataean kingdom, annexing it to the Roman Empire, where their individual culture, easily identified by their characteristic finely potted painted ceramics, was adopted into the larger Greco-Roman culture. They were later converted to Christianity. Jane Taylor, a writer, describes them as "one of the most gifted peoples of the ancient world".[8]

Contents

1 Origins 2 Culture 3 Religion 4 Language 5 Agriculture 6 Nabataean Kingdom 7 Roman period 8 Archeological sites 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

Origins[edit] The Nabataeans
Nabataeans
were one among several nomadic tribes that roamed the Arabian Desert, moving with their herds to wherever they could find pasture and water. These nomads became familiar with their area as seasons passed, and they struggled to survive during bad years when seasonal rainfall diminished.[8] Although the Nabataeans
Nabataeans
were initially embedded in Aramaic
Aramaic
culture, theories about their having Aramean
Aramean
roots are rejected by modern scholars. Instead; historical, religious and linguistic evidence confirm that they are a northern Arabian tribe.[9] The precise origin of this specific tribe of Arab
Arab
nomads remains uncertain. One hypothesis locates their original homeland in today's Yemen, in the south-west of the Arabian peninsula; however, their deities, language and script share nothing with those of southern Arabia. Another hypothesis argues that they came from the eastern coast of the Peninsula.[8] The suggestion that they came from Hejaz area is considered to be more convincing, as they share many deities with the ancient people there, and "nbtw", the root consonant of the tribe's name, is found in the early Semitic languages
Semitic languages
of Hejaz.[8] Similarities between late Nabataean Arabic
Nabataean Arabic
dialect and the ones found in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
during the Neo-Assyrian period, and the fact that a group with the name of "Nabatu" is listed by the Assyrians as one of several rebellious Arab
Arab
tribes in the region, suggests a connection between the two.[8] The Nabataeans
Nabataeans
might have originated from there and migrated west between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE into northwestern Arabia
Arabia
and much of what is now modern-day Jordan.[8] Nabataeans
Nabataeans
have been falsely associated with other groups of people. A people called the "Nabaiti" which were defeated by the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
and described to have lived "in a far off desert where there are no wild animals and not even the birds build their nests", were associated by some with the Nabataeans
Nabataeans
due to the temptation to link their similar names and images. One claim by Jane Taylor alleges a misconception in their identification with the Nebaioth of the Hebrew Bible, the descendants of Ishmael, Abraham's son.[8] Unlike the rest of the Arabian tribes, the Nabataeans
Nabataeans
later emerged as vital players in the region during their times of prosperity. However, they later faded and were forgotten.[8] The brief Babylonian captivity of the Hebrews that began in 586 BCE opened a minor power vacuum in Judah (prior to the Judaeans' return under the Persian King, Cyrus the Great), and as Edomites moved into open Judaean grazing lands, Nabataean inscriptions began to be left in Edomite territory. The first definite appearance was in 312/311 BCE, when they were attacked at Sela or perhaps Petra
Petra
without success by Antigonus I's officer Athenaeus as part of the Third War of the Diadochi; at that time Hieronymus of Cardia, a Seleucid
Seleucid
officer, mentioned the Nabataeans
Nabataeans
in a battle report. About 50 BCE, the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus cited Hieronymus in his report,[clarification needed] and added the following: "Just as the Seleucids had tried to subdue them, so the Romans made several attempts to get their hands on that lucrative trade."[citation needed] The Nabataeans
Nabataeans
had already some trace of Aramaic
Aramaic
culture when they first appear in history. They wrote a letter to Antigonus in Syriac letters, and Aramaic
Aramaic
continued to be the language of their coins and inscriptions when the tribe grew into a kingdom, and profited by the decay of the Seleucids to extend its borders northward over the more fertile country east of the Jordan
Jordan
river. They occupied Hauran, and in about 85 BCE their king Aretas III
Aretas III
became lord of Damascus
Damascus
and Coele-Syria. Proper names on their inscriptions suggest that they were ethnically Arabs
Arabs
who had come under Aramaic
Aramaic
influence. Starcky identifies the Nabatu of southern Arabia
Arabia
(Pre-Khalan migration) as their ancestors. However different groups amongst the Nabataeans
Nabataeans
wrote their names in slightly different ways, consequently archaeologists are reluctant to say that they were all the same tribe, or that any one group is the original Nabataeans.[citation needed] Culture[edit] Main article: Incense Route

Nabataean trade routes.

Many examples of graffiti and inscriptions—largely of names and greetings—document the area of Nabataean culture, which extended as far north as the north end of the Dead Sea, and testify to widespread literacy; but except for a few letters[10] no Nabataean literature has survived, nor was any noted in antiquity.[11][12][13] Onomastic analysis has suggested[14] that Nabataean culture may have had multiple influences. Classical references to the Nabataeans
Nabataeans
begin with Diodorus Siculus; they suggest that the Nabataeans' trade routes and the origins of their goods were regarded as trade secrets, and disguised in tales that should have strained outsiders' credulity. Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
(book II) described them as a strong tribe of some 10,000 warriors, pre-eminent among the nomads of Arabia, eschewing agriculture, fixed houses, and the use of wine, but adding to pastoral pursuits a profitable trade with the seaports in frankincense, myrrh and spices from Arabia
Arabia
Felix (today's Yemen), as well as a trade with Egypt
Egypt
in bitumen from the Dead Sea. Their arid country was their best safeguard, for the bottle-shaped cisterns for rain-water which they excavated in the rocky or clay-rich soil were carefully concealed from invaders.[15] Religion[edit] Main article: Nabataean religion The extent of Nabataean trade resulted in cross-cultural influences that reached as far as the Red Sea
Red Sea
coast of southern Arabia. The gods worshipped at Petra
Petra
were notably Dushara
Dushara
and al-‘Uzzá. Dushara
Dushara
was the supreme deity of the Nabataean Arabs, and was the official god of the Nabataean Kingdom
Nabataean Kingdom
who enjoyed special royal patronage.[16] His official position is reflected in multiple inscriptions that render him as "The god of our lord" (The King).[17] The name Dushara
Dushara
simply mean the one of Shara, mountains near Petra.[16] Nabataean inscription from Hegra, give us an understanding of the cosmic function of Dushara: "He who separates night and day" suggest that he was linked with the sun, or with Mercury, which another Arabian god, called Ruda, was identified with.[17] Although when the Romans annexed the Nabataean Kingdom, Dushara
Dushara
still acquired important role despite losing his former royal privilege. The greatest testimony to the status of the god after the fall of the Nabataean Kingdom
Nabataean Kingdom
is in the 1000th anniversary of Rome where Dushara
Dushara
was celebrated in Bostra by strucking coins in his name that was called Actia Dusaria (linking the god with Augustus
Augustus
victory at Actium). He was venerated in his Arabian name with a Greek fashion and in a reign of an Arabian emperor.[17] The Nabataeans
Nabataeans
used to represent their gods as featureless pillars or blocks. Their most common monuments to the gods, commonly known as "god blocks", involved cutting away the whole top of a hill or cliff face so as to leave only a block behind. However, the Nabataeans became so influenced by other cultures such as those of Greece and Rome that their gods eventually became anthropomorphic and were represented with human features.[18] Language[edit] The official language of the Nabataean inscription, attested from the 2nd century BCE, shows a local development of the Aramaic
Aramaic
language under a heavy influence of Arabic
Arabic
forms and words demonstrated in numerous Nabataean inscriptions, which reflect the local tongue of the Nabataeans.[19] For medium and mutually comprehensive communication with Middle Eastern ethnic groups the Nabataeans, likewise their neighbours, had to rely on Aramaic
Aramaic
as middle bridge between the different polities of the region.[17] Therefore Aramaic
Aramaic
was used for commercial and official purposes across the Nabataean political sphere.[20] The Nabataean alphabet
Nabataean alphabet
itself also developed out of the Aramaic
Aramaic
alphabet, although used distinctive cursive script of which the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet emerged from. While the principal inscriptional language of the Nabataeans
Nabataeans
was Aramaic, the lingua franca of the time, the Nabataeans
Nabataeans
were, however, an Arabic
Arabic
speakers.[21] In surviving Nabataean documents, Aramaic legal terms are followed by their equivalents in Arabic. This could suggest that the Nabataeans
Nabataeans
used Arabic
Arabic
in their legal proceedings, but recorded them in Aramaic.[22] Agriculture[edit]

Remains of a Nabataean cistern north of Makhtesh Ramon, southern Israel.

Although not as dry as at present, the area occupied by the Nabataeans was still a desert and required special techniques for agriculture. One was to contour an area of land into a shallow funnel and to plant a single fruit tree in the middle. Before the 'rainy season', which could easily consist of only one or two rain events, the area around the tree was broken up. When the rain came, all the water that collected in the funnel would flow down toward the fruit tree and sink into the ground. The ground, which was largely loess, would seal up when it got wet and retain the water. In the mid-1950s, a research team headed by Michael Evenari
Michael Evenari
set up a research station near Avdat
Avdat
(Evenari, Shenan and Tadmor 1971). He focused on the relevance of runoff rainwater management in explaining the mechanism of the ancient agricultural features, such as terraced wadis, channels for collecting runoff rainwater, and the enigmatic phenomenon of "Tuleilat el-Anab". Evenari showed that the runoff rainwater collection systems concentrate water from an area that is five times larger than the area in which the water actually drains.[citation needed] Another study was conducted by Y. Kedar[who?] in 1957, which also focused on the mechanism[vague] of the agriculture systems, but he studied soil management, and claimed that the ancient agriculture systems were intended to increase the accumulation of loess in wadis and create an infrastructure for agricultural activity. This theory has also been explored by E. Mazor,[who?] of the Weizmann Institute of Science.[citation needed] Nabataean Kingdom[edit] Main article: Nabataean Kingdom

The Roman province of Arabia
Arabia
Petraea, created from the Nabataean kingdom.

Further information: Petra Petra
Petra
was rapidly built in the 1st century BCE, and developed a population estimated at 20,000.[23] The Nabataeans
Nabataeans
were allies of the first Hasmoneans
Hasmoneans
in their struggles against the Seleucid
Seleucid
monarchs. They then became rivals of the Judaean dynasty, and a chief element in the disorders that invited Pompey's intervention in Judea. Many Nabataeans
Nabataeans
were forcefully converted to Judaism
Judaism
by the Hasmonean king Alexander Jannaeus.[24] It was this king who, after putting down a local rebellion, invaded and occupied the Nabataean towns of Moab
Moab
and Gilead
Gilead
and imposed a tribute of an unknown amount. Obodas I knew that Alexander would attack, so was able to ambush Alexander's forces near Gaulane destroying the Judean army (90 BC).[25] The Roman military was not very successful in their campaigns against the Nabataeans. In 62 BCE, Marcus Aemilius Scaurus accepted a bribe of 300 talents to lift the siege of Petra, partly because of the difficult terrain and the fact that he had run out of supplies. Hyrcanus II, who was a friend of Aretas, was despatched by Scaurus to the King to buy peace. In so obtaining peace, King Aretas retained all his possessions, including Damascus, and became a Roman vassal.[26] In 32 BCE, during King Malichus II's reign, Herod the Great, with the support of Cleopatra, started a war against Nabataea. The war began with Herod plundering Nabataea with a large cavalry force, and occupying Dium. After this defeat, the Nabataean forces amassed near Canatha
Canatha
in Syria, but were attacked and routed. Cleopatra's general, Athenion, sent Canathans to the aid of the Nabataeans, and this force crushed Herod's army, which then fled to Ormiza. One year later, Herod's army overran Nabataea.[27]

Colossal Nabataean columns stand in Bosra, Syria.

After an earthquake in Judaea, the Nabateans rebelled and invaded Israel, but Herod at once crossed the Jordan
Jordan
river to Philadelphia (modern Amman) and both sides set up camp. The Nabataeans
Nabataeans
under Elthemus refused to give battle, so Herod forced the issue when he attacked their camp. A confused mass of Nabataeans
Nabataeans
gave battle but were defeated. Once they had retreated to their defences, Herod laid siege to the camp and over time some of the defenders surrendered. The remaining Nabataean forces offered 500 talents for peace, but this was rejected. Lacking water, the Nabataeans
Nabataeans
were forced out of their camp for battle, but were defeated in this last battle.[28] Roman period[edit] An ally of the Roman Empire, the Nabataean kingdom
Nabataean kingdom
flourished throughout the 1st century. Its power extended far into Arabia
Arabia
along the Red Sea
Red Sea
to Yemen, and Petra
Petra
was a cosmopolitan marketplace, though its commerce was diminished by the rise of the Eastern trade-route from Myos Hormos
Myos Hormos
to Coptos
Coptos
on the Nile. Under the Pax Romana, the Nabataeans
Nabataeans
lost their warlike and nomadic habits and became a sober, acquisitive, orderly people, wholly intent on trade and agriculture. The kingdom was a bulwark between Rome and the wild hordes of the desert except in the time of Trajan, who reduced Petra
Petra
and converted the Nabataean client state into the Roman province of Arabia
Arabia
Petraea. By the 3rd century, the Nabataeans
Nabataeans
had stopped writing in Aramaic
Aramaic
and begun writing in Greek instead, and by the 5th century they had converted to Christianity.[29] The new Arab
Arab
invaders, who soon pressed forward into their seats, found the remnants of the Nabataeans transformed into peasants. Their lands were divided between the new Qahtanite
Qahtanite
Arab
Arab
tribal kingdoms of the Byzantine
Byzantine
vassals, the Ghassanid Arabs, and the Himyarite
Himyarite
vassals, the Kindah
Kindah
Arab
Arab
Kingdom in North Arabia. The city of Petra
Petra
was brought to the attention of Westerners by the Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt
Johann Ludwig Burckhardt
in 1812. Archeological sites[edit]

Petra
Petra
and Little Petra
Petra
in Jordan Bosra
Bosra
in Syria Mada'in Saleh[30] in northwest Saudi Arabia. Shivta
Shivta
in the Negev Desert of Israel; disputed as a Nabataean precursor to a Byzantine
Byzantine
colony. Avdat
Avdat
in the Negev Desert of Israel Mamshit
Mamshit
in the Negev Desert of Israel Haluza
Haluza
in the Negev Desert of Israel Dahab
Dahab
in South Sinai, Egypt; an excavated Nabataean trading port.

See also[edit]

Ancient Near East portal

List of rulers of Nabatea Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia

Notes[edit]

^ a b "Nabataeans". livius.org. Retrieved August 31, 2015.  ^ "Herod Biography & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica.  ^ "Solving the Enigma of Petra
Petra
and the Nabataeans
Nabataeans
- Biblical Archaeology Society". Biblical Archaeology Society. 6 April 2017.  ^ Bowersock, Glen Warren (1994). Roman Arabia. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674777569.  ^ Catherwood, Christopher (2011). A Brief History of the Middle East. Little, Brown Book Group. ISBN 9781849018074.  ^ Incorporated, Facts On File
File
(2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 9781438126760.  ^ Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Antony; Eidinow, Esther (2012). The Oxford Classical Dictionary. OUP Oxford. ISBN 9780199545568.  ^ a b c d e f g h Taylor, Jane (2001). Petra
Petra
and the Lost Kingdom of the Nabataeans. London, United Kingdom: I.B.Tauris. pp. centerfold, 14. ISBN 978-1-86064-508-2. The Nabataean Arabs, one of the most gifted peoples of the ancient world, are today known only for their hauntingly beautiful rock-carved capital — Petra.  ^ Maalouf, Tony (2003). Arabs
Arabs
in the Shadow of Israel: The Unfolding of God's Prophetic Plan for Ishmael's Line. Kregel Academic. ISBN 978-0-8254-9363-8.  ^ The Leon Levy Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls Digital Library ^ The carbonized Petra
Petra
papyri, mostly economic documents in Greek, date to the 6th century: Glen L. Peterman, "Discovery of Papyri in Petra", The Biblical Archaeologist 57 1 (March 1994), pp. 55–57 ^ P. M. Bikai (1997) "The Petra
Petra
Papyri", Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan ^ Marjo Lehtinen (December 2002) " Petra
Petra
Papyri", Near Eastern Archaeology Vol.65 No.4 pp. 277–278. ^ Macdonald, M. C. A. (1999). "Personal names in the Nabataean realm: a review article". Journal of Semitic Studies. XLIV (2): 251–289. doi:10.1093/jss/xliv.2.251. Retrieved 7 February 2011.  ^ J. W. Eadie, J. P. Oleson (1986) "The Water-Supply Systems of Nabatean and Roman Ḥumayma", Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research ^ a b Javier Teixidor (8 March 2015). The Pagan God: Popular Religion in the Greco-Roman Near East. Princeton University Press. p. 83. ISBN 978-1-4008-7139-1.  ^ a b c d Jane Taylor (2001). Petra
Petra
and the Lost Kingdom of the Nabataeans. I.B.Tauris. p. 124. ISBN 978-1-86064-508-2.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Taylor2001" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). ^ Biblical Archaeology Review, May/June 2016, page 20 ^ John F. Healey (1990). The Early Alphabet. University of California Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-520-07309-8.  ^ Tony Maalouf. Arabs
Arabs
in the Shadow of Israel: The Unfolding of God's Prophetic Plan for Ishmael's Line. Kregel Academic. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-8254-9363-8.  ^ Roger D. Woodard (10 April 2008). The Ancient Languages of Syria-Palestine and Arabia. Cambridge University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-139-46934-0.  ^ Arabic
Arabic
in Context: Celebrating 400 years of Arabic
Arabic
at Leiden University. BRILL. 21 June 2017. p. 79. ISBN 978-90-04-34304-7.  ^ "A City Carved in Stone". Petra: Lost City of Stone. Canadian Museum of Civilization. 7 April 2006. Retrieved 7 February 2011.  ^ Johnson, Paul (1987). A History of the Jews. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-79091-4.  ^ Josephus, Flavius (1981). The Jewish War. 1:87. Trans. G. A. Williamson 1959. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-14-044420-9.  ^ Josephus
Josephus
1:61, p. 48. ^ Josephus
Josephus
1:363–377, pp. 75–77. ^ Josephus
Josephus
1:377–391, pp. 78–79. ^ Rimon, Ofra. "The Nabateans in the Negev". Hecht Museum. Retrieved 7 February 2011.  ^ Nabataea: Medain Saleh

References[edit]

Graf, David F. (1997). Rome and the Arabian Frontier: From the Nabataeans
Nabataeans
to the Saracens. Aldershot: Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-86078-658-0.  Healey, John F., The Religion of the Nabataeans: A Conspectus (Leiden, Brill, 2001) (Religions in the Graeco-Roman World, 136). Krasnov, Boris R.; Mazor, Emanuel (2001). The Makhteshim Country: A Laboratory of Nature: Geological and Ecological Studies in the Desert Region of Israel. Sofia: Pensoft. ISBN 978-954-642-135-7.  "Nabat", Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume VII. Negev, Avraham (1986). Nabatean Archaeology Today. Hagop Kevorkian Series on Near Eastern Art and Civilization. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-5760-4.  Schmid, Stephan G. (2001). "The Nabataeans: Travellers between Lifestyles". In MacDonald, Burton; Adams, Russell; Bienkowski, Piotr. The Archaeology of Jordan. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press. pp. 367–426. ISBN 978-1-84127-136-1. 

v t e

Semitic topics

Peoples

Adnanites Algerians Amhara people Amorites Arab
Arab
diaspora Arabs Arabs
Arabs
in India Arabs
Arabs
in Turkey Arameans Argobba people Arma people Assyrian people Bahrani people Bedouin Chaldeans Chaush Egyptians Emiratis Gurage people Habesha people Hadhrami people Harari people Hyksos Iranian Arabs Iraqis Ishmaelites Israelis

Israeli Arabs Israeli Jews

Israelites Jewish diaspora Jews Jordanians Lebanese people

Maronites

Libyans Mandaeans Marsh Arabs Mauritanians Mhallami Moors Moroccans Nabataeans Omanis Palestinians Qahtanite Qataris Sabians Samaritans Saracen Soqotri Sudanese people Syrian people Tigrayans Tigre people Tigrinyas Tunisians Yemenis

Politics

Algerian nationalism Arab
Arab
nationalism Arab
Arab
socialism Assyrian nationalism Canaanism Egyptian nationalism Iraqi nationalism Jewish political movements

Bundism Zionism

Jewish religious movements Lebanese nationalism

Phoenicianism

Libyan nationalism Palestinian nationalism Pan-Arabism Pan-Islamism Syrian nationalism Tunisian nationalism

Origins

Generations of Noah Genetic studies on Jews Haplogroup IJ Haplogroup IJK Haplogroup J-M172 Haplogroup J-M267 Haplogroup J (Y-DNA) Shem Y-chromosomal Aaron Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of the Near East

History

Abbasid Caliphate Akkadian Empire Amorites Arabization Aram Rehob Aram-Damascus Aram-Naharaim Assyria Babylonia Bit Adini Canaan Carthage Chaldea Davidic line Edom Fatimid Caliphate Ghassanids Hasmonean dynasty Herodian kingdom Herodian Tetrarchy Himyarite
Himyarite
Kingdom Judaization Kindah Kingdom of Aksum Kingdom of Awsan Kingdom of Israel
Israel
(Samaria) Kingdom of Israel
Israel
(united monarchy) Kingdom of Judah Lakhmids Lihyan Midian Minaeans Moab Nabataeans Neo-Assyrian Empire Neo-Babylonian Empire Paddan Aram Palmyrene Empire Phoenicia Qataban Qedarite Rashidun Caliphate Sabaeans Solomonic dynasty Thamud Umayyad Caliphate Zagwe dynasty ʿĀd

Countries

Algeria Arab
Arab
world Bahrain Comoros Djibouti Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia Iraq Israel Jordan Lebanon Libya Mauritania Palestinian territories1 Qatar Sahrawi Arab
Arab
Democratic Republic1 (Western Sahara) Saudi Arabia Somalia Sudan Syria Tunisia United Arab
Arab
Emirates Yemen

Flags and coats of arms

Algeria Arab
Arab
flags Aramean-Syriac flag Assyria Bahrain Cedrus libani The Coromos Crescent Djibouti Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(emblem) Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(flag) Hamsa Iraq Israel
Israel
(emblem) Israel
Israel
(flag) Janbiya Jordan Khanjar Kuwait Lebanon Libya Lion of Judah Mauritania Menorah (Temple) Morocco Oman Palestine Pan- Arab
Arab
colors Qatar Saudi Arabia Scimitar Shamash Star of David Sudan Syria Takbir Tanit Tunesia United Arab
Arab
Emirates Yemen Zulfiqar

Studies

Arabist Assyriology Hebraist Semitic Museum Semitic studies Syriac studies

Religions

Abrahamic religions Ancient Canaanite religion Ancient Mesopotamian religion Ancient Semitic religion Babylonian religion Christianity Druze
Druze
religion Islam Judaism Mandaeism pre-Islamic Arabia Samaritan religion Semitic neopaganism

Organizations

Arab
Arab
European League Arab
Arab
League Assyrian Universal Alliance World Council of Arameans
Arameans
(Syriacs) World Zionist Congress

1 Is a state with limited international recognition

External links[edit]

Hecht Museum
Hecht Museum
- Catalogues The Nabateans in the Negev Hecht Museum
Hecht Museum
- Exhibitions The Nabateans in the Negev The Bulletin of Nabataean Studies online—links on Petra
Petra
and the Nabataeans NABATÆANS in the Jewish Encyclopedia Cincinnati Art Museum—the only collection of ancient Nabataean art outside of Jordan Archaeological Studies—Ancient Desert Agriculture Systems Revived (ADASR) Petra: Lost City of Stone Exhibition—Canadian Museum of Civilization "Solving the Enigma of Petra
Petra
and the Nabataeans", Biblical Archaeology Review Nabataeans
Nabataeans
a nation civiliza

.