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New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc. (NUMMI) was an automobile manufacturing company in Fremont, California, jointly owned by General Motors and Toyota
Toyota
that opened in 1984 and closed in 2010. On October 27, 2010, its former plant reopened as a 100% Tesla Motors-owned production facility, known as the Tesla Factory.[1] The plant is located in the East Industrial area of Fremont between Interstate 880 and Interstate 680.

Contents

1 Overview 2 Facility 3 Employees 4 Models produced 5 History

5.1 Background 5.2 Makeover 5.3 Events as closure approached 5.4 Alternatives to closure 5.5 End 5.6 After NUMMI: use of the land and facility

6 See also 7 References

7.1 Bibliography

8 External links

Overview[edit] The NUMMI
NUMMI
plant in Fremont, California NUMMI
NUMMI
was established at the former General Motors
General Motors
Fremont Assembly site that closed in 1982;[2] it had been a GM plant since 1962. GM and Toyota
Toyota
reopened the factory as a joint venture in 1984 to manufacture vehicles to be sold under both brands.[3] GM saw the joint venture as an opportunity to learn about lean manufacturing from the Japanese company, while Toyota
Toyota
gained its first manufacturing base in North America and a chance to implement its Taylorism-inspired[dubious – discuss] production system in an American labor environment,[4][5][6][7] avoiding possible import restrictions.[8] GM employees went to Toyota's Takaoka plant in Japan[9] and improved production at NUMMI,[10][11] Spring Hill and other sites,[12] particularly after Jack Smith spread the program.[13][14] Up to May 2010, NUMMI
NUMMI
built an average of 6000 vehicles a week, or nearly eight million cars and trucks since opening in 1984.[15][16] In 1997, NUMMI
NUMMI
produced 357,809 cars and trucks,[17] peaking at 428,633 units in 2006.[14] GM pulled out of the venture in June 2009 due to its bankruptcy, and several months later Toyota
Toyota
announced plans to pull out by March 2010.[18][19] The closure was opposed by city officials,[20][21][22] including Fremont Mayor Bob Wasserman, who lobbied to keep NUMMI
NUMMI
in the city.[23] However, at 9:40am on April 1, 2010, the plant produced its last car, a red Toyota
Toyota
Corolla S believed to be destined for a museum in Japan.[citation needed] Production of Corollas in North America moved to Toyota
Toyota
Motor Manufacturing
Manufacturing
Mississippi's assembly plant in Blue Springs, Mississippi
Blue Springs, Mississippi
and Toyota
Toyota
Motor Manufacturing Canada's 'North' assembly plant in Cambridge, Ontario. On May 20, 2010, it was announced that Tesla Motors
Tesla Motors
had purchased[24][25] part of the NUMMI
NUMMI
plant and renamed it Tesla Factory, producing the Tesla Model S.[26] By 2016, the plant had 6,000 employees, with plans for more.[27]

Facility[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The plant spans the equivalent of about 88 football fields, and is configured into a main building that does the final assembly of vehicles and five other facilities:

Plastics facility fabricating bumpers, instrument panels, interior panels, and others; Stamping facility that fabricates all visible sheet metal parts; Welding facility that assembles all metallic parts into one rigid unit; and Two paint facilities, one for passenger vehicles and another for truck cabs. Employees[edit] In the initial 20 months of hiring, NUMMI
NUMMI
hired 2,200 hourly workers—85% from the old GM-Fremont plant, among them the old union hierarchy. The union also played a role in selecting managers, except for 16 directly assigned by GM and about 30 Toyota
Toyota
managers and production coordinators from Japan, including the CEO, Tatsuro Toyoda, part of the company's founding family.[28] By 2006, the plant had 5,500 employees.[29] Until the facility's closure in April 2010, 4,700 workers were employed.[30] NUMMI
NUMMI
employees were represented by The International, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America (UAW) Local 2244.[29]

Models produced[edit] The Fremont, California
Fremont, California
plant operated by NUMMI
NUMMI
produced the following models:

Chevrolet Nova
Chevrolet Nova
(1984–1988) Toyota
Toyota
Corolla (E90) (1987-1992) Toyota
Toyota
Corolla (E100) (1993-1997) Toyota
Toyota
Corolla (E110) (1997-2002) Toyota
Toyota
Corolla (E120) (2002-2007) Toyota
Toyota
Corolla (E140) (2006-2010) Geo Prizm
Geo Prizm
(1989–1997) Chevrolet Prizm
Chevrolet Prizm
(1998–2002) Toyota
Toyota
Hilux (1991–1995, predecessor of the Tacoma) Toyota
Toyota
Tacoma (1995-2010) Toyota
Toyota
Voltz (2002-2004) Pontiac Vibe
Pontiac Vibe
(2002-2009) Production of the Pontiac Vibe
Pontiac Vibe
hatchback was discontinued in August 2009 as GM phased out the Pontiac brand in the midst of a bailout.[31] Along with Saturn and Hummer, Pontiac joined Oldsmobile
Oldsmobile
(which had been discontinued after 2004) among the four GM brands that are no longer in production. Beginning in September 1986, the NUMMI
NUMMI
plant produced the Corolla.[3] In January 1995, it began producing the Toyota Tacoma pickup truck.[3]

History[edit] Background[edit] The Fremont Assembly
Fremont Assembly
factory which NUMMI
NUMMI
took over was built by General Motors
General Motors
and operated by them from 1962 to 1982,[3] when the Fremont employees[32] were "considered the worst workforce in the automobile industry in the United States", according to the United Auto Workers.[15][16][5] Employees drank alcohol on the job, were frequently absent (enough so that the production line couldn't be started), and even committed petty acts of sabotage such as putting "Coke bottles inside the door panels, so they'd rattle and annoy the customer."[15][16] GM was departmentalized as per Henry Ford's Division of labour,[33][34] but without the necessary communication; management did not consider workers' view of production, and quantity was preferred over quality.[5]

Makeover[edit] The idea of reopening the plant emerged from the need that GM had to build high-quality and profitable small cars and the need Toyota
Toyota
had to start building cars in the United States, a requirement due to the possibility of import restrictions by the U.S. Congress.[15][16] The goal was to produce high quality at low cost, but supported by including workers in the process.[35] The choice of the Fremont plant and its workers was unusual because of the previous problems. In spite of the history and reputation, when NUMMI
NUMMI
reopened the factory for production in 1984, 85% of the troublesome GM workforce was rehired,[36] with some sent to Japan to learn the Toyota
Toyota
Production System.[15][16][5] Workers who made the transition identified the emphasis on quality and teamwork by Toyota management as what motivated a change in work ethic.[15][16] Among the cultural changes were the same uniform, parking and cafeterias for all levels of employment in order to promote the team concept,[37][38] and a no-layoff policy.[39] Built-in process quality and employee suggestion programs for continual improvement[38] were other changes.[40] Consensus decision-making
Consensus decision-making
reached management level, in contrast with the old departmentalization.[41] By December 1984, the first car, a yellow Chevrolet Nova
Chevrolet Nova
rolled off the assembly line. And almost right away, the NUMMI
NUMMI
factory was producing cars at the same speed and with as few defects per 100 vehicles as those produced in Japan,[42][15][16] with higher worker satisfaction.[43] In 1988 NUMMI
NUMMI
operated at 58.6% capacity, and had not reached break-even by 1991.[37] Despite the early success at Fremont, by 1998 (15 years later) GM had still not been able to implement lean manufacturing in the rest of the United States,[5][44] though GM managers trained at NUMMI
NUMMI
were successful in introducing the approach to its unionized factories in Brazil.[45] NUMMI
NUMMI
was Toyota's only unionized plant in the U.S.[46]

Events as closure approached[edit] Some of the challenges for the factory were higher costs.[29] Daily tours of the plant, offered free to the public, were ended on February 27, 2009.[47][48] On June 29, 2009, General Motors
General Motors
announced that they would discontinue the joint venture with Toyota.[49] The announcement was made following GM CEO Fritz Henderson announcing in April that General Motors
General Motors
would discontinue the Pontiac Vibe production at NUMMI. The two automakers were in discussions but could not find a suitable product to be produced at the factory. “After extensive analysis, GM and Toyota
Toyota
could not reach an agreement on a future product plan that made sense for all parties,” GM North America President Troy Clarke said in a statement. "Toyota’s hope was to continue the venture and we haven’t yet decided any plans at the factory,” said Hideaki Homma, Toyota's Tokyo-based spokesman. “While we respect this decision by GM, the economic and business environment surrounding Toyota
Toyota
is also extremely severe, and so this decision by GM makes the situation even more difficult for Toyota.” Before GM decided to sever its stake in the NUMMI
NUMMI
joint venture, Toyota
Toyota
was considering offering a version of its Prius hybrid to GM that would be built at the factory and sold as a GM model but Toyota
Toyota
has indicated that it was seriously considering exiting the venture also.[50][51] On August 27, 2009, Toyota
Toyota
announced that it would discontinue its production contract with NUMMI, shifting Tacoma production to its San Antonio, Texas pickup plant and Corolla assembly to Blue Springs, Mississippi. A total of 5,400 employees were affected, including 4,550 UAW hourly workers.[52] In November 2009, Toyota's head of U.S. sales took calls from autoworkers, saying that though it has been a difficult decision to shut down the plant, "the economics of having a plant in California so far away from the supplier lines" in the Midwest "just doesn't make business sense" for Toyota
Toyota
to continue running the NUMMI plant.[53] Meanwhile, autoworkers prepared for the shut down by refreshing skills and planning for career transitions.[54] Federal, state, and local officials also participated in the transition discussions.[55] In March 2010, 90% of the 3,700 UAW workers at the plant approved a $281 million severance package averaging $54,000,[56] paid by Toyota
Toyota
to the plant's 4,700 employees.[57] Production of the Toyota
Toyota
models that used to be made at NUMMI
NUMMI
was moved to Toyota's plants in southern states.[46]

Alternatives to closure[edit] In January 2010, a possible use of the land was proposed: a new stadium for home games of the Oakland Athletics
Oakland Athletics
of Major League Baseball. It is close to the proposed site of Cisco Field, which was never formally approved.[58] State officials crafted sales tax exemption on new factory equipment to preserve Nummi.[59] A regional committee was formed in February 2010 to investigate the closure of the plant,[60] and the facility was appraised while operating.[61] On March 10, 2010, Aurica Motors
Aurica Motors
announced a proposal to save the NUMMI
NUMMI
automotive plant and the jobs associated with it. The company said that it intended to raise investment capital and garner federal economic stimulus funds to help retrain the workers and retool the facility for production of electrical vehicles.[62][63]

End[edit] The NUMMI
NUMMI
plant ceased operations on April 1, 2010, ending the Toyota-GM joint venture. California's last automobile manufacturing plant saw its last car, a Corolla, roll off the assembly line.[64] NUMMI
NUMMI
sold off equipment at an auction,[61] with robots and tooling going to Toyota
Toyota
plants in Kentucky, Texas[65] and Mississippi.[66] NUMMI
NUMMI
sold some equipment to Tesla for $15 million.[67]

After NUMMI: use of the land and facility[edit] Further information: Tesla Factory On May 20, 2010, Tesla Motors
Tesla Motors
and Toyota
Toyota
announced a partnership to work on electric vehicle development, which included Tesla's partial purchase (210 of 370 acres)[66] of the former NUMMI
NUMMI
site for $42 million, mainly consisting of the factory building,[24][30] but not equipment.[68] Tesla CEO Elon Musk
Elon Musk
said the Tesla S sedan will be built at the plant.[69] When Tesla took over the location in 2010, they renamed it the Tesla Factory.[70] Tesla would be collaborating with Toyota
Toyota
on the "development of electric vehicles, parts, and production system and engineering support". According to Tesla Motors' plans, the plant would first be used to produce the Tesla Model S sedan with "future vehicles" following in the coming years. The plant was projected to produce 20,000 vehicles a year and employ 1,000 workers to start.[26]

See also[edit] CAMI Automotive
CAMI Automotive
(CAMI) — A similar joint venture in Canada
Canada
between Suzuki
Suzuki
and General Motors
General Motors
from 1986 to 2009; now operating as a wholly owned GM plant. United Australian Automobile
Automobile
Industries (UAAI) — A similar joint venture in Australia
Australia
between Toyota
Toyota
and GM- Holden
Holden
from 1989 to 1996. Gung Ho — A 1986 comedy film portraying a similar joint venture and is used by Toyota
Toyota
executives in Japan as an example of how not to manage Americans.[71] References[edit]

^ Sibley, Lisa (October 27, 2010). "Tesla officially replaces NUMMI
NUMMI
in Fremont"..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ "GM, Toyota
Toyota
mull joint U.S. venture". Eugene Register-Guard. (Oregon). wire services. March 9, 1982. p. 5A.

^ a b c d "timeline". NUMMI. Archived from the original on April 2, 2010. Retrieved November 30, 2013.

^ Adler, Paul S. (January 1995). "Democratic Taylorism: The Toyota Production System at NUMMI". ResearchGate. Retrieved October 10, 2016.

^ a b c d e Glass, Ira (July 17, 2015). " NUMMI
NUMMI
2015, Transcript". Archived from the original on June 19, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016. nobody in the GM plant would ever ask to help. They would come and yell at you because you got behind. I can't remember any time in my working life where anybody asked for my ideas to solve the problem. There's nobody to pull you out at General Motors, so you're going to let something go. Hundreds of misassembled cars. Never stop the line. . One reason car execs were in denial was Detroit's insular culture. Yes, unions and management were always at each other's throats, and yes, GM and its suppliers had a destructive relationship that seemed to almost discourage quality. But everyone had settled into comfortable roles in this dysfunctional system and learned to live with it. -it took about a decade and a half after NUMMI
NUMMI
for change to even begin to take hold at GM. By the year 2000, GM finally started to see a generational transformation.

^ Adler 1992, page 4

^ Adler 1992, page 10

^ "Global Website - 75 Years of Toyota
Toyota
- Section 3. Local Production Starts in North America - Item 2. Joint Venture with GM". Toyota. 2012. Archived from the original on March 30, 2016. Retrieved October 10, 2016.

^ Adler 1992, page 9: Timeline 1983-1991

^ "How NUMMI
NUMMI
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^ "How to Change a Culture: Lessons From NUMMI". MIT Sloan Management Review. 2010. Archived from the original on March 2, 2016. Retrieved October 10, 2016.

^ "Goodbye to NUMMI
NUMMI
- How a Manufacturing
Manufacturing
Plant Changed the Culture of Car-Making". Popular Mechanics. April 2, 2010. Archived from the original on September 19, 2016. Retrieved October 10, 2016.

^ " NUMMI
NUMMI
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^ a b Schweinsberg, Christine (August 28, 2009). "Toyota's Decision to Abandon NUMMI
NUMMI
Closes Book on 25-Year Experiment". Ward's. Archived from the original on April 5, 2016. Retrieved October 10, 2016.

^ a b c d e f g Siegel, Robert (March 26, 2010). "The End Of The Line For GM- Toyota
Toyota
Joint Venture". All Things Considered. National Public Radio. Archived from the original on April 23, 2016. Retrieved April 7, 2010.

^ a b c d e f g "Episode 403 - NUMMI". This American Life. March 26, 2010. Retrieved April 7, 2010.

^ "GM Nummi Plant". Archived from the original on March 14, 2016. Retrieved October 9, 2016.

^ Thomas, Ken (August 28, 2009). " Toyota
Toyota
plans to end production at Calif. plant". Google News. Retrieved August 29, 2009.

^ Abate, Tom (August 28, 2009). " Toyota
Toyota
closing Fremont Nummi plant". SFGate. Retrieved August 29, 2009.

^ Abate, Tom (August 6, 2009). "State offers incentives to save Nummi plant". SFGate. Retrieved November 3, 2015.

^ Bensinger, Ken (July 16, 2009). "State lawmakers scramble to keep Toyota
Toyota
plant open". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 3, 2015.

^ Schwarzenegger, Arnold; Haggerty, Scott; Wasserman, Bob (August 25, 2009). "Restoring California's Automotive Industry". freemont.gov. Retrieved November 3, 2015.

^ "Memorial Held For Fremont Mayor Wasserman". KCBS-TV. January 6, 2012. Retrieved January 21, 2012.

^ a b Riddell, Lindsay (May 20, 2010). "Tesla to buy NUMMI
NUMMI
plant, build cars with Toyota". San Francisco Business Times. Retrieved May 21, 2010.

^ Davis, Joshua (September 27, 2010). "How Elon Musk
Elon Musk
Turned Tesla Into the Car Company of the Future". WIRED. Retrieved October 10, 2016.

^ a b "Tesla lands sudden deal with Toyota, will build Model S sedan in Fremont NUMMI
NUMMI
plant". Engadget. Retrieved December 21, 2010.

^ "Tesla's new long-range plan could double size of Fremont factory". San Francisco Chronicle. October 7, 2016. Retrieved October 8, 2016.

^ Adler, Paul (January 1993). "Time-and-Motion Regained". Harvard Business Review. US. Retrieved July 9, 2017.

^ a b c Simmers, Tim (March 5, 2006). " NUMMI
NUMMI
plant a model for ailing car industry". Contra Costa Times. Retrieved November 5, 2017. 5,500 employees. The plant makes 960 cars a day and 650 trucks. A finished car comes off the assembly line every 55 seconds, and a truck rolls off every 81 seconds. It takes 6½ hours to make a car at NUMMI. It costs 30 percent to 40 percent more to make cars here

^ a b Tesla Wants NUMMI
NUMMI
Operational By 2012 Archived May 23, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
KTVU.com, May 21, 2010. Retrieved: May 22, 2010

^ " General Motors
General Motors
Statement Regarding Discontinuation of Pontiac Vibe Production at NUMMI
NUMMI
Facility". Retrieved June 20, 2009.[dead link]

^ "GM Nummi Plant". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.

^ Roos, Daniel; Womack, James P.; Jones, Daniel T (November 1991). The Machine That Changed the World : The Story of Lean Production. Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0060974176.

^ Urbance, Randy. "ESD.83 Book Review of The Machine that Changed the World" (PDF). Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

^ Adler 1992, page 15

^ Adler 1992, page 11-12

^ a b Adler 1992, page 14

^ a b Adler 1992, page 33

^ Adler 1992, page 16. Quote: "no lay-offs .. are absolutely crucial to our success. Team members know that when they contribute ideas for more effective operations they are not jeopardizing anyone's job. And that's fundamental, since they know more than any manager or industrial engineer about how to improve our efficiency and competitiveness."

^ Adler 1992, page 18

^ Adler 1992, page 20

^ Adler 1992, page 23

^ Adler 1992, page 24

^ Gomes-Casseres, Ben (September 1, 2009). "Nummi: What Toyota
Toyota
Learned and GM Didn't". Harvard Business Review. Archived from the original on August 11, 2016. Retrieved June 5, 2017.

^ Bradsher, Keith (June 17, 1998). "G.M.'s Plant in Brazil Raises Fears Closer to Home". The New York Times. Retrieved April 7, 2010.

^ a b Arrieta, Rose (August 28, 2009). " Toyota
Toyota
to Close Only Union Factory In U.S." inthesetimes.com. Retrieved January 7, 2018.

^ "Nummi Tours Appointments". Archived from the original on April 21, 2012. Retrieved June 20, 2009.

^ "Nummi Tours". Archived from the original on March 9, 2009. Retrieved June 20, 2009.

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Toyota
to build cars, trucks at Calif. plant". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on July 2, 2009. Retrieved June 30, 2009.

^ Kim, Soyoung (July 10, 2009). "UPDATE 1- Toyota
Toyota
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^ Fujimura, Naoko; Komatsu, Tetsuya (July 11, 2009). " Toyota
Toyota
May Dissolve California Plant Venture Abandoned by GM". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved July 13, 2009.

^ Ohnsman, Alan; Inoue, Kae (August 28, 2009). " Toyota
Toyota
Will Shut California Plant in First Closure". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved August 29, 2009.

^ Matthews, Mark (November 17, 2009). " Toyota
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NUMMI
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^ Avalos, George (November 16, 2009). " NUMMI
NUMMI
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^ Abate, Tom (November 14, 2009). "A huddle to help Nummi workers find new jobs". sfgate.com. Retrieved November 22, 2009.

^ Avalos, George (March 18, 2010). " NUMMI
NUMMI
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^ Tobak, Steve (April 2, 2010). "Blame GM, Not Toyota, for NUMMI
NUMMI
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^ Jones, Carolyn (January 9, 2010). "Fremont's new pitch: A's stadium at Nummi site". sfgate.com. Retrieved January 15, 2010.

^ Tom Abate and David R. Baker (May 21, 2010). "Tesla joins with Toyota
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^ "Toyota's Proposed Plant Shutdown to Be Scrutinized by Panel of California Leaders". February 24, 2010. Retrieved March 2, 2010.

^ a b "New United Motor Manufacturing
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^ " Aurica Motors
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^ "Auto firm setting sights on NUMMI". The Oakland Tribune. March 10, 2010. Retrieved April 2, 2010.

^ " NUMMI
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^ Ohnsman, Alan (September 18, 2011). " Toyota
Toyota
gave old robots new tools to trim U.S. Camry price 2%". Automotive News/Bloomberg. Retrieved June 5, 2017. Along with the production robots transferred to Toyota's Georgetown, Ky., plant that makes most of the Camrys sold in North America, Nummi equipment was also acquired by Toyota's San Antonio plant and electric-car maker Tesla Motors
Tesla Motors
Inc.

^ a b Hull, Dana (September 16, 2010). "2010: Tesla gets ready to take over the former NUMMI
NUMMI
auto plant in Fremont". The Mercury News / Bloomberg. Archived from the original on May 2, 2017. Retrieved June 5, 2017. The entire NUMMI
NUMMI
facility covers about 370 acres. Tesla is buying 210 acres, a parcel that contains several buildings that have approximately 5.5 million square feet of floor space. NUMMI’s existing press line will be taken apart and sent to Toyota’s plant in Blue Springs, Miss.

^ "Tesla Buys Nummi Assets". August 20, 2010. Archived from the original on October 14, 2015. Retrieved June 5, 2017.

^ Ricketts, Camille (May 27, 2010). "Tesla paid $42M for NUMMI
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^ Tierney, Christine. Toyota
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^ " Tesla Motors
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^ "Why Toyota
Toyota
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Bibliography[edit] .mw-parser-output .refbegin font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul list-style-type:none;margin-left:0 .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none .mw-parser-output .refbegin-100 font-size:100% Adler, Paul S. (1992) The ‘Learning Bureaucracy’: New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc.. School of Business Administration, University of Southern California. Archive

External links[edit] Autointell NUMMI
NUMMI
page Photo Tour of NUMMI
NUMMI
from Edmunds.com JD Power Gold Plant Award for GM NPR's This American Life's full hour story of the creation and demise of NUMMI
NUMMI
- episode #403 from This American Life NPR's This American Life's 2015 update on NUMMI's story - episode #561 from This American Life NUMMI
NUMMI
production over the years Coordinates: 37°29′41″N 121°56′41″W / 37.49472°N 121.94472°W / 37.49472; -121.94472

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Euclid Trucks
(1953–1968) Fisher Body Fleetwood Metal Body Frigidaire
Frigidaire
(1919–1980) General Motors
General Motors
Europe (1986–2010) General Motors
General Motors
Diesel Division (1938–1987) General Motors
General Motors
Diesel (1949–1969) General Motors
General Motors
India (1995–2017) Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Sales India Private Limited General Motors
General Motors
South Africa (1913–2017) GM Vietnam
GM Vietnam
(1993–2018) Ghandhara Industries
Ghandhara Industries
(1953–1963) GM Defense (1950–2003) GMAC Real Estate
GMAC Real Estate
(1998–2008) GMC Heavy Trucks Hughes Aircraft
Hughes Aircraft
(1985–1997) Hughes Electronics
Hughes Electronics
(1985–1997) Hughes Network Systems (1987–2003) HughesNet (DirecWay/DirecPC) (1996–2003) Kettering University National City Lines NUMMI
NUMMI
(1984–2009) New Venture Gear
New Venture Gear
(36%, 1990–2002) Nexteer (2009–2010) North American Aviation
North American Aviation
(1933–1948) Nuvell Financial Services
Nuvell Financial Services
(1997–2008) Opel
Opel
(1931–2017) PanAmSat (1995–2003) Remy Electric
Remy Electric
(1918–1994) Rochester Products Division Terex United Australian Automobile
Automobile
Industries (1989–1996) Vauxhall Motors
Vauxhall Motors
(1926–2017) Winton Motor Carriage Company Yellow Coach Manufacturing
Manufacturing
Company (1925–1943) Places Renaissance Center GM Technical Center GM Proving Grounds Factories People William C. Durant
William C. Durant
(Founder) Tim Solso (Chairman) Mary Barra
Mary Barra
(CEO) Dan Ammann (President) Sponsorship World of Motion Test Track
Test Track
(1999 - 2012) Other General Motors
General Motors
Foundation History Reorganization General Motors
General Motors
Motorama Streetcar conspiracy Concept of the Corporation Ignition switch recalls

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