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NEC
NEC
Corporation (日本電気株式会社, Nippon
Nippon
Denki Kabushiki Gaisha) is a Japanese multinational provider of information technology (IT) services and products, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.[2] It provides IT and network solutions to business enterprises, communications services providers and to government agencies, and has also been the biggest PC vendor in Japan
Japan
since the 1980s. The company was known as the Nippon
Nippon
Electric Company, Limited, before rebranding in 1983 as just NEC. Its NEC
NEC
Semiconductors business unit was one of the worldwide top 20 semiconductor sales leaders before merging with Renesas Electronics. NEC
NEC
is a member of the Sumitomo Group.

Contents

1 History

1.1 1898 to 1919 1.2 1919 to 1938 1.3 1938 to 1945 1.4 1945 to 1980 1.5 1980 to 2000 1.6 2000 to present

2 Operations 3 Products

3.1 Laptops 3.2 Supercomputers

4 Achievements 5 Sponsorships 6 Sports teams 7 See also 8 Footnotes 9 References 10 External links

History[edit] 1898 to 1919[edit] Kunihiko Iwadare and Takeshiro Maeda established Nippon
Nippon
Electric Limited Partnership on August 31, 1898 by using facilities that they had bought from Miyoshi Electrical Manufacturing Company. Iwadare acted as the representative partner; Maeda handled company sales. Western Electric, which had an interest in the Japanese phone market, was represented by Walter Tenney Carleton.[3] Carleton was also responsible for the renovation of the Miyoshi facilities.[4] It was agreed that the partnership would be reorganized as a joint-stock company when treaty would allow it. On July 17, 1899, the revised treaty between Japan
Japan
and the United States went into effect. Nippon Electric Company, Limited was organized the same day with Western Electric Company to become the first Japanese joint-venture with foreign capital.[5] Iwadare was named managing director. Ernest Clement and Carleton were named as directors. Maeda and Mototeru Fujii were assigned to be auditors. Iwadare, Maeda and Carleton handled the overall management.[6] The company started with the production, sales and maintenance of telephones and switches. NEC
NEC
modernized the production facilities with the construction of the Mita Plant in 1901 at Mita Shikokumachi. It was completed in December 1902. The Japanese Ministry of Communications adopted a new technology in 1903: the common battery switchboard supplied by NEC. The common battery switchboards powered the subscriber phone, eliminating the need for a permanent magnet generator in each subscriber's phone. The switchboards were initially imported, but were manufactured locally by 1909.[7] NEC
NEC
started exporting telephone sets to China
China
in 1904. In 1905, Iwadare visited Western Electric
Western Electric
in the U.S. to see their management and production control. On his return to Japan
Japan
he discontinued the "oyakata" system of sub-contracting and replaced it with a new system where managers and employees were all direct employees of the company. Inefficiency was also removed from the production process. The company paid higher salaries with incentives for efficiency. New accounting and cost controls were put in place, and time clocks installed.[8] Between 1899 and 1907 the number of telephone subscribers in Japan rose from 35,000 to 95,000.[9] NEC
NEC
entered the China
China
market in 1908 with the implementation of the telegraph treaty between Japan
Japan
and China. They also entered the Korean market, setting up an office in Seoul in January 1908. During the period of 1907 to 1912 sales rose from 1.6 million yen to 2 million yen. The expansion of the Japanese phone service had been a key part of NEC's success during this period. This expansion was about to take a pause. The Ministry of Communications delayed a third expansion plan of the phone service in March, 1913, despite having 120,000 potential telephone-subscribers waiting for phone installations. NEC
NEC
sales fell sixty percent between 1912 and 1915. During the interim, Iwadare started importing appliances, including electric fans, kitchen appliances, washing machines and vacuum cleaners. Electric fans had never been seen in Japan
Japan
before. The imports were intended to prop up company sales. In 1916, the government resumed the delayed telephone-expansion plan, adding 75,000 subscribers and 326,000 kilometers of new toll lines. Thanks to this third expansion plan, NEC expanded at a time when much of the rest of Japanese industry contracted.[10] 1919 to 1938[edit] In 1919, NEC
NEC
started its first association with Sumitomo, engaging Sumitomo Densen Seizosho to manufacture cables. As part of the venture, NEC
NEC
provided cable manufacturing equipment to Sumitomo Densen. Rights to Western Electrics duplex cable patents were also transferred to Sumitomo Densen.[11] The Great Kantō earthquake struck Japan
Japan
in 1923. 140,000 people were killed and 3.4 million were left homeless.[12] Four of NEC's factories were destroyed, killing 105 of NEC's engineers and workers. Thirteen of Tokyo's telephone offices were destroyed by fire. Telephone and telegraph service was interrupted by damage to telephone cables. In response, the Ministry of Communications accelerated major programs to install automatic telephone switching systems and enter radio broadcasting.[13] The first automatic switching systems were the Strowger-type model made by Automatic Telephone Manufacturing Co. (ATM) in the United Kingdom. NEC
NEC
participated in the installation of the automatic switching systems, ultimately becoming the general sales agent for ATM. NEC
NEC
developed its own Strowger-type automatic switching system in 1924, a first in Japan. One of the plants almost leveled during the Kanto earthquake, the Mita Plant, was chosen to support expanding production. A new three-story steel-reinforced concrete building was built, starting in 1925. It was modeled after the Western Electric Hawthorne Works. NEC
NEC
started its radio communications business in 1924. Japan's first radio broadcaster, Radio Tokyo
Tokyo
was founded in 1924 and started broadcasting in 1925. NEC
NEC
imported the broadcasting equipment from Western Electric.[14] The expansion of radio broadcasting into Osaka and Nagoya marked the emergence of radio as an Industry. NEC established a radio research unit 1924. NEC
NEC
started developing electron tubes in 1925. By 1930, they were manufacturing their first 500 W radio transmitter. They provided the Chinese Xinjing station with a 100 kW radio broadcasting system in 1934. Photo-telegraphic equipment developed by NEC
NEC
transmitted photos of the accession ceremony of Emperor Hirohito. The ceremony was held in Kyoto in 1928. The Newspapers Asahi Shimbun
Asahi Shimbun
and Mainichi Shimbun
Mainichi Shimbun
were competing to cover the ceremony. The Asahi Shimbun
Asahi Shimbun
was using a Siemens device. The Mainichi was planning to use French photo-telegraphic equipment. In the end, both papers acquired and used the NEC
NEC
product, due to its faster transmission rate and higher picture quality.[15] In 1929 Nippon
Nippon
Electric provided Japan's Ministry of Communications with the A-type switching system, the first of these systems to be developed in Japan. Nippon
Nippon
supplied Japan's Ministry of Communications with nonloaded line carrier equipment for long distance telephone channels in 1937.[16] 1938 to 1945[edit] World War II
World War II
was described by the company as being the blackest days of its history.[17] In 1938 the Mita and Tamagawa plants were placed under military control, with direct supervision by military officers. In 1939, Nippon
Nippon
Electric established a research laboratory in the Tamagawa plant. It became the first Japanese company to successfully test microwave multiplex communications.[18] On December 22, 1941, the enemy property control law was passed. NEC
NEC
shares owned by International Standard Electric Corporation (ISE), an ITT subsidiary and Western Electric
Western Electric
affiliate were seized. Capital and technical relations were abruptly severed. The "Munitions Company Law" was passed in October 1943, placing overall control of NEC
NEC
plants under military jurisdiction.[19] The Ueno plant was leveled by military attack in March 1945. Fire bombings in April and May heavily damaged the Tamagawa Plant, reducing its capacity by forty percent. The Okayama Plant was totally destroyed by a bombing attack in June of the same year. At the end of the war, NEC’s production had been substantially reduced by damage to its facilities, and by material and personnel shortages. 1945 to 1980[edit] After the war, production was slowly returned to civilian use. NEC re-opened its major plants by the end of January 1946.[20] NEC
NEC
began transistor research and development in 1950. It started exporting radio-broadcast equipment to Korea under the first major postwar contract in 1951. NEC
NEC
received the Deming Prize for excellence in quality control in 1952. Computer research and development began in 1954. NEC
NEC
produced the first crossbar switching system in Japan. It was installed at Nippon
Nippon
Telegraph and Telephone Public Corporation (currently Nippon
Nippon
Telegraph and Telephone Corporation; NTT) in 1956. NEC
NEC
began joint research and development with NTT of electronic switching systems the same year. NEC
NEC
established Taiwan Telecommunication Company as their first postwar overseas joint venture in 1958. They completed the NEAC-1101 and NEAC-1102 computers the same year. In 1959 NEC
NEC
demonstrated their first transistorized computer, the NEAC-2201. They demonstrated it at the UNESCO AUTOMATH show in Paris. The company began integrated circuit research and development in 1960. In 1963 NEC
NEC
started trading as American Depositary Receipts, ten million shares being sold in the United States.[21] Nippon
Nippon
Electric New York (now NEC
NEC
America Inc.) was incorporated in the same year.

The NEC
NEC
logo from 1963 to 1992[22]

NEC
NEC
supplied KDD with submarine cable systems for laying in the Pacific Ocean in 1964. They supplied short-haul 24 channel PCM carrier transmission equipment to NTT in 1965. NEC
NEC
de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., NEC
NEC
do Brasil, S. A., NEC
NEC
Australia Pty. Ltd. were established between 1968 and 1969. NEC
NEC
supplied Comsat Corporation with the SPADE satellite communications system in 1971. In 1972, Switzerland ordered a NEC
NEC
satellite communications earth station. The same year, a small transportable satellite communications earth station was set up in China. Shares of NEC
NEC
common stock were listed on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange in 1973. NEC
NEC
also designed an automated broadcasting system for the Japan
Japan
Broadcasting Corporation the same year. NEC
NEC
Electronics (Europe) GmbH was also established. In 1974, the ACOS series computer was introduced. The New Central Research Laboratories were completed in 1975. In 1977, Japan's National Space Development Agency launched the NEC
NEC
geostationary meteorological satellite, named Himawari. During this period NEC
NEC
introduced the concept of "C&C", the integration of computers and communications. NEC
NEC
America Inc. opened a plant in Dallas, Texas
Dallas, Texas
to manufacture PABX
PABX
and telephone systems in 1978. They also acquired Electronic Arrays, Inc. of California
California
the same year to start semiconductor chip production in the United States. 1980 to 2000[edit]

A 1982 NEC
NEC
APC microcomputer

In 1980, NEC
NEC
created the first digital signal processor, the NEC µPD7710. NEC
NEC
Semiconductors (UK) Ltd. was established in 1981, producing VLSIs and LSIs. NEC
NEC
introduced the 8-bit PC-8800 series personal computer in 1981, followed by the 16-bit PC-9800 series in 1982. In 1983 NEC
NEC
stock was listed on the Basel, Geneva and Zurich, Switzerland exchanges. NEC
NEC
quickly became the dominant leader of the Japanese PC industry, holding 80% market share.[23] NEC
NEC
changed its English company name to NEC
NEC
Corporation the same year. NEC
NEC
Information Systems, Inc. started manufacturing computers and related products in the United States in 1984. NEC
NEC
also released the V-series processor the same year. In 1986, NEC
NEC
delivered its SX-2 super computer to the Houston Advanced Research Center, The Woodlands, Texas. In the same year, the NEAX61 digital switching system went into service. In 1987, NEC
NEC
Technologies (UK) Ltd. was established in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
to manufacture VCRs, printers and computer monitors and mobile telephones for Europe. Also that year, NEC
NEC
licensed technology from Hudson Soft, a video game manufacturer, to create a video game console called the PC-Engine
PC-Engine
(later released in 1989 as the TurboGrafx-16 in the North American market). Its successor, the PC-FX, was released in Japan
Japan
in 1994. While the PC-Engine
PC-Engine
achieved a considerable following, it has been said that NEC
NEC
held a much stronger influence on the video game industry through its role as a leading semiconductor manufacturer than through any of its direct video game products.[24] NEC
NEC
USA, Inc. was established in 1989 as a holding company for North American operations. In 1983, NEC
NEC
Brasil (pt), the Brazilian subsidiary of NEC, was forced to nationalise its corporate stock under orders of the Brazilian military government, whereby shareholder control of NEC
NEC
Brasil was ceded to the private equity group Brasilinvest of Brazilian investment banker Mário Garnero. Since NEC
NEC
Brasil's foundation in 1968, it had become the major supplier of telecommunications equipment to the Brazilian government.[25] In 1986, the then Minister of Communications Antônio Carlos Magalhães
Antônio Carlos Magalhães
put NEC
NEC
Brasil in financial difficulties by suspending all government contract payments to the company, whose main client was the federal government.[25] With the subsidiary in crisis, the NEC
NEC
Corporation in Japan
Japan
sold NEC
NEC
Brasil to Organizações Globo for only one million US dollars ($1,000,000 USD).[25] Shortly thereafter, Magalhães resumed the government contracts and corresponding payments, and NEC
NEC
Brazil became valued at over 350 million US dollars ($350,000,000 USD).[25] Suspicions regarding the NEC-Globo deal, which included among other things the unilateral breach of contract by Globo founder Roberto Marinho regarding the management of a regional television station in the Brazilian state of Bahia,[25] took to the national stage only in 1992 during the first corruption charges against the impeached Brazilian president Fernando Collor de Mello. Organizações Globo
Organizações Globo
subsequently sold their shares in NEC
NEC
Brazil, which hit their all-time high during the state monopoly years, back to NEC
NEC
Corporation in 1999 following the break-up and privatisation of the Brazilian state-owned telephone monopoly Telebrás.[26] In 1990, the new head office building, known as the "Super Tower", was completed in Shiba, Tokyo. Additionally, joint-venture agreements were established to manufacture and market digital electronic switching systems and LSIs in China. In 1993 NEC's asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) switching system, the NEAX61 ( Nippon
Nippon
Electronic Automatic Exchange) ATM Service Node, went into service in the United States. NEC
NEC
Europe, Ltd. was established as a holding company for European operations the same year. The NEC
NEC
C&C Research Laboratories, NEC Europe, Ltd. were opened in Germany in 1994. NEC
NEC
(China) Co, Ltd. was established as a holding company for Chinese operations in 1996. In 1997 NEC
NEC
developed 4Gbit DRAM, and their semiconductor group was honored with one of the first Japan
Japan
Quality Awards. In 1998, NEC opened the world's most advanced semiconductor R&D facility.

NEC
NEC
Mobile Gear II MC/R330 handheld computer running Windows CE
Windows CE
2.0 (Japanese market, 1998)

NEC
NEC
had been the no. 1 personal computer vendor in Japan
Japan
during the 1980s, but it faced increasing competition from Fujitsu, Seiko
Seiko
Epson and IBM
IBM
Japan. Nevertheless, by the early 1990s NEC
NEC
was still the largest, having well over 50% market share in the Japanese market. Competition heated up later as rival Fujitsu
Fujitsu
started to aggressively market its computers, which were industry standard (x86) instead of NEC's. By 1997 NEC's share was reduced to about 35%.[27] 2000 to present[edit]

Kaoru Yano, the previous chairman of NEC

NEC
NEC
celebrated their 100th anniversary in 1999. NEC
NEC
Electronics Corporation was separated from NEC
NEC
in 2002 as a new semiconductor company. NEC
NEC
Laboratories America, Inc. ( NEC
NEC
Labs) started in November, 2002 as a merger of NEC
NEC
Research Institute (NECI) and NEC USA’s Computer and Communications Research Laboratory (CCRL). NEC built the Earth Simulator
Earth Simulator
Computer (ESC), the fastest supercomputer in the world from 2002 to 2004, and since produced the NEC N343i
NEC N343i
in 2006. In 2003 NEC
NEC
had a 20.8% market share in the personal computer market in Japan, slightly ahead of Fujitsu.[28] In 2007, NEC
NEC
and Nissan Co. Corp. started evaluating a joint venture to produce lithium ion batteries for hybrid and electric cars.[29] On April 23, 2009, Renesas Technology
Renesas Technology
Corp and NEC
NEC
Electronics
Electronics
Corp struck a basic agreement to merge by around April 2010.[30] On April 1, 2010 NEC
NEC
Electronics
Electronics
and Renesas Technology
Renesas Technology
merged forming Renesas Electronics
Electronics
which is set to be fourth largest semiconductor company according to iSuppli published data.[31] By Q3 2010, NEC
NEC
held a 19.8% market share in the PC market in Japan.[32] On January 27, 2011, NEC
NEC
formed a PC joint venture with Chinese PC maker Lenovo, the fourth largest PC maker in the world. As part of the deal, the companies said in a statement they will establish a new company called Lenovo
Lenovo
NEC
NEC
Holdings B.V., which will be registered in the Netherlands. NEC
NEC
will receive US$175 million from Lenovo
Lenovo
through the issuance of Lenovo's shares. Lenovo, through a unit, will own a 51% stake in the joint venture, while NEC
NEC
will hold a 49% stake.[33] In February 2011, Bloomberg News
Bloomberg News
said the joint venture would allow Lenovo
Lenovo
to expand in the field of servers, and NEC's Masato Yamamoto said NEC
NEC
would be able to grow in China.[34] On January 26, 2012 NEC
NEC
Corporation announced that it would cut 10,000 jobs globally due to big loss on NEC's consolidated financial statement in line with economic crisis in Europe and lagged in the development of smartphones in the domestic market compare to Apple and Samsung. Previously, in January 2009 NEC
NEC
has cut about 20,000 jobs, mainly in sluggish semiconductor and liquid crystal display related businesses.[35] In 2013 NEC
NEC
was the biggest PC server manufacturer in Japan, with a 23.6% share.[36] In August 2014, NEC
NEC
Corporation was commissioned to build a super-fast undersea data transmission cable linking the United States and Japan for a consortium of five international companies including Google, KDDI
KDDI
and SingTel. The pipeline went online June 30, 2016.[37][38] In April 2017, KEMET Corporation will purchase a 61% controlling interest in NEC Tokin from NEC, making NEC Tokin its wholly owned subsidiary. Once the purchase is complete, the company will change its name to "Tokin Corporation".[39] Operations[edit] NEC
NEC
has structured its organization around three principal segments: IT solutions, network solutions and electronic devices. The IT solutions business delivers computing solutions to business enterprises, government and individual customers — in the form of software, hardware and related services. The network solutions business designs and provides broadband network systems, mobile and wireless communications network systems, mobile handsets, broadcast and other systems. NEC's electronic devices business includes semiconductors, displays and other electronic components. NEC
NEC
produces VERSA
VERSA
notebooks for the international market and the LaVie series for Japanese markets. Principal subsidiaries of NEC
NEC
include:

NEC
NEC
Corporation of America NEC Display Solutions
NEC Display Solutions
of America Inc. NetCracker Technology Corp.

The European headquarters of Renesas Electronics
Electronics
Europe in Düsseldorf, Germany. (formerly NEC
NEC
Electronics
Electronics
(Europe))

Japan
Japan
Ground Self-Defense Force J/TPS-102 Self-propelled ground-based early warning 3D radar

NEC's Kobe
Kobe
system center

Products[edit]

An NTT DoCoMo
NTT DoCoMo
FOMA N-02C mobile phone produced by NEC

NEC MobilePro - a handheld computer running Windows CE NEC
NEC
Aspire hybrid small business phone system Electric vehicle batteries[40] (Automotive Energy Supply Corporation, a joint-venture between Nissan, NEC
NEC
Corporation and NEC
NEC
TOKIN) NEC
NEC
mobile phone (see NEC
NEC
e616) NEC
NEC
America MultiSync Monitors and Fax devices NEC
NEC
Information Systems, Inc. LaVie / NEC
NEC
VERSA
VERSA
notebook NEC
NEC
Information Systems, Inc. POWERMATE desktop PC NEC
NEC
Information Systems, Inc. Valuestar / NEC
NEC
POWERMATE hybrid computer NEC
NEC
(Division unknown) Car Stereos and Keyless Entry Systems PC Engine
PC Engine
(TurboGrafx-16 in US) and all related hardware and successors; co-produced by Hudson Soft. PC-FX

Defense products include:

J/TPS-102 Self-propelled ground-based early warning 3D radar
3D radar
(JGSDF) Broadband multipurpose radio system (JGSDF) Advanced Combat Infantry Equipment System [ACIES] (JSDF) - Major subcontractor Howa rifle system (JSDF) - Major subcontractor as part of ACIES

Laptops[edit]

O.Zero laptops

Supercomputers[edit]

The Earth Simulator

1983 Announced the SX-1 and SX-2 supercomputers 1989 Introduction of SX-3 1994 First announcement of SX-4 1999 Delivery of SX-5 2002 Introduced SX-6 2002 Installation of the Earth Simulator, the world's fastest supercomputer from 2002 to 2004 reaching a speed of 35,600 gigaflops 2005 NEC SX-8 in production 2006 Announced the SX-8R 2007 Announced the SX-9 2011 First announcement of the NEC
NEC
SX-9's successor[41] 2013 Announced the SX-ACE

Achievements[edit] Achievements of NEC
NEC
include:[citation needed]

the discovery of single-walled carbon nanotubes by Sumio Iijima the invention of the widely used MUX-scan design for test methodology (contrast with the IBM-developed level-sensitive scan design methodology) the world's first demonstration of the one-qubit rotation gate in solid state devices. As for mobile phones, NEC
NEC
pioneered key technologies like color displays, 3G support, dual screens and camera modules.[42]

As of 2009[update] NEC
NEC
ranked consistently in the top four companies over the previous five years for the number of U.S. patents issued, averaging 1764 each year[citation needed]. Sponsorships[edit] NEC
NEC
was the main (title) sponsor of the Davis Cup
Davis Cup
competition until 2002, when BNP Paribas
BNP Paribas
took over the sponsorship. NEC
NEC
between 1982 and 2012 sponsored the NEC
NEC
Cup, a Go tournament in Japan. NEC
NEC
between 1986 and 2003 sponsored the NEC
NEC
Shun-Ei, a Go tournament for young players in Japan. NEC
NEC
sponsored the English football club Everton from 1985 to 1995. The 1995 FA Cup Final
1995 FA Cup Final
triumph was Everton's final game of the decade-long NEC
NEC
sponsorship, and Danka took over as sponsors. NEC
NEC
signed a deal to sponsor the Sauber
Sauber
F1 Team from the 2011 season until the 2014 season. NEC
NEC
signed a new deal to sponsor the Sahara Force India
Force India
F1 Team for the 2015 season. In April 2013, NEC
NEC
became the umbrella sponsor for PGA Tour Latinoamérica, a third-tier men's professional golf tour. NEC
NEC
one sponsored the V.League Volleyball. Sports teams[edit] These started as works teams, but over the years came to include professional players:

NEC Blue Rockets
NEC Blue Rockets
(men's volleyball) NEC Red Rockets
NEC Red Rockets
(women's volleyball) NEC Green Rockets
NEC Green Rockets
(men's rugby union)

NEC
NEC
also used to own Montedio Yamagata
Montedio Yamagata
of the football (soccer) J. League, but as of 2009[update] just sponsors them along with other local companies. See also[edit]

Tokyo
Tokyo
portal Companies portal

Hudson Soft List of computer system manufacturers Turbografx 16

Footnotes[edit]

^ a b c d e f "Full Year Consolidated Financial Results for the Fiscal Year Ended March 31, 2017" (PDF). April 26, 2017.  ^ "Corporate Profile." NEC. Retrieved on July 12, 2010. ^ Mason 1987, p. 94. ^ NEC
NEC
1984, p. 6. ^ Mason 1987, p. 95. ^ NEC
NEC
1984, p. 8. ^ "history". nec. Retrieved 10 November 2015.  ^ NEC
NEC
1984, p. 9 ^ NEC
NEC
1984, p. 12. ^ NEC
NEC
1984, p. 15. ^ NEC
NEC
1984, p. 17 ^ NEC
NEC
1984, p. 18. ^ NEC
NEC
1984, p. 19 ^ NEC
NEC
1984, p. 20 ^ NEC
NEC
1984, p. 22. ^ NEC
NEC
1984, p. 22 ^ NEC
NEC
1984, p. 31. ^ NEC
NEC
1984, p. 30 ^ NEC
NEC
1984, p. 30. ^ NEC
NEC
1984, p. 35. ^ NEC
NEC
1984, p. 46 ^ NEC
NEC
1984, p. 46. ^ Page 211, Inventing the Electronic Century: The Epic Story of the Consumer Electronics
Electronics
and Computer Industries, with a new preface by Alfred Dupont
Alfred Dupont
CHANDLER, Takashi Hikino, Andrew Von Nordenflycht, Alfred D Chandler, ISBN 0674029399, 9780674029392 ^ "75 Power Players". Next Generation. Imagine Media
Imagine Media
(11): 56. November 1995. But NEC's influence stretches far above and beyond its immediate videogame products. As a leading semiconductor manufacturer, the company's influence is there from the cradle to the grave of every aspect of computing.  ^ a b c d e Hartog, Simon (director) (September 1993). Beyond Citizen Kane. United Kingdom: Channel 4.  ^ Lobato, Elvira. "Globo vende a Nec para os japoneses". Folha de S.Paulo. 31 July 1999. Page accessed 28 December 2017. ^ http://www.cnet.com/uk/news/nec-faces-tough-market-in-japan/ ^ Page 110, Industrial Development in Postwar Japan
Japan
by Hirohisa Kohama, ISBN 978-0415437073 ^ Mitsubishi Heavy to make lithium ion car batteries Archived 2008-01-11 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Bijoy Koyitty; Deepak Kannan (2009-04-23). "Renesas, NEC
NEC
reach basic agreement to merge: Nikkei". reuters.com. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved 2009-05-14. Renesas Technology
Renesas Technology
Corp and NEC
NEC
Electronics
Electronics
Corp (6723.T) have struck a basic agreement to merge by around next April, the Nikkei business daily reported.  ^ "Renesas Electronics
Electronics
is biggest 'non-memory' chip firm". ElectronicsWeekly.com. 2 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-03.  ^ http://www.pcworld.com/article/217946/article.html ^ " NEC
NEC
Forms PC Joint Venture With Lenovo, Posts Wider Loss". Wall Street Journal. 2011-01-27. Retrieved 2011-02-09.  ^ Ranii, David (2011-02-09). " Lenovo
Lenovo
and NEC
NEC
may team up on servers". News & Observer. Retrieved 2011-02-09.  ^ "Japan's electronics industry forced to eliminate tens of thousands of jobs". January 28, 2012.  ^ http://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Companies/Lenovo-hopes-to-dominate-Japan-server-PC-markets ^ "High-speed Undersea Cable to Link US, Asia". The Tokyo
Tokyo
News.Net. 12 August 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2014.  ^ "FASTER Cable System is Ready for Service, Boosts Trans-Pacific Capacity and Connectivity". NEC.com. Retrieved 20 July 2016.  ^ Chin, Spencer (February 24, 2017). "KEMET Acquires NEC
NEC
TOKIN to Bolster Component Business". Electronics
Electronics
360. Archived from the original on March 31, 2017. Retrieved March 31, 2017.  ^ Autoexpress.co.uk ^ " NEC
NEC
Developing Next Generation Vector Supercomputer".  ^ " NEC
NEC
and the sorrow of Japan". Retrieved July 18, 2013. 

References[edit]

Mark Mason, Foreign Direct Investment and Japanese Economic Development, 1899–1931, Business and Economic History, Second Series, Volume Sixteen, 1987. NEC
NEC
Corporation, NEC
NEC
Corporation, The First 80 Years, 1984, ISBN 4-931172-01-6.

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Alaxala Networks Alinco Alps

Alpine

Anritsu AOR Audio-Technica Brother Canon Casio Chino Corporation Citizen Watch Cosina D&M Holdings

Denon Marantz

Daikin Dainippon Screen Denso DNP Eiki Eizo Elecom Elpida ESP Guitars FANUC Fostex Fuji Electric Fujifilm

Fuji Xerox

Fujitsu

Fujitsu
Fujitsu
Ten

Funai Furuno Futaba Hamamatsu Photonics Hirose Electric Hitachi

Clarion Hitachi
Hitachi
Maxell

Hoya Ibanez Ibiden Icom Ikegami Tsushinki I-O Data Iwatsu Japan
Japan
Display JEOL JRC JR Propo JVC
JVC
Kenwood

JVC Kenwood

Kawai Keyence Kiramek Konica
Konica
Minolta KO PROPO Korg Kyocera Luxman Mabuchi Motor Mamiya Maspro Melco Minebea Mitsubishi Electric Mitsumi Electric Murata Manufacturing Mutoh Nakamichi NEC NEC
NEC
Casio
Casio
Mobile Communications Nichia Nichicon Nidec

Nidec
Nidec
Copal Corporation

Nikon Nintendo Nippon
Nippon
Chemi-Con Nitto Denko Oki Olympus Omron Onkyo

Integra Home Theater

Orion Electric Panasonic Pioneer Pixela Plextor Renesas Electronics Ricoh

Pentax

Riso Kagaku Rohm Roland Rubycon Sansui Sanwa Electronic Sega
Sega
Sammy

Sega

Seiko
Seiko
Group

Pulsar Seiko Seiko
Seiko
Epson Seiko
Seiko
Instruments

Sharp Shimadzu Sigma Sony SNK Playmore Star Micronics Stax Sumitomo Electric Taiyo Yuden Tamron TDK TEAC Tiger Tokyo
Tokyo
Electron Topcon Toshiba Uniden Wacom Yaesu Yamaha Yaskawa Zojirushi Zoom Zuken

Defunct

Aiwa Akai Bronica Chinon Contax Konica Minolta National Norita Okaya Optical Sanyo

Other

Electronic Industries Association of Japan INCJ Japan
Japan
Electronic Industries Development Association Japan
Japan
Electronics
Electronics
and Information Technology Industries Association Yagi–Uda antenna

Category

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Nikkei 225
Nikkei 225
companies of Japan

7&i Advantest ÆON AGC Ajinomoto Alps ANA Amada Aozora Bank Asahi Breweries Asahi Kasei Astellas Bridgestone Canon Casio Chiba Bank Chiyoda Chuden Chugai Citizen Comsys Concordia Financial Credit Saison Dai-ichi Life Daiichi Sankyo Daikin Dainippon Screen Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Daiwa House Daiwa Securities Denka Denso Dentsu DNP Dowa Ebara Eisai Fanuc Fast Retailing Fuji Electric Fuji Heavy Industries Fujifilm Fujikura Fujitsu Fukuoka Financial Furukawa Co., Ltd. Furukawa Electric GS Yuasa Heiwa Real Estate Hino Hitachi Hitachi
Hitachi
Construction Machinery Hitz Hokuetsu Paper Honda IHI INPEX Isetan-Mitsukoshi Isuzu Itochu JFE J. Front Retailing JGC JR Central JR East JR West JSW JT JTEKT JXTG Kajima KEPCO Kao Kawasaki KDDI Keio Keisei Kikkoman Kirin K Line Kobelco Komatsu Konami Konica
Konica
Minolta Kubota Kuraray Kyocera Kyowa Hakko Kirin Marubeni Maruha Nichiro Marui Matsui Securities Mazda Meidensha Meiji Holdings MES Minebea Mitsubishi Chemical Mitsubishi Corporation Mitsubishi Electric Mitsubishi Estate Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Mitsubishi Logistics Mitsubishi Materials Mitsubishi Motors Mitsui
Mitsui
& Co. Mitsui
Mitsui
Chemicals Mitsui
Mitsui
Fudosan Mitsui
Mitsui
Kinzoku Mitsumi Electric Mizuho MOL MS&AD MUFG NEC NEG NGK Nichirei Nikon Nippon
Nippon
Express Nippon
Nippon
Kayaku Nippon
Nippon
Light Metal Nippon
Nippon
Ham Nippon
Nippon
Paper Industries Nippon
Nippon
Soda Nippon
Nippon
Suisan Nissan Nissan Chemical Nisshin Seifun Nisshin Steel Nisshinbo Nittobo Nitto Denko Sompo Japan
Japan
Nipponkoa Holdings Nomura NSG NSK NSSMC NTN NTT NTT Data NTT DoCoMo NYK Obayashi Odakyu Oji Holdings Corporation OKI Okuma Olympus Osaka Gas Pacific Metals Panasonic Pioneer Resona Ricoh Sapporo Holdings Secom Sekisui House Sharp Shimz Shin-Etsu Shinsei Bank Shionogi Shiseido Shizuoka Bank Showa Denko Showa Shell SKY Perfect JSAT SoftBank Sojitz Sony Sony
Sony
Financial SUMCO Sumitomo Chemical Sumitomo Corporation Sumitomo Electric Sumitomo Heavy Industries Sumitomo Metal Mining Sumitomo Mitsui
Mitsui
Financial Sumitomo Mitsui
Mitsui
Trust Sumitomo Osaka Cement Sumitomo Realty Suzuki T&D Taiheiyo Cement Taisei Taiyo Yuden Takara Takashimaya Takeda TDK Teijin TEPCO Terumo Tobu Toho Toho
Toho
Zinc Tokai Carbon Tokuyama Corporation Toyo Seikan Tokio Marine Tokyo
Tokyo
Dome Tokyo
Tokyo
Electron Tokyo
Tokyo
Gas Tokyo
Tokyo
Tatemono Tokyu Tokyu Land Toppan Toray Toshiba Tosoh Toto Toyobo Toyota Toyota
Toyota
Tsusho Trend Micro Ube Unitika Uny Yahoo! Japan Yamaha Yamato Transport Yasakawa Yokogawa Electric Yokohama Rubber

v t e

Sumitomo Group
Sumitomo Group
Public Relations Committee

Members of Hakusuikai are bolded. Hakusuikai is an association of the presidents of the Sumitomo companies. * Mitsui
Mitsui
Group companies

Construction

*Sumitomo Mitsui
Mitsui
Construction Sumitomo Forestry Sumitomo Densetsu

Chemicals and pharmaceuticals

Sumitomo Chemical Sumitomo Bakelite Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Sumitomo Seika Chemicals

Rubber, glass and ceramics

Nippon
Nippon
Sheet Glass Sumitomo Osaka Cement Sumitomo Rubber Industries Sumitomo Riko

Steel

Sumitomo Metal Industries

Non-ferrous metals

Sumitomo Electric Industries Sumitomo Metal Mining Sumitomo Light Metal Industries -Sumitomo Wiring Systems

Machinery

Sumitomo Heavy Industries Sumitomo (S.H.I.) Construction Machinery Sumitomo Precision Products

Electrical equipment

NEC Nissin Electric Meidensha

Trading

Sumitomo Corporation Sumikin Bussan Corporation

Finance and insurance

*Sumitomo Mitsui
Mitsui
Banking Corporation Sumitomo Trust and Banking Sumitomo Life *MS&AD Insurance Group *Sumitomo Mitsui
Mitsui
Card *Sumitomo Mitsui
Mitsui
Finance and Leasing *Sumitomo Mitsui
Mitsui
Auto Service *SMBC Friend Securities

Real estate

Sumitomo Realty & Development

Transport and warehousing

Sumitomo Warehouse

Information and communication

Sumisho Computer Systems * Japan
Japan
Research Institute

Sumitomo zaibatsu Sumitomo family

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Major personal computer, server, and mainframe hardware companies

Companies with an annual revenue of over US$3 billion

Personal computers and servers

Acer Inc. Apple Inc. Asus Dell Fujitsu Huawei HP Inc. Lenovo LG Electronics Microsoft NEC Panasonic Positivo Razer Inc. Samsung Electronics Toshiba

Servers only

Cisco Systems Hewlett Packard Enterprise IBM Inspur Oracle Corporation

Mainframes

Fujitsu IBM

See also Largest IT companies List of computer hardware manufacturers Category:Home computer hardware companies‎ Category:Server hardware Category:Mainframe computers

v t e

Major information technology consulting and outsourcing companies

Companies with an annual revenue of over US$3 billion

Accenture Atos Booz Allen Hamilton BMC Software BT Global Services CACI Capgemini CGI Group Cognizant Deloitte Digital China DXC Technology Fujitsu HCL Technologies Hitachi
Hitachi
Consulting IBM
IBM
Global Services Indra Sistemas Infosys Infor KPMG Leidos NEC NTT Data Orange Business Services T-Systems Tata Consultancy Services Tech Mahindra Unisys Wipro

See also Largest IT companies Category: Information technology
Information technology
consulting firms Category: Outsourcing
Outsourcing
companies

v t e

Major networking hardware companies

Companies with an annual revenue of over US$3 billion

Avaya Cisco Systems Ericsson Fujitsu Hewlett Packard Enterprise Huawei Juniper Networks Motorola Solutions NEC Nokia Qualcomm ZTE

See also Largest IT companies Category:Networking hardwa

.