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The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Administration ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.[note 1] President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
established NASA
NASA
in 1958[10] with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science. The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Act was passed on July 29, 1958, disestablishing NASA's predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
(NACA). The new agency became operational on October 1, 1958.[11][12] Since that time, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing
Moon landing
missions, the Skylab
Skylab
space station, and later the Space Shuttle. Currently, NASA
NASA
is supporting the International Space Station
International Space Station
and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System
Space Launch System
and Commercial Crew vehicles. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program
Launch Services Program
(LSP) which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA
NASA
launches. NASA
NASA
science is focused on better understanding Earth
Earth
through the Earth
Earth
Observing System,[13] advancing heliophysics through the efforts of the Science Mission Directorate's Heliophysics
Heliophysics
Research Program,[14] exploring bodies throughout the Solar System
Solar System
with advanced robotic spacecraft missions such as New Horizons,[15] and researching astrophysics topics, such as the Big Bang, through the Great Observatories and associated programs.[16] NASA
NASA
shares data with various national and international organizations such as from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite.

Contents

1 Creation 2 Staff and leadership 3 NASA
NASA
Advisory Council 4 Space flight programs

4.1 Manned programs

4.1.1 X-15
X-15
rocket plane (1959–1968) 4.1.2 Project Mercury
Project Mercury
(1958–1963) 4.1.3 Project Gemini
Project Gemini
(1961–1966) 4.1.4 Apollo program
Apollo program
(1961–1972) 4.1.5 Skylab
Skylab
(1965–1979) 4.1.6 Apollo–Soyuz Test Project
Apollo–Soyuz Test Project
(1972–1975) 4.1.7 Space Shuttle program
Space Shuttle program
(1972–2011) 4.1.8 International Space Station
International Space Station
(1993–present)

4.1.8.1 Commercial programs (2006–present)

4.1.9 Beyond Low Earth
Earth
Orbit
Orbit
program (2010–2017)

4.2 Unmanned programs 4.3 Activities 2010-2017 4.4 Recent and planned activities 4.5 Humans to Mars

5 Research

5.1 Climate
Climate
study

6 Facilities 7 Budget 8 Environmental impact 9 Observations 10 Spacecraft 11 Planned spacecraft 12 Examples of missions by target 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 External links

16.1 General 16.2 Further reading

Creation Main article: Creation of NASA

William H. Pickering, (center) JPL Director, President John F. Kennedy, (right). NASA
NASA
Administrator James E. Webb
James E. Webb
(background) discussing the Mariner program, with a model presented.

From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
(NACA) had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.[17] In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year (1957–58). An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet launch of the world's first artificial satellite ( Sputnik
Sputnik
1) on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. The US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership (known as the " Sputnik
Sputnik
crisis"), urged immediate and swift action; President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
and his advisers counseled more deliberate measures. On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a "Special Committee on Space Technology", headed by Guyford Stever.[12] On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden
Hugh Dryden
published "A National Research Program for Space Technology" stating:[18]

It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge [Sputnik] be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space... It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency... NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology.[18]

While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application.[19] On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Act, establishing NASA. When it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA
NASA
absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact; its 8,000 employees, an annual budget of US$100 million, three major research laboratories (Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, and Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory) and two small test facilities.[20] A NASA
NASA
seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959.[21] Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency
Army Ballistic Missile Agency
and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the Space Race
Space Race
with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, who was now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA), which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard's earlier works.[22] Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force[20] and many of ARPA's early space programs were also transferred to NASA.[23] In December 1958, NASA
NASA
gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology.[20] Staff and leadership Main article: List of NASA
NASA
Administrators

Charles Bolden
Charles Bolden
speaks after landing of the last Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
mission, STS-135

The agency's leader, NASA's administrator, is nominated by the President of the United States
United States
subject to approval of the US Senate, and reports to him or her and serves as senior space science advisor. Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, the appointee usually is associated with the President's political party (Democratic or Republican), and a new administrator is usually chosen when the Presidency changes parties. The only exceptions to this have been: James C. Fletcher, appointed by Republican Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
but stayed through May 1977 into the term of Democrat Jimmy Carter; Daniel Goldin, appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
and stayed through the administration of Democrat Bill Clinton; and Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr., associate administrator under Democrat Barack Obama
Barack Obama
kept on as acting administrator by Republican Donald Trump.[6] Though the agency is independent, the survival or discontinuation of projects can depend directly on the will of the President.[24] The first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan
T. Keith Glennan
appointed by Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research.[25] The second administrator, James E. Webb
James E. Webb
(1961–1968), appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy's Moon landing
Moon landing
goal by the end of the 1960s, Webb directed major management restructuring and facility expansion, establishing the Houston
Houston
Manned Spacecraft (Johnson) Center and the Florida Launch Operations (Kennedy) Center. Capitalizing on Kennedy's legacy, President Lyndon Johnson
Lyndon Johnson
kept continuity with the Apollo program
Apollo program
by keeping Webb on when he succeeded Kennedy in November 1963. But Webb resigned in October 1968 before Apollo achieved its goal, and Republican President Richard M. Nixon
Richard M. Nixon
replaced Webb with Republican Thomas O. Paine. James Fletcher was responsible for early planning of the Space Shuttle program during his first term as administrator under President Nixon. He was appointed for a second term as administrator from May 1986 through April 1989 by President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
to help the agency recover from the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
Challenger disaster. Former astronaut Charles Bolden
Charles Bolden
served as NASA's twelfth administrator from July 2009 to January 20, 2017.[26] Administrator Bolden is one of three former astronauts who became NASA
NASA
administrators, along with Richard H. Truly
Richard H. Truly
(served 1989–1992) and Frederick D. Gregory (acting, 2005). The agency's administration is located at NASA Headquarters
NASA Headquarters
in Washington, DC and provides overall guidance and direction.[27] Except under exceptional circumstances, NASA
NASA
civil service employees are required to be citizens of the United States.[28] NASA
NASA
Advisory Council In response to the Apollo 1
Apollo 1
accident which killed three astronauts in 1967, Congress directed NASA
NASA
to form an Aerospace
Aerospace
Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) to advise the NASA
NASA
Administrator on safety issues and hazards in NASA's aerospace programs. In the aftermath of the Shuttle Columbia accident, Congress required that the ASAP submit an annual report to the NASA
NASA
Administrator and to Congress.[29] By 1971, NASA had also established the Space Program Advisory Council and the Research and Technology Advisory Council to provide the administrator with advisory committee support. In 1977, the latter two were combined to form the NASA
NASA
Advisory Council (NAC).[30] Space flight programs Main article: List of NASA
NASA
missions

At launch control for the May 28, 1964, Saturn I
Saturn I
SA-6 launch. Wernher von Braun is at center.

NASA
NASA
has conducted many manned and unmanned spaceflight programs throughout its history. Unmanned programs launched the first American artificial satellites into Earth
Earth
orbit for scientific and communications purposes, and sent scientific probes to explore the planets of the solar system, starting with Venus
Venus
and Mars, and including "grand tours" of the outer planets. Manned programs sent the first Americans into low Earth
Earth
orbit (LEO), won the Space Race
Space Race
with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
by landing twelve men on the Moon
Moon
from 1969 to 1972 in the Apollo program, developed a semi-reusable LEO Space Shuttle, and developed LEO space station capability by itself and with the cooperation of several other nations including post-Soviet Russia. Some missions include both manned and unmanned aspects, such as the Galileo probe, which was deployed by astronauts in Earth
Earth
orbit before being sent unmanned to Jupiter. Manned programs

Some of NASA's first African-American astronauts including Dr. Ronald McNair, Guy Bluford
Guy Bluford
and Fred Gregory from the class of 1978 selection of astronauts.

The experimental rocket-powered aircraft programs started by NACA were extended by NASA
NASA
as support for manned spaceflight. This was followed by a one-man space capsule program, and in turn by a two-man capsule program. Reacting to loss of national prestige and security fears caused by early leads in space exploration by the Soviet Union, in 1961 President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
proposed the ambitious goal "of landing a man on the Moon
Moon
by the end of [the 1960s], and returning him safely to the Earth." This goal was met in 1969 by the Apollo program, and NASA
NASA
planned even more ambitious activities leading to a manned mission to Mars. However, reduction of the perceived threat and changing political priorities almost immediately caused the termination of most of these plans. NASA
NASA
turned its attention to an Apollo-derived temporary space laboratory, and a semi-reusable Earth orbital shuttle. In the 1990s, funding was approved for NASA
NASA
to develop a permanent Earth
Earth
orbital space station in cooperation with the international community, which now included the former rival, post-Soviet Russia. To date, NASA
NASA
has launched a total of 166 manned space missions on rockets, and thirteen X-15
X-15
rocket flights above the USAF definition of spaceflight altitude, 260,000 feet (80 km).[31] X-15
X-15
rocket plane (1959–1968) Main article: North American X-15

X-15
X-15
in powered flight

The X-15
X-15
was an NACA experimental rocket-powered hypersonic research aircraft, developed in conjunction with the US Air Force and Navy. The design featured a slender fuselage with fairings along the side containing fuel and early computerized control systems.[32] Requests for proposal were issued on December 30, 1954, for the airframe, and February 4, 1955, for the rocket engine. The airframe contract was awarded to North American Aviation
North American Aviation
in November 1955, and the XLR30 engine contract was awarded to Reaction Motors
Reaction Motors
in 1956, and three planes were built. The X-15
X-15
was drop-launched from the wing of one of two NASA
NASA
Boeing B-52 Stratofortresses, NB52A tail number 52-003, and NB52B, tail number 52-008 (known as the Balls 8). Release took place at an altitude of about 45,000 feet (14 km) and a speed of about 500 miles per hour (805 km/h). Twelve pilots were selected for the program from the Air Force, Navy, and NACA (later NASA). A total of 199 flights were made between 1959 and 1968, resulting in the official world record for the highest speed ever reached by a manned powered aircraft (current as of 2014[update]), and a maximum speed of Mach 6.72, 4,519 miles per hour (7,273 km/h).[33] The altitude record for X-15
X-15
was 354,200 feet (107.96 km).[34] Eight of the pilots were awarded Air Force astronaut wings for flying above 260,000 feet (80 km), and two flights by Joseph A. Walker
Joseph A. Walker
exceeded 100 kilometers (330,000 ft), qualifying as spaceflight according to the International Aeronautical Federation. The X-15
X-15
program employed mechanical techniques used in the later manned spaceflight programs, including reaction control system jets for controlling the orientation of a spacecraft, space suits, and horizon definition for navigation.[34] The reentry and landing data collected were valuable to NASA
NASA
for designing the Space Shuttle.[32]

Project Mercury
Project Mercury
(1958–1963) Main article: Project Mercury

John Glenn
John Glenn
on Friendship 7: first US orbital flight, 1962

Shortly after the Space Race
Space Race
began, an early objective was to get a person into Earth
Earth
orbit as soon as possible, therefore the simplest spacecraft that could be launched by existing rockets was favored. The US Air Force's Man in Space Soonest
Man in Space Soonest
program considered many manned spacecraft designs, ranging from rocket planes like the X-15, to small ballistic space capsules.[35] By 1958, the space plane concepts were eliminated in favor of the ballistic capsule.[36] When NASA
NASA
was created that same year, the Air Force program was transferred to it and renamed Project Mercury. The first seven astronauts were selected among candidates from the Navy, Air Force and Marine test pilot programs. On May 5, 1961, astronaut Alan Shepard became the first American in space aboard Freedom 7, launched by a Redstone booster on a 15-minute ballistic (suborbital) flight.[37] John Glenn
John Glenn
became the first American to be launched into orbit, by an Atlas launch vehicle on February 20, 1962, aboard Friendship 7.[38] Glenn completed three orbits, after which three more orbital flights were made, culminating in L. Gordon Cooper's 22-orbit flight Faith 7, May 15–16, 1963.[39] The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(USSR) competed with its own single-pilot spacecraft, Vostok. They sent the first man in space, by launching cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin into a single Earth
Earth
orbit aboard Vostok 1
Vostok 1
in April 1961, one month before Shepard's flight.[40] In August 1962, they achieved an almost four-day record flight with Andriyan Nikolayev
Andriyan Nikolayev
aboard Vostok 3, and also conducted a concurrent Vostok 4
Vostok 4
mission carrying Pavel Popovich.

Project Gemini
Project Gemini
(1961–1966) Main article: Project Gemini

Ed White on Gemini 4: first US spacewalk, 1965

Based on studies to grow the Mercury spacecraft capabilities to long-duration flights, developing space rendezvous techniques, and precision Earth
Earth
landing, Project Gemini
Project Gemini
was started as a two-man program in 1962 to overcome the Soviets' lead and to support the Apollo manned lunar landing program, adding extravehicular activity (EVA) and rendezvous and docking to its objectives. The first manned Gemini flight, Gemini 3, was flown by Gus Grissom
Gus Grissom
and John Young on March 23, 1965.[41] Nine missions followed in 1965 and 1966, demonstrating an endurance mission of nearly fourteen days, rendezvous, docking, and practical EVA, and gathering medical data on the effects of weightlessness on humans.[42][43] Under the direction of Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, the USSR competed with Gemini by converting their Vostok spacecraft into a two- or three-man Voskhod. They succeeded in launching two manned flights before Gemini's first flight, achieving a three-cosmonaut flight in 1963 and the first EVA in 1964. After this, the program was canceled, and Gemini caught up while spacecraft designer Sergei Korolev developed the Soyuz spacecraft, their answer to Apollo. Apollo program
Apollo program
(1961–1972) Main article: Apollo program

Apollo 11: Buzz Aldrin
Buzz Aldrin
on the Moon, 1969.

The U.S public's perception of the Soviet lead in the space race (by putting the first man into space) motivated President John F. Kennedy to ask the Congress on May 25, 1961, to commit the federal government to a program to land a man on the Moon
Moon
by the end of the 1960s, which effectively launched the Apollo program.[44] Apollo was one of the most expensive American scientific programs ever. It cost more than $20 billion in 1960s dollars[45] or an estimated $213 billion in present-day US dollars.[46] (In comparison, the Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
cost roughly $27.2 billion, accounting for inflation.)[46][47] It used the Saturn
Saturn
rockets as launch vehicles, which were far bigger than the rockets built for previous projects.[48] The spacecraft was also bigger; it had two main parts, the combined command and service module (CSM) and the lunar landing module (LM). The LM was to be left on the Moon
Moon
and only the command module (CM) containing the three astronauts would eventually return to Earth.[note 2] The second manned mission, Apollo 8, brought astronauts for the first time in a flight around the Moon
Moon
in December 1968.[49] Shortly before, the Soviets had sent an unmanned spacecraft around the Moon.[50] On the next two missions docking maneuvers that were needed for the Moon landing were practiced[51][52] and then finally the Moon landing
Moon landing
was made on the Apollo 11
Apollo 11
mission in July 1969.[53]

Apollo 17: LRV-003, 1972.

The first person to stand on the Moon
Moon
was Neil Armstrong, who was followed by Buzz Aldrin, while Michael Collins orbited above. Five subsequent Apollo missions also landed astronauts on the Moon, the last in December 1972. Throughout these six Apollo spaceflights, twelve men walked on the Moon. These missions returned a wealth of scientific data and 381.7 kilograms (842 lb) of lunar samples. Topics covered by experiments performed included soil mechanics, meteoroids, seismology, heat flow, lunar ranging, magnetic fields, and solar wind.[54] The Moon landing
Moon landing
marked the end of the space race; and as a gesture, Armstrong mentioned mankind when he stepped down on the Moon.[55] Apollo set major milestones in human spaceflight. It stands alone in sending manned missions beyond low Earth
Earth
orbit, and landing humans on another celestial body.[56] Apollo 8
Apollo 8
was the first manned spacecraft to orbit another celestial body, while Apollo 17
Apollo 17
marked the last moonwalk and the last manned mission beyond low Earth
Earth
orbit to date. The program spurred advances in many areas of technology peripheral to rocketry and manned spaceflight, including avionics, telecommunications, and computers. Apollo sparked interest in many fields of engineering and left many physical facilities and machines developed for the program as landmarks. Many objects and artifacts from the program are on display at various locations throughout the world, notably at the Smithsonian's Air and Space Museums. Skylab
Skylab
(1965–1979) Main article: Skylab

Skylab
Skylab
space station, 1974

Skylab
Skylab
was the United States' first and only independently built space station.[57] Conceived in 1965 as a workshop to be constructed in space from a spent Saturn IB
Saturn IB
upper stage, the 169,950 lb (77,088 kg) station was constructed on Earth
Earth
and launched on May 14, 1973, atop the first two stages of a Saturn
Saturn
V, into a 235-nautical-mile (435 km) orbit inclined at 50° to the equator. Damaged during launch by the loss of its thermal protection and one electricity-generating solar panel, it was repaired to functionality by its first crew. It was occupied for a total of 171 days by 3 successive crews in 1973 and 1974.[57] It included a laboratory for studying the effects of microgravity, and a solar observatory.[57] NASA
NASA
planned to have a Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
dock with it, and elevate Skylab to a higher safe altitude, but the Shuttle was not ready for flight before Skylab's re-entry on July 11, 1979.[58] To save cost, NASA
NASA
used one of the Saturn V
Saturn V
rockets originally earmarked for a canceled Apollo mission to launch the Skylab. Apollo spacecraft were used for transporting astronauts to and from the station. Three three-man crews stayed aboard the station for periods of 28, 59, and 84 days. Skylab's habitable volume was 11,290 cubic feet (320 m3), which was 30.7 times bigger than that of the Apollo Command Module.[58] Apollo–Soyuz Test Project
Apollo–Soyuz Test Project
(1972–1975) Main article: Apollo–Soyuz Test Project

Soviet and American crews with spacecraft model, 1975.

On May 24, 1972, US President Richard M. Nixon
Richard M. Nixon
and Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin
Alexei Kosygin
signed an agreement calling for a joint manned space mission, and declaring intent for all future international manned spacecraft to be capable of docking with each other.[59] This authorized the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), involving the rendezvous and docking in Earth
Earth
orbit of a surplus Apollo Command/Service Module with a Soyuz spacecraft. The mission took place in July 1975. This was the last US manned space flight until the first orbital flight of the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
in April 1981.[60] The mission included both joint and separate scientific experiments, and provided useful engineering experience for future joint US–Russian space flights, such as the Shuttle– Mir
Mir
Program[61] and the International Space Station. Space Shuttle program
Space Shuttle program
(1972–2011) Main article: Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
program

Launch of a Space Shuttle.

Mae Jemison
Mae Jemison
working in Spacelab
Spacelab
in 1992. Spacelab
Spacelab
was a major NASA collaboration with Europe's space agencies

The Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
became the major focus of NASA
NASA
in the late 1970s and the 1980s. Planned as a frequently launchable and mostly reusable vehicle, four space shuttle orbiters were built by 1985. The first to launch, Columbia, did so on April 12, 1981,[62] the 20th anniversary of the first known human space flight.[63] Its major components were a spaceplane orbiter with an external fuel tank and two solid-fuel launch rockets at its side. The external tank, which was bigger than the spacecraft itself, was the only major component that was not reused. The shuttle could orbit in altitudes of 185–643 km (115–400 miles)[64] and carry a maximum payload (to low orbit) of 24,400 kg (54,000 lb).[65] Missions could last from 5 to 17 days and crews could be from 2 to 8 astronauts.[64] On 20 missions (1983–98) the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
carried Spacelab, designed in cooperation with the European Space Agency
European Space Agency
(ESA). Spacelab was not designed for independent orbital flight, but remained in the Shuttle's cargo bay as the astronauts entered and left it through an airlock.[66] Another famous series of missions were the launch and later successful repair of the Hubble Space Telescope
Hubble Space Telescope
in 1990 and 1993, respectively.[67] In 1995, Russian-American interaction resumed with the Shuttle–Mir missions (1995–1998). Once more an American vehicle docked with a Russian craft, this time a full-fledged space station. This cooperation has continued with Russia
Russia
and the United States
United States
as two of the biggest partners in the largest space station built: the International Space Station
International Space Station
(ISS). The strength of their cooperation on this project was even more evident when NASA
NASA
began relying on Russian launch vehicles to service the ISS during the two-year grounding of the shuttle fleet following the 2003 Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. The Shuttle fleet lost two orbiters and 14 astronauts in two disasters: Challenger in 1986, and Columbia in 2003.[68] While the 1986 loss was mitigated by building the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
Endeavour from replacement parts, NASA
NASA
did not build another orbiter to replace the second loss.[68] NASA's Space Shuttle program
Space Shuttle program
had 135 missions when the program ended with the successful landing of the Space Shuttle Atlantis at the Kennedy Space Center
Kennedy Space Center
on July 21, 2011. The program spanned 30 years with over 300 astronauts sent into space.[69] International Space Station
International Space Station
(1993–present) Main article: International Space Station

The International Space Station
International Space Station
as seen by the final STS mission

The International Space Station
International Space Station
(ISS) combines NASA's Space Station Freedom project with the Soviet/Russian Mir-2
Mir-2
station, the European Columbus station, and the Japanese Kibō laboratory module.[70] NASA originally planned in the 1980s to develop Freedom alone, but US budget constraints led to the merger of these projects into a single multi-national program in 1993, managed by NASA, the Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA), the Japan
Japan
Aerospace
Aerospace
Exploration Agency (JAXA), the European Space Agency
European Space Agency
(ESA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).[71][72] The station consists of pressurized modules, external trusses, solar arrays and other components, which have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets, and the US Space Shuttles.[70] It is currently being assembled in Low Earth
Earth
Orbit. The on-orbit assembly began in 1998, the completion of the US Orbital Segment
US Orbital Segment
occurred in 2011 and the completion of the Russian Orbital Segment
Russian Orbital Segment
is expected by 2016.[73][74][needs update] The ownership and use of the space station is established in intergovernmental treaties and agreements[75] which divide the station into two areas and allow Russia
Russia
to retain full ownership of the Russian Orbital Segment
Russian Orbital Segment
(with the exception of Zarya),[76][77] with the US Orbital Segment
US Orbital Segment
allocated between the other international partners.[75] Long duration missions to the ISS are referred to as ISS Expeditions. Expedition crew members typically spend approximately six months on the ISS.[78] The initial expedition crew size was three, temporarily decreased to two following the Columbia disaster. Since May 2009, expedition crew size has been six crew members.[79] Crew size is expected to be increased to seven, the number the ISS was designed for, once the Commercial Crew Program becomes operational.[80] The ISS has been continuously occupied for the past 17 years and 155 days, having exceeded the previous record held by Mir; and has been visited by astronauts and cosmonauts from 15 different nations.[81][82] The station can be seen from the Earth
Earth
with the naked eye and, as of 2018, is the largest artificial satellite in Earth
Earth
orbit with a mass and volume greater than that of any previous space station.[83] The Soyuz spacecraft delivers crew members, stays docked for their half-year-long missions and then returns them home. Several uncrewed cargo spacecraft service the ISS, they are the Russian Progress spacecraft which has done so since 2000, the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) since 2008, the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) since 2009, the American Dragon spacecraft
Dragon spacecraft
since 2012, and the American Cygnus spacecraft since 2013. The Space Shuttle, before its retirement, was also used for cargo transfer and would often switch out expedition crew members, although it did not have the capability to remain docked for the duration of their stay. Until another US manned spacecraft is ready, crew members will travel to and from the International Space Station
International Space Station
exclusively aboard the Soyuz.[84] The highest number of people occupying the ISS has been thirteen; this occurred three times during the late Shuttle ISS assembly missions.[85] The ISS program is expected to continue until at least 2020, and may be extended beyond 2028.[86] Commercial programs (2006–present) Main articles: Commercial Resupply Services
Commercial Resupply Services
and Commercial Crew Development

Dragon being berthed to the ISS in May 2012

Cygnus berthed to the ISS in September 2013

The development of the Commercial Resupply Services
Commercial Resupply Services
(CRS) vehicles began in 2006 with the purpose of creating American commercially operated uncrewed cargo vehicles to service the ISS.[87] The development of these vehicles was under a fixed price milestone-based program, meaning that each company that received a funded award had a list of milestones with a dollar value attached to them that they didn't receive until after they had successfully completed the milestone.[88] Companies were also required to raise an unspecified amount of private investment for their proposal.[89] On December 23, 2008, NASA
NASA
awarded Commercial Resupply Services contracts to SpaceX
SpaceX
and Orbital Sciences Corporation.[90] SpaceX
SpaceX
uses its Falcon 9 rocket
Falcon 9 rocket
and Dragon spacecraft.[91] Orbital Sciences uses its Antares rocket and Cygnus spacecraft. The first Dragon resupply mission occurred in May 2012.[92] The first Cygnus resupply mission occurred in September 2013.[93] The CRS program now provides for all America's ISS cargo needs; with the exception of a few vehicle-specific payloads that are delivered on the European ATV and the Japanese HTV.[94]

Dragon V2

Rendering of CST-100
CST-100
in orbit

The Commercial Crew Development
Commercial Crew Development
(CCDev) program was started in 2010 with the purpose of creating American commercially operated crewed spacecraft capable of delivering at least four crew members to the ISS, staying docked for 180 days and then returning them back to Earth.[95] It is hoped that these vehicles could also transport non- NASA
NASA
customers to private space stations such those planned by Bigelow Aerospace.[96] Like COTS, CCDev is also a fixed price milestone-based developmental program that requires some private investment.[88] In 2010, NASA
NASA
announced the winners of the first phase of the program, a total of $50 million was divided among five American companies to foster research and development into human spaceflight concepts and technologies in the private sector. In 2011, the winners of the second phase of the program were announced, $270 million was divided among four companies.[97] In 2012, the winners of the third phase of the program were announced, NASA
NASA
provided $1.1 billion divided among three companies to further develop their crew transportation systems.[98] In 2014, the winners of the final round were announced.[99] SpaceX's Dragon V2
Dragon V2
(planned to be launched on a Falcon 9 v1.1) received a contract valued up to $2.6 billion and Boeing's CST-100
CST-100
(to be launched on an Atlas V) received a contract valued up to $4.2 billion.[100] NASA
NASA
expects these vehicles to begin transporting humans to the ISS in 2017.[100] Beyond Low Earth
Earth
Orbit
Orbit
program (2010–2017) For missions beyond low Earth
Earth
orbit (BLEO), NASA
NASA
has been directed to develop the Space Launch System
Space Launch System
(SLS), a Saturn-V class rocket, and the two to six person, beyond low Earth
Earth
orbit spacecraft, Orion. In February 2010, President Barack Obama's administration proposed eliminating public funds for the Constellation program
Constellation program
and shifting greater responsibility of servicing the ISS to private companies.[101] During a speech at the Kennedy Space Center
Kennedy Space Center
on April 15, 2010, Obama proposed a new heavy-lift vehicle (HLV) to replace the formerly planned Ares V.[102] In his speech, Obama called for a manned mission to an asteroid as soon as 2025, and a manned mission to Mars
Mars
orbit by the mid-2030s.[102] The NASA Authorization Act of 2010 was passed by Congress and signed into law on October 11, 2010.[103] The act officially canceled the Constellation program.[103] The Authorization Act required a newly designed HLV be chosen within 90 days of its passing; the launch vehicle was given the name "Space Launch System". The new law also required the construction of a beyond low earth orbit spacecraft.[104] The Orion spacecraft, which was being developed as part of the Constellation program, was chosen to fulfill this role.[105] The Space Launch System
Space Launch System
is planned to launch both Orion and other necessary hardware for missions beyond low Earth orbit.[106] The SLS is to be upgraded over time with more powerful versions. The initial capability of SLS is required to be able to lift 70 mt into LEO. It is then planned to be upgraded to 105 mt and then eventually to 130 mt.[105][107] Exploration Flight Test 1
Exploration Flight Test 1
(EFT-1), an unmanned test flight of Orion's crew module, was launched on December 5, 2014, atop a Delta IV Heavy rocket.[107] Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1) is the unmanned initial launch of SLS that would also send Orion on a circumlunar trajectory, which is planned for 2019.[107] The first manned flight of Orion and SLS, Exploration Mission 2 (EM-2) is to launch in 2022; it is a 10- to 14-day mission planned to place a crew of four into Lunar orbit.[107] EM-3 is planned to deliver a crew of 4 to Lunar orbit
Lunar orbit
along with the first module of Deep Space Gateway. On June 5, 2016, NASA
NASA
and DARPA
DARPA
announced plans to build a series of new X-planes over the next 10 years.[108] One of the planes will be the Quiet Supersonic Technology
Quiet Supersonic Technology
project, burning low-carbon biofuels and generating quiet sonic booms.[108] NASA
NASA
plans to build full scale deep space habitats such at the Nautilus-X
Nautilus-X
and Deep Space Gateway
Deep Space Gateway
as part of its Next Space Technologies
Technologies
for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) program.[109] In 2017 NASA
NASA
was directed to get humans to Mars
Mars
by 2033.[110]

NASA
NASA
Graphic for the Journey to Mars

Unmanned programs Main article: Unmanned NASA
NASA
missions

Pioneer 3
Pioneer 3
and 4 launched in 1958 and 1959, respectively

JWST main mirror assembled, November 2016

More than 1,000 unmanned missions have been designed to explore the Earth
Earth
and the solar system.[111] Besides exploration, communication satellites have also been launched by NASA.[112] The missions have been launched directly from Earth
Earth
or from orbiting space shuttles, which could either deploy the satellite itself, or with a rocket stage to take it farther. The first US unmanned satellite was Explorer 1, which started as an ABMA/JPL project during the early part of the Space Race. It was launched in January 1958, two months after Sputnik. At the creation of NASA, the Explorer project was transferred to the agency and still continues to this day. Its missions have been focusing on the Earth and the Sun, measuring magnetic fields and the solar wind, among other aspects.[113] A more recent Earth
Earth
mission, not related to the Explorer program, was the Hubble Space Telescope, which as mentioned above was brought into orbit in 1990.[114] The inner Solar System
Solar System
has been made the goal of at least four unmanned programs. The first was Mariner in the 1960s and '70s, which made multiple visits to Venus
Venus
and Mars
Mars
and one to Mercury. Probes launched under the Mariner program
Mariner program
were also the first to make a planetary flyby (Mariner 2), to take the first pictures from another planet (Mariner 4), the first planetary orbiter (Mariner 9), and the first to make a gravity assist maneuver (Mariner 10). This is a technique where the satellite takes advantage of the gravity and velocity of planets to reach its destination.[115] The first successful landing on Mars
Mars
was made by Viking 1
Viking 1
in 1976. Twenty years later a rover was landed on Mars
Mars
by Mars
Mars
Pathfinder.[116] Outside Mars, Jupiter
Jupiter
was first visited by Pioneer 10
Pioneer 10
in 1973. More than 20 years later Galileo sent a probe into the planet's atmosphere, and became the first spacecraft to orbit the planet.[117] Pioneer 11 became the first spacecraft to visit Saturn
Saturn
in 1979, with Voyager 2 making the first (and so far only) visits to Uranus
Uranus
and Neptune
Neptune
in 1986 and 1989, respectively. The first spacecraft to leave the solar system was Pioneer 10
Pioneer 10
in 1983. For a time it was the most distant spacecraft, but it has since been surpassed by both Voyager 1
Voyager 1
and Voyager 2.[118] Pioneers 10 and 11 and both Voyager probes carry messages from the Earth
Earth
to extraterrestrial life.[119][120] Communication can be difficult with deep space travel. For instance, it took about three hours for a radio signal to reach the New Horizons
New Horizons
spacecraft when it was more than halfway to Pluto.[121] Contact with Pioneer 10
Pioneer 10
was lost in 2003. Both Voyager probes continue to operate as they explore the outer boundary between the Solar System
Solar System
and interstellar space.[122] On November 26, 2011, NASA's Mars
Mars
Science Laboratory mission was successfully launched for Mars. Curiosity successfully landed on Mars on August 6, 2012, and subsequently began its search for evidence of past or present life on Mars.[123][124][125] Activities 2010-2017

Radioisotope within a graphite shell that goes into the generator.

NASA's ongoing investigations include in-depth surveys of Mars
Mars
(Mars 2020 and InSight) and Saturn
Saturn
and studies of the Earth
Earth
and the Sun. Other active spacecraft missions are Juno for Jupiter, New Horizons (for Jupiter, Pluto, and beyond), and Dawn for the asteroid belt. NASA continued to support in situ exploration beyond the asteroid belt, including Pioneer and Voyager traverses into the unexplored trans- Pluto
Pluto
region, and Gas Giant
Gas Giant
orbiters Galileo (1989–2003), Cassini(1997–2017), and Juno (2011–). In the early 2000s, NASA
NASA
was put on course for the Moon, however in 2010 this program was cancelled (see Constellation program). As part of that plan the Shuttle was going to be replaced, however, although it was retired its replacement was also cancelled leaving the USA with no human spaceflight launcher for the first time in over three decades The New Horizons
New Horizons
mission to Pluto
Pluto
was launched in 2006 and successfully performed a flyby of Pluto
Pluto
on July 14, 2015. The probe received a gravity assist from Jupiter
Jupiter
in February 2007, examining some of Jupiter's inner moons and testing on-board instruments during the flyby. On the horizon of NASA's plans is the MAVEN spacecraft as part of the Mars
Mars
Scout Program to study the atmosphere of Mars.[126]

Vision mission for an interstellar precursor spacecraft by NASA

On December 4, 2006, NASA
NASA
announced it was planning a permanent moon base.[127] The goal was to start building the moon base by 2020, and by 2024, have a fully functional base that would allow for crew rotations and in-situ resource utilization. However, in 2009, the Augustine Committee found the program to be on an "unsustainable trajectory."[128] In 2010, President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
halted existing plans, including the Moon
Moon
base, and directed a generic focus on manned missions to asteroids and Mars, as well as extending support for the International Space Station.[129] Since 2011, NASA's strategic goals have been[130]

Extend and sustain human activities across the solar system Expand scientific understanding of the Earth
Earth
and the universe Create innovative new space technologies Advance aeronautics research Enable program and institutional capabilities to conduct NASA's aeronautics and space activities Share NASA
NASA
with the public, educators, and students to provide opportunities to participate

In August 2011, NASA
NASA
accepted the donation of two space telescopes from the National Reconnaissance Office. Despite being stored unused, the instruments are superior to the Hubble Space Telescope.[131] In September 2011, NASA
NASA
announced the start of the Space Launch System program to develop a human-rated heavy lift vehicle. The Space Launch System is intended to launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle
Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle
and other elements towards the Moon, near- Earth
Earth
asteroids, and one day Mars.[132] The Orion MPCV conducted an unmanned test launch on a Delta IV Heavy rocket in December 2014.[133] The James Webb Space Telescope
James Webb Space Telescope
(JWST) is currently scheduled to launch in spring 2019.[134]

Curiosity's wheel on Mars, 2012

Curiosity's wheel battered wheel after several years of exploration, 2017

On August 6, 2012, NASA
NASA
landed the rover Curiosity on Mars. On August 27, 2012, Curiosity transmitted the first pre-recorded message from the surface of Mars
Mars
back to Earth, made by Administrator Charlie Bolden:

Hello. This is Charlie Bolden, NASA
NASA
Administrator, speaking to you via the broadcast capabilities of the Curiosity Rover, which is now on the surface of Mars. Since the beginning of time, humankind’s curiosity has led us to constantly seek new life...new possibilities just beyond the horizon. I want to congratulate the men and women of our NASA
NASA
family as well as our commercial and government partners around the world, for taking us a step beyond to Mars. This is an extraordinary achievement. Landing a rover on Mars
Mars
is not easy – others have tried – only America has fully succeeded. The investment we are making...the knowledge we hope to gain from our observation and analysis of Gale Crater, will tell us much about the possibility of life on Mars
Mars
as well as the past and future possibilities for our own planet. Curiosity will bring benefits to Earth
Earth
and inspire a new generation of scientists and explorers, as it prepares the way for a human mission in the not too distant future. Thank you.[135]

Recent and planned activities NASA's ongoing investigations include in-depth surveys of Mars
Mars
(Mars 2020 and InSight) and Saturn
Saturn
and studies of the Earth
Earth
and the Sun. Other active spacecraft missions are Juno for Jupiter, New Horizons (for Jupiter, Pluto, and beyond), and Dawn for the asteroid belt. NASA continued to support in situ exploration beyond the asteroid belt, including Pioneer and Voyager traverses into the unexplored trans- Pluto
Pluto
region, and Gas Giant
Gas Giant
orbiters Galileo (1989–2003), Cassini(1997–2017), and Juno (2011–). The New Horizons
New Horizons
mission to Pluto
Pluto
was launched in 2006 and successfully performed a flyby of Pluto
Pluto
on July 14, 2015. The probe received a gravity assist from Jupiter
Jupiter
in February 2007, examining some of Jupiter's inner moons and testing on-board instruments during the flyby. On the horizon of NASA's plans is the MAVEN spacecraft as part of the Mars
Mars
Scout Program to study the atmosphere of Mars.[126] There was a new executive administration in the United States, which directed NASA
NASA
to send Humans to Mars
Mars
by the year 2033.[110][136] Foci in general for NASA
NASA
were noted as human space exploration, space science, and technology.[136] The Europa Clipper
Europa Clipper
and Mars
Mars
2020 continue to be supported for their planned schedules.[137]

InSight, planned for launch and landing on Mars
Mars
in 2018 New Horizons, Kuiper belt object flyby EOY 2018, January 2019 planned Osiris-Rex, en route for asteroid sample return in the 2020s Mars
Mars
2020 rover Europa Clipper Misc. Discovery Missions James Webb Space Telescope Parker Solar Probe Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite
Satellite
(TESS), to be launched on 16 April 2018

Humans to Mars

Langley's Mars
Mars
Ice Dome design from 2016 for a Mars
Mars
base

Orion at ISS artwork

The NASA
NASA
Authorization Act of 2017 which included $19.5 billion in funding for that fiscal year, also directed NASA
NASA
to get humans near or on the surface of Mars
Mars
by the early 2030s.[138] Current NASA
NASA
Mars
Mars
assets:

2001 Mars
Mars
Odyssey Mars
Mars
Reconnaissance Orbiter MAVEN Opportunity (rover)
Opportunity (rover)
(surface) Curiosity (rover)
Curiosity (rover)
(surface)

Planned:

InSight
InSight
(lander) Mars
Mars
2020

Human spaceflight
Human spaceflight
assets current and planned:

International Space Station Orion capsule Space Launch System

Mars
Mars
mission design from the SEI ("90 day study") (example of Mars mission design)

Research Main article: NASA
NASA
research For technologies funded or otherwise supported by NASA, see NASA spin-off technologies.

NASA
NASA
developed this hard-suit in the 1980s at the Ames Research Center

NASA's Aeronautics
Aeronautics
Research Mission Directorate conducts aeronautics research. NASA
NASA
has made use of technologies such as the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), which is a type of Radioisotope thermoelectric generator
Radioisotope thermoelectric generator
used on space missions.[139] Shortages of this material have curtailed deep space missions since the turn of the millennia.[140] An example of a spacecraft that was not developed because of a shortage of this material was New Horizons 2.[140] The earth science research program was created and first funded in the 1980s under the administrations of Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
and George H.W. Bush.[141][142] NASA
NASA
started an annual competition in 2014 named Cubes in Space.[143] It is jointly organized by NASA
NASA
and the global education company I Doodle Learning, with the objective of teaching school students aged 11–18 to design and build scientific experiments to be launched into space on a NASA
NASA
rocket or balloon. On June 21, 2017 the world's smallest satellite, Kalam SAT, built by an Indian team, was launched.[citation needed] Climate
Climate
study NASA
NASA
also researches and publishes on climate issues.[144] Its statements concur with the interpretation that the global climate is heating.[145] Bob Walker, who has advised the 45th President of the United States
United States
Donald Trump
Donald Trump
on space issues, has advocated that NASA should focus on space exploration and that its climate study operations should be transferred to other agencies such as NOAA.[146] Facilities

Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
complex in Pasadena, California

Vehicle Assembly and Launch Control at Kennedy Space Center

Main article: NASA
NASA
facilities NASA's facilities are research, construction and communication centers to help its missions. Some facilities serve more than one application for historic or administrative reasons. NASA
NASA
also operates a short-line railroad at the Kennedy Space Center
Kennedy Space Center
and own special aircraft, for instance two Boeing 747 that transport Space Shuttle orbiter. John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Space Center (KSC), is one of the best-known NASA facilities. It has been the launch site for every United States
United States
human space flight since 1968. Although such flights are currently on pause, KSC continues to manage and operate unmanned rocket launch facilities for America's civilian space program from three pads at the adjoining Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
Space Center (JSC) in Houston
Houston
is home to the Christopher C. Kraft Jr.
Christopher C. Kraft Jr.
Mission Control Center, where all flight control is managed for manned space missions. JSC is the lead NASA center for activities regarding the International Space Station
International Space Station
and also houses the NASA
NASA
Astronaut
Astronaut
Corps that selects, trains, and provides astronauts as crew members for US and international space missions. Another major facility is Marshall Space Flight Center
Marshall Space Flight Center
in Huntsville, Alabama at which the Saturn
Saturn
5 rocket and Skylab
Skylab
were developed.[147] The JPL worked together with ABMA, one of the agencies behind Explorer 1, the first American space mission.

FCR 1 in 2009 during the STS-128
STS-128
mission, JSC in Houston

The ten NASA
NASA
field centers are:

John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Space Center, Florida Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California Armstrong Flight Research Center
Armstrong Flight Research Center
(formerly Hugh L. Dryden Flight Research Facility), Edwards, California Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland Jet Propulsion Laboratory, near Pasadena, California Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
Space Center, Houston, Texas Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia John H. Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama John C. Stennis Space Center, Bay St. Louis, Mississippi

Numerous other facilities are operated by NASA, including the Wallops Flight Facility in Wallops Island, Virginia; the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, Louisiana; the White Sands Test Facility
White Sands Test Facility
in Las Cruces, New Mexico; and Deep Space Network
Deep Space Network
stations in Barstow, California; Madrid, Spain; and Canberra, Australia. Budget

NASA's budget from 1958 to 2012 as a percentage of federal budget

An artist's conception, from NASA, of an astronaut planting a US flag on Mars. A manned mission to Mars
Mars
has been discussed as a possible NASA
NASA
mission since the 1960s.

Main article: Budget of NASA NASA's budget has generally been approximately 1% of the federal budget from the early 1970s on, after briefly peaking at approximately 4.41% in 1966 during the Apollo program.[24][148] Public perception of NASA's budget has differed significantly from reality; a 1997 poll indicated that most Americans responded that 20% of the federal budget went to NASA.[149] The percentage of federal budget that NASA
NASA
has been allocated has been steadily dropping since the Apollo program
Apollo program
and in 2012 it was estimated at 0.48% of the federal budget.[150] In a March 2012 meeting of the United States
United States
Senate Science Committee, Neil deGrasse Tyson testified that "Right now, NASA’s annual budget is half a penny on your tax dollar. For twice that—a penny on a dollar—we can transform the country from a sullen, dispirited nation, weary of economic struggle, to one where it has reclaimed its 20th century birthright to dream of tomorrow."[151][152] For Fiscal Year 2015, NASA
NASA
received an appropriation of US$18.01 billion from Congress—$549 million more than requested and approximately $350 million more than the 2014 NASA
NASA
budget passed by Congress.[153] In Fiscal Year 2016, NASA
NASA
received $19.3 billion.[136] There was a new executive administration in the United States, which lead to the NASA
NASA
Transition Authorization Act of 2017, which set the budget at around $19.5 billion for 2017.[136] The budget is also reported as $19.3 billion for 2017, with $20.7 billion proposed for FY2018.[154][155] Examples of some proposed FY2018 budgets:[155]

Exploration: $4.79 billion Planetary science: $2.23 billion Earth
Earth
science: $1.92 billion Aeronautics: $0.685 billion

Environmental impact The exhaust gases produced by rocket propulsion systems, both in Earth's atmosphere and in space, can adversely effect the Earth's environment. Some hypergolic rocket propellants, such as hydrazine, are highly toxic prior to combustion, but decompose into less toxic compounds after burning. Rockets using hydrocarbon fuels, such as kerosene, release carbon dioxide and soot in their exhaust.[156] However, carbon dioxide emissions are insignificant compared to those from other sources; on average, the United States
United States
consumed 802,620,000 US gallons (3.0382×109 L) gallons of liquid fuels per day in 2014, while a single Falcon 9 rocket
Falcon 9 rocket
first stage burns around 25,000 US gallons (95,000 L) of kerosene fuel per launch.[157][158] Even if a Falcon 9
Falcon 9
were launched every single day, it would only represent 0.006% of liquid fuel consumption (and carbon dioxide emissions) for that day. Additionally, the exhaust from LOx- and LH2- fueled engines, like the SSME, is almost entirely water vapor.[159] NASA
NASA
addressed environmental concerns with its canceled Constellation program
Constellation program
in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act in 2011.[160] In contrast, ion engines use harmless noble gases like xenon for propulsion.[161][162] On May 8, 2003, Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Protection Agency
recognized NASA
NASA
as the first federal agency to directly use landfill gas to produce energy at one of its facilities—the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.[163] An example of NASA's environmental efforts is the NASA
NASA
Sustainability Base. Additionally, the Exploration Sciences Building was awarded the LEED Gold rating in 2010.[164] Observations

Plot of orbits of known Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (size over 460 feet (140 m) and passing within 4.7 million miles (7.6×10^6 km) of Earth's orbit)

Various nebulae observed from a NASA
NASA
space telescope

1 Ceres

Pluto

Jupiter

Spacecraft

Hardware comparison of Apollo, Gemini and Mercury[note 3]

Hubble Space Telescope, astronomy observatory in Earth
Earth
orbit since 1990. Also visited by the Space Shuttle

Curiosity rover, roving Mars
Mars
since 2012

Planned spacecraft

James Webb Space Telescope

Orion spacecraft
Orion spacecraft
design as of January 2013

Space Launch System
Space Launch System
concept art

Mars
Mars
2020 design art

Examples of missions by target Here are some selected examples of missions to planetary-sized objects. Other major targets of study are the Earth
Earth
itself, the Sun, and smaller solar system bodies like asteroids and comets. In addition, the moons of the planets or body are also studied.

Examples of robotic missions

Spacecraft Launch year Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto

Mariner 2 1962

Flyby

Mariner 4 1964

Flyby

Mariner 5 1967

Flyby

Mariner 6 and 7 1969

Flyby

Mariner 9 1971

Orbiter

Pioneer 10 1972

Flyby

Pioneer 11 1973

Flyby Flyby

Mariner 10 1973 Flyby Flyby

Viking 1
Viking 1
and Viking 2 1975

Orbiters Landers

Voyager 1 1977

Flyby Flyby

Voyager 2 1977

Flyby Flyby Flyby Flyby

Galileo 1989

Flyby

Orbiter

Magellan 1989

Orbiter

Mars
Mars
Global Surveyor 1996

Orbiter

Cassini 1997

Flyby

Flyby Orbiter

Mars
Mars
Odyssey 2001

Orbiter

Spirit and Opportunity 2003

Rovers

MESSENGER 2004 Orbiter Flyby

Mars
Mars
Reconnaissance Orbiter 2005

Orbiter

New Horizons 2006

Flyby

Flyby

Juno 2011

Orbiter

Curiosity ( Mars
Mars
Science Laboratory) 2011

Rover

MAVEN 2013

Orbiter

Spacecraft Launch year Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto

Examples of missions for the Sun

Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph Solar Dynamics Observatory STEREO Ulysses (spacecraft) Parker Solar Probe

See also

Government of the United States
United States
portal Spaceflight portal

Astronomy Picture of the Day Department of Defense Manned Space Flight Support Office List of government space agencies List of NASA
NASA
aircraft List of NASA
NASA
missions List of United States
United States
rockets NASA
NASA
Advanced Space Transportation Program NASA
NASA
awards and decorations NASA
NASA
insignia NASA
NASA
Research Park NASA
NASA
TV NASAcast Small Explorer program Space policy of the Barack Obama
Barack Obama
administration TechPort (NASA) French space program Russian space program Chinese space program

Notes

^ NASA
NASA
is an independent agency that is not a part of any executive department but reports directly to the President.[8][9] ^ The descend stage of the LM stayed on the Moon
Moon
after landing while the ascend stage brought the two astronauts back to the CSM and then fell back to the Moon. ^ From left to right: Launch vehicle of Apollo ( Saturn
Saturn
5), Gemini (Titan 2) and Mercury (Atlas). Left, top-down: Spacecraft of Apollo, Gemini and Mercury. The Saturn IB
Saturn IB
and Mercury-Redstone launch vehicles are left out.

References

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NASA
stands "for the benefit of all."—Interview with NASA's Dr. Süleyman Gokoglu". The Light Millennium.  ^ "Workforce Profile". NASA. January 11, 2011. Retrieved December 17, 2012.  ^ "Trump, Congress approve largest U.S. research spending increase in a decade". Science AAAS. 23 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Dreier, Casey (December 18, 2015). "[Updated] An Extraordinary Budget for NASA
NASA
in 2016 - Congressional omnibus increases the space agency's budget by $1.3 billion". The Planetary Society. Retrieved February 4, 2016.  ^ a b Administrator, NASA
NASA
Content (January 30, 2017). "Robert M. Lightfoot Jr., Acting Administrator".  ^ Dunbar, Brian (January 8, 2015). " NASA
NASA
Organization Structure".  ^ "Official US Executive Branch Web Sites - Newspaper and Current Periodical Reading Room (Serial and Government Publications Division, Library of Congress)". loc.gov. Retrieved May 24, 2016.  ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". hq.nasa.gov. Retrieved May 24, 2016.  ^ "Ike in History: Eisenhower Creates NASA". Eisenhower Memorial. 2013. Retrieved November 27, 2013.  ^ "The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Act". NASA. 2005. Retrieved August 29, 2007.  ^ a b Bilstein, Roger E. (1996). "From NACA to NASA". NASA
NASA
SP-4206, Stages to Saturn: A Technological History of the Apollo/ Saturn
Saturn
Launch Vehicles. NASA. pp. 32–33. ISBN 978-0-16-004259-1. Retrieved May 6, 2013.  ^ Netting, Ruth (June 30, 2009). "Earth— NASA
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NASA
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NASA
Marshall Space Flight Center. Retrieved July 15, 2009.  ^ Van Atta, Richard (April 10, 2008). "50 years of Bridging the Gap" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 24, 2009. Retrieved July 15, 2009.  ^ a b Fouriezos, Nick (May 30, 2016). "Your Presidential Candidates ... For the Milky Way". OZY. Retrieved May 30, 2016.  ^ " T. Keith Glennan
T. Keith Glennan
biography". NASA. August 4, 2006. Retrieved July 5, 2008.  ^ Cabbage, Michael (July 15, 2009). "Bolden and Garver Confirmed by U.S. Senate" (Press release). NASA. Archived from the original on October 28, 2009. Retrieved July 16, 2009.  ^ Shouse, Mary (July 9, 2009). "Welcome to NASA
NASA
Headquarters". Retrieved July 15, 2009.  ^ Information for Non U.S. Citizens, NASA
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(downloaded September 16, 2013) ^ NASA
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Aerospace
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Safety Advisory Panel ^ NASA
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Advisory Council--Background and Charter ^ The Air Force definition of outer space differs from that of the International Aeronautical Federation, which is 100 kilometers (330,000 ft). ^ a b Aerospaceweb, North American X-15. Aerospaceweb.org. Retrieved on November 3, 2011. ^ Aircraft Museum X-15." Aerospaceweb.org, November 24, 2008. ^ a b NASA, X-15
X-15
Hypersonic Research Program, retrieved October 17, 2011 ^ Encyclopedia Astronautica, Project 7969 Archived October 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., retrieved October 17, 2011 ^ NASA, Project Mercury
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Overview Archived June 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., retrieved October 17, 2011 ^ Swenson Jr., Loyd S.; Grimwood, James M.; Alexander, Charles C. (1989). "11-4 Shepard's Ride". In Woods, David; Gamble, Chris. This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury
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