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v t e

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored
Colored
People (NAACP)[a] is a civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 as a bi-racial organization to advance justice for African Americans by a group, including, W. E. B. Du Bois, Mary White Ovington and Moorfield Storey.[3] Its mission in the 21st century is "to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate race-based discrimination." Their national initiatives included political lobbying, publicity efforts, and litigation strategies developed by their legal team.[4] The group enlarged its mission in the late 20th century by considering issues such as police misconduct, the status of black foreign refugees, and questions of economic development.[5] Its name, retained in accordance with tradition, uses the once common term colored people, referring to people of some African ancestry. The NAACP
NAACP
bestows annual awards to people of color in two categories: Image Awards are for achievement in the arts and entertainment, and Spingarn Medals are for outstanding achievement of any kind. Its headquarters is in Baltimore, Maryland.[6]

Contents

1 Organization 2 Predecessor: The Niagara Movement 3 History

3.1 Formation 3.2 Jim Crow
Jim Crow
and disenfranchisement 3.3 Legal Defense Fund 3.4 Desegregation 3.5 The 1990s 3.6 Lee Alcorn controversy 3.7 George W. Bush 3.8 Tax exempt status 3.9 LGBT rights 3.10 Travel warning regarding Missouri

4 Geography 5 Current activities

5.1 Youth

5.1.1 Youth and College Division 5.1.2 ACT-SO program

6 Partner organizations 7 Criticism 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

11.1 Archives

Organization The NAACP
NAACP
is headquartered in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in New York, Michigan, Georgia, Maryland, Texas, Colorado
Colorado
and California.[7] Each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in that region. Local, youth, and college chapters organize activities for individual members. In the U.S., the NAACP
NAACP
is administered by a 64-member board, led by a chairperson. The board elects one person as the president and one as chief executive officer for the organization; Benjamin Jealous
Benjamin Jealous
is its most recent (and youngest) president, selected to replace Bruce S. Gordon, who resigned in March 2007. Julian Bond, Civil Rights Movement activist and former Georgia State Senator, was chairman until replaced in February 2010 by health-care administrator Roslyn Brock.[8] For decades in the first half of the 20th century, the organization was effectively led by its executive secretary, who acted as chief operating officer. James Weldon Johnson
James Weldon Johnson
and Walter F. White, who served in that role successively from 1920 to 1958, were much more widely known as NAACP
NAACP
leaders than were presidents during those years. Departments within the NAACP
NAACP
govern areas of action. Local chapters are supported by the 'Branch and Field Services' department and the 'Youth and College' department. The 'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education. The Washington, D.C., bureau is responsible for lobbying the U.S. government, and the Education Department works to improve public education at the local, state and federal levels. The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education. As of 2007[update], the NAACP
NAACP
had approximately 425,000 paying and non-paying members.[9] The NAACP's non-current records are housed at the Library of Congress, which has served as the organization's official repository since 1964. The records held there comprise approximately five million items spanning the NAACP's history from the time of its founding until 2003.[10] In 2011, the NAACP
NAACP
teamed with the digital repository ProQuest
ProQuest
to digitize and host online the earlier portion of its archives, through 1972 – nearly two million pages of documents, from the national, legal, and branch offices throughout the country, which offer first-hand insight into the organization's work related to such crucial issues as lynching, school desegregation, and discrimination in all its aspects (in the military, the criminal justice system, employment, housing).[11][12] Predecessor: The Niagara Movement The Pan-American Exposition
Pan-American Exposition
of 1901 in Buffalo, New York
Buffalo, New York
featured many American innovations and achievements, but also included a disparaging caricature of slave life in the South as well as a depiction of life in Africa, called "Old Plantation" and "Darkest Africa," respectively.[13] A local African American women, Mary Talbert of Ohio was appalled by the exhibit, as a similar one in Paris highlighted black achievements. She informed W.E.B. DuBois of the situation, and a coalition began to form.[13] In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing people of color and possible strategies and solutions. They were particularly concerned by the Southern states' disenfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippi's passage of a new constitution in 1890. Through 1908, southern legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. In practice, this caused the exclusion of most blacks and many poor whites from the political system in southern states, crippling the Republican Party in most of the South. Black voter registration and turnout dropped markedly in the South as a result of such legislation. Men who had been voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register. White-dominated legislatures also passed segregation and Jim Crow laws. Because hotels in the US were segregated, the men convened in Canada at the Erie Beach Hotel[14] on the Canadian side of the Niagara River in Fort Erie, Ontario. As a result, the group came to be known as the Niagara Movement. A year later, three non-African-Americans joined the group: journalist William English Walling, a wealthy socialist; and social workers Mary White Ovington
Mary White Ovington
and Henry Moskowitz. Moskowitz, who was Jewish, was then also Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture. They met in 1906 at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, and in 1907 in Boston, Massachusetts.[15] The fledgling group struggled for a time with limited resources and internal conflict, and disbanded in 1910.[16] Seven of the members of the Niagara Movement
Niagara Movement
joined the Board of Directors of the NAACP, founded in 1909.[15] Although both organizations shared membership and overlapped for a time, the Niagara Movement
Niagara Movement
was a separate organization. Historically, it is considered to have had a more radical platform than the NAACP. The Niagara Movement
Niagara Movement
was formed exclusively by African Americans. Three European Americans were among the founders of the NAACP. History See also: African-American–Jewish relations Formation

Founders of the NAACP: Moorfield Storey, Mary White Ovington
Mary White Ovington
and W.E.B. Du Bois.

The Race Riot of 1908 in Springfield, Illinois, the state capital and President Abraham Lincoln's hometown, was a catalyst showing the urgent need for an effective civil rights organization in the U.S. In the decades around the turn of the century, the rate of lynchings of blacks, particularly men, was at a high. Mary White Ovington, journalist William English Walling
William English Walling
and Henry Moskowitz met in New York City in January 1909 to work on organizing for black civil rights.[17] They sent out solicitations for support to more than 60 prominent Americans, and set a meeting date for February 12, 1909. This was intended to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the birth of President Abraham Lincoln, who emancipated enslaved African Americans. While the first large meeting did not take place until three months later, the February date is often cited as the founding date of the organization. The NAACP
NAACP
was founded on February 12, 1909, by a larger group including African Americans
African Americans
W. E. B. Du Bois, Ida B. Wells, Archibald Grimké, Mary Church Terrell, and the previously named whites Henry Moskowitz, Mary White Ovington, William English Walling
William English Walling
(the wealthy Socialist son of a former slave-holding family),[17][18] Florence Kelley, a social reformer and friend of Du Bois;[19] Oswald Garrison Villard, and Charles Edward Russell, a renowned muckraker and close friend of Walling. Russell helped plan the NAACP
NAACP
and had served as acting chairman of the National Negro Committee (1909), a forerunner to the NAACP.[20] On May 30, 1909, the Niagara Movement
Niagara Movement
conference took place at New York City's Henry Street Settlement
Henry Street Settlement
House; they created an organization of more than 40, identifying as the National Negro Committee.[21] Among other founding members was Lillian Wald, a nurse who had founded the Henry Street Settlement
Henry Street Settlement
where the conference took place. Du Bois played a key role in organizing the event and presided over the proceedings. Also in attendance was Ida B. Wells-Barnett, an African-American journalist and anti-lynching crusader. At their second conference on May 30, 1910, members chose the new organization's name to be the National Association for the Advancement of Colored
Colored
People and elected its first officers:[22]

National President, Moorfield Storey, Boston Chairman of the Executive Committee, William English Walling Treasurer, John E. Milholland (a Lincoln Republican and Presbyterian from New York City
New York City
and Lewis, New York) Disbursing Treasurer, Oswald Garrison Villard Executive Secretary, Frances Blascoer Director of Publicity and Research, W. E. B. Du Bois.

The NAACP
NAACP
was incorporated a year later in 1911. The association's charter expressed its mission:

To promote equality of rights and to eradicate caste or race prejudice among the citizens of the United States; to advance the interest of colored citizens; to secure for them impartial suffrage; and to increase their opportunities for securing justice in the courts, education for the children, employment according to their ability and complete equality before law.

The larger conference resulted in a more diverse organization, where the leadership was predominantly white. At its founding, the NAACP
NAACP
had one African American on its executive board, Du Bois. It did not elect a black president until 1975, but the executive directors, who were the chief operating officers, were primarily African Americans
African Americans
since the early 20th century. The Jewish community contributed greatly to the NAACP's founding and continued financing.[23] Jewish historian Howard Sachar writes in his book A History of Jews in America that "In 1914, Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP
NAACP
and recruited for its board such Jewish leaders as Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, and Rabbi Stephen Wise."[23] Du Bois continued to play a pivotal leadership role in the organization. He served as editor of the association's magazine, The Crisis, which had a circulation of more than 30,000. It was used both for news reporting and for publishing African-American poetry and literature. During the organization's campaigns against lynching, Du Bois encouraged the writing and performance of plays and other expressive literature about this issue. Moorfield Storey, a white attorney from a Boston abolitionist family, served as the president of the NAACP
NAACP
from its founding to 1915. Storey was a long-time classical liberal and Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
Democrat who advocated laissez-faire free markets, the gold standard, and anti-imperialism. Storey consistently and aggressively championed civil rights, not only for blacks but also for Native Americans and immigrants (he opposed immigration restrictions). Jim Crow
Jim Crow
and disenfranchisement

An African American drinks out of a segregated water cooler designated for "colored" patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City.

Sign for the "colored" waiting room at a bus station in Durham, North Carolina, 1940

In its early years, the NAACP
NAACP
was based in New York City. It concentrated on litigation in efforts to overturn disenfranchisement of blacks, which had been established in every southern state by 1908, excluding most from the political system, and the Jim Crow
Jim Crow
statutes that legalized racial segregation. In 1913, the NAACP
NAACP
organized opposition to President Woodrow Wilson's introduction of racial segregation into federal government policy, workplaces, and hiring. African-American women's clubs were among the organizations that protested Wilson's changes, but the administration did not alter its assuagement of Southern cabinet members and the Southern block in Congress. By 1914, the group had 6,000 members and 50 branches. It was influential in winning the right of African Americans
African Americans
to serve as military officers in World War I. Six hundred African-American officers were commissioned and 700,000 men registered for the draft. The following year, the NAACP
NAACP
organized a nationwide protest, with marches in numerous cities, against D. W. Griffith's silent movie The Birth of a Nation, a film that glamorized the Ku Klux Klan. As a result, several cities refused to allow the film to open. The NAACP
NAACP
began to lead lawsuits targeting disfranchisement and racial segregation early in its history. It played a significant part in the challenge of Guinn v. United States
Guinn v. United States
(1915) to Oklahoma's discriminatory grandfather clause, which effectively disenfranchised most black citizens while exempting many whites from certain voter registration requirements. It persuaded the Supreme Court of the United States to rule in Buchanan v. Warley
Buchanan v. Warley
in 1917 that state and local governments cannot officially segregate African Americans
African Americans
into separate residential districts. The Court's opinion reflected the jurisprudence of property rights and freedom of contract as embodied in the earlier precedent it established in Lochner v. New York. In 1916, chairman Joel Spingarn invited James Weldon Johnson
James Weldon Johnson
to serve as field secretary. Johnson was a former U.S. consul to Venezuela
Venezuela
and a noted African-American scholar and columnist. Within four years, Johnson was instrumental in increasing the NAACP's membership from 9,000 to almost 90,000. In 1920, Johnson was elected head of the organization. Over the next ten years, the NAACP
NAACP
escalated its lobbying and litigation efforts, becoming internationally known for its advocacy of equal rights and equal protection for the "American Negro." The NAACP
NAACP
devoted much of its energy during the interwar years to fighting the lynching of blacks throughout the United States by working for legislation, lobbying and educating the public. The organization sent its field secretary Walter F. White
Walter F. White
to Phillips County, Arkansas, in October 1919, to investigate the Elaine Race Riot. More than 200 black tenant farmers were killed by roving white vigilantes and federal troops after a deputy sheriff's attack on a union meeting of sharecroppers left one white man dead. White published his report on the riot in the Chicago Daily News.[24] The NAACP
NAACP
organized the appeals for twelve black men sentenced to death a month later based on the fact that testimony used in their convictions was obtained by beatings and electric shocks. It gained a groundbreaking Supreme Court decision in Moore v. Dempsey
Moore v. Dempsey
261 U.S. 86 (1923) that significantly expanded the Federal courts' oversight of the states' criminal justice systems in the years to come. White investigated eight race riots and 41 lynchings for the NAACP
NAACP
and directed its study Thirty Years of Lynching
Lynching
in the United States.[25]

NAACP
NAACP
leaders Henry L. Moon, Roy Wilkins, Herbert Hill, and Thurgood Marshall in 1956.

The NAACP
NAACP
also worked for more than a decade seeking federal anti-lynching legislation, but the Solid South
Solid South
of white Democrats voted as a bloc against it or used the filibuster in the Senate to block passage. Because of disenfranchisement, African Americans
African Americans
in the South were unable to elect representatives of their choice to office. The NAACP
NAACP
regularly displayed a black flag stating "A Man Was Lynched Yesterday" from the window of its offices in New York to mark each lynching. In alliance with the American Federation of Labor, the NAACP
NAACP
led the successful fight to prevent the nomination of John Johnston Parker to the Supreme Court, based on his support for denying the vote to blacks and his anti-labor rulings. It organized legal support for the Scottsboro Boys. The NAACP
NAACP
lost most of the internecine battles with the Communist Party and International Labor Defense
International Labor Defense
over the control of those cases and the legal strategy to be pursued in that case. The organization also brought litigation to challenge the "white primary" system in the South. Southern state Democratic parties had created white-only primaries as another way of barring blacks from the political process. Since southern states were dominated by the Democrats, the primaries were the only competitive contests. In 1944 in Smith v. Allwright, the Supreme Court ruled against the white primary. Although states had to retract legislation related to the white primaries, the legislatures soon came up with new methods to severely limit the franchise for blacks. Legal Defense Fund The board of directors of the NAACP
NAACP
created the Legal Defense Fund in 1939 specifically for tax purposes. It functioned as the NAACP
NAACP
legal department. Intimidated by the Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service, the Legal and Educational Defense Fund, Inc., became a separate legal entity in 1957, although it was clear that it was to operate in accordance with NAACP
NAACP
policy. After 1961 serious disputes emerged between the two organizations, creating considerable confusion in the eyes and minds of the public.[26] Desegregation

NAACP
NAACP
representatives E. Franklin Jackson and Stephen Gill Spottswood meeting with President Kennedy at the White House
White House
in 1961

By the 1940s the federal courts were amenable to lawsuits regarding constitutional rights, which Congressional action was virtually impossible. With the rise of private corporate litigators such as the NAACP
NAACP
to bear the expense, civil suits became the pattern in modern civil rights litigation.[27] The NAACP's Legal department, headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the "separate but equal" doctrine announced by the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Ferguson. The NAACP's Baltimore
Baltimore
chapter, under president Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson, challenged segregation in Maryland
Maryland
state professional schools by supporting the 1935 Murray v. Pearson
Murray v. Pearson
case argued by Marshall. Houston's victory in Missouri
Missouri
ex rel. Gaines v. Canada
Canada
(1938) led to the formation of the Legal Defense Fund in 1939.

Locals viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores, NAACP
NAACP
attorney, Birmingham, Alabama, on September 5, 1963. The bomb exploded on September 4, the previous day, injuring Shores' wife.

The campaign for desegregation culminated in a unanimous 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board of Education
that held state-sponsored segregation of public elementary schools was unconstitutional. Bolstered by that victory, the NAACP
NAACP
pushed for full desegregation throughout the South.[28] NAACP
NAACP
activists were excited about the judicial strategy. Starting on December 5, 1955, NAACP activists, including Edgar Nixon, its local president, and Rosa Parks, who had served as the chapter's Secretary, helped organize a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama. This was designed to protest segregation on the city's buses, two-thirds of whose riders were black. The boycott lasted 381 days.[29] The State of Alabama responded by effectively barring the NAACP
NAACP
from operating within its borders because of its refusal to divulge a list of its members. The NAACP feared members could be fired or face violent retaliation for their activities. Although the Supreme Court eventually overturned the state's action in NAACP
NAACP
v. Alabama, 357 U.S. 449 (1958), the NAACP lost its leadership role in the Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
while it was barred from Alabama. New organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
(SNCC) rose up with different approaches to activism. These newer groups relied on direct action and mass mobilization to advance the rights of African Americans, rather than litigation and legislation. Roy Wilkins, NAACP's executive director, clashed repeatedly with Martin Luther King Jr. and other civil rights leaders over questions of strategy and leadership within the movement. The NAACP
NAACP
continued to use the Supreme Court's decision in Brown to press for desegregation of schools and public facilities throughout the country. Daisy Bates, president of its Arkansas state chapter, spearheaded the campaign by the Little Rock Nine
Little Rock Nine
to integrate the public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas.[30] By the mid-1960s, the NAACP
NAACP
had regained some of its preeminence in the Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
by pressing for civil rights legislation. The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
took place on August 28, 1963. That fall President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
sent a civil rights bill to Congress before he was assassinated. President Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
worked hard to persuade Congress to pass a civil rights bill aimed at ending racial discrimination in employment, education and public accommodations, and succeeded in gaining passage in July 1964. He followed that with passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided for protection of the franchise, with a role for federal oversight and administrators in places where voter turnout was historically low. After Kivie Kaplan died in 1975, scientist W. Montague Cobb
W. Montague Cobb
became President of the NAACP
NAACP
and served until 1982. Benjamin Hooks, a lawyer and clergyman, was elected as the NAACP's executive director in 1977, after the retirement of Roy Wilkins. The 1990s In the 1990s, the NAACP
NAACP
ran into debt. The dismissal of two leading officials further added to the picture of an organization in deep crisis. In 1993 the NAACP's Board of Directors narrowly selected Reverend Benjamin Chavis
Benjamin Chavis
over Reverend Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
to fill the position of Executive Director. A controversial figure, Chavis was ousted eighteen months later by the same board. They accused him of using NAACP
NAACP
funds for an out-of-court settlement in a sexual harassment lawsuit.[31] Following the dismissal of Chavis, Myrlie Evers-Williams
Myrlie Evers-Williams
narrowly defeated NAACP
NAACP
chairperson William Gibson for president in 1995, after Gibson was accused of overspending and mismanagement of the organization's funds. In 1996 Congressman Kweisi Mfume, a Democratic Congressman from Maryland
Maryland
and former head of the Congressional Black Caucus, was named the organization's president. Three years later strained finances forced the organization to drastically cut its staff, from 250 in 1992 to 50. In the second half of the 1990s, the organization restored its finances, permitting the NAACP
NAACP
National Voter Fund to launch a major get-out-the-vote offensive in the 2000 U.S. presidential elections. 10.5 million African Americans
African Americans
cast their ballots in the election. This was one million more than four years before.[31] The NAACP's effort was credited by observers as playing a significant role in Democrat Al Gore's winning several states where the election was close, such as Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and Michigan.[31] Lee Alcorn controversy During the 2000 Presidential election, Lee Alcorn, president of the Dallas
Dallas
NAACP
NAACP
branch, criticized Al Gore's selection of Senator Joe Lieberman for his Vice-Presidential candidate because Lieberman was Jewish. On a gospel talk radio show on station KHVN, Alcorn stated, "If we get a Jew person, then what I'm wondering is, I mean, what is this movement for, you know? Does it have anything to do with the failed peace talks?" … "So I think we need to be very suspicious of any kind of partnerships between the Jews at that kind of level because we know that their interest primarily has to do with money and these kind of things."[32] NAACP
NAACP
President Kweisi Mfume
Kweisi Mfume
immediately suspended Alcorn and condemned his remarks. Mfume stated, "I strongly condemn those remarks. I find them to be repulsive, anti-Semitic, anti- NAACP
NAACP
and anti-American. Mr. Alcorn does not speak for the NAACP, its board, its staff or its membership. We are proud of our long-standing relationship with the Jewish community and I personally will not tolerate statements that run counter to the history and beliefs of the NAACP
NAACP
in that regard."[32] Alcorn, who had been suspended three times in the previous five years for misconduct, subsequently resigned from the NAACP. He founded what he called the Coalition for the Advancement of Civil Rights. Alcorn criticized the NAACP, saying, "I can't support the leadership of the NAACP. Large amounts of money are being given to them by large corporations that I have a problem with."[32] Alcorn also said, "I cannot be bought. For this reason I gladly offer my resignation and my membership to the NAACP
NAACP
because I cannot work under these constraints."[33] Alcorn's remarks were also condemned by the Reverend Jesse Jackson, Jewish groups and George W. Bush's rival Republican presidential campaign. Jackson said he strongly supported Lieberman's addition to the Democratic ticket, saying, "When we live our faith, we live under the law. He [Lieberman] is a firewall of exemplary behavior."[32] Al Sharpton, another prominent African-American leader, said, "The appointment of Mr. Lieberman was to be welcomed as a positive step."[34] The leaders of the American Jewish Congress
American Jewish Congress
praised the NAACP
NAACP
for its quick response, stating that: "It will take more than one bigot like Alcorn to shake the sense of fellowship of American Jews with the NAACP
NAACP
and black America... Our common concerns are too urgent, our history too long, our connection too sturdy, to let anything like this disturb our relationship."[35] George W. Bush

Louisiana NAACP
NAACP
leads Jena 6 March.

In 2004, President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
declined an invitation to speak to the NAACP's national convention.[36] Bush's spokesperson said that Bush had declined the invitation to speak to the NAACP
NAACP
because of harsh statements about him by its leaders.[37] In an interview, Bush said, "I would describe my relationship with the current leadership as basically nonexistent. You've heard the rhetoric and the names they've called me."[37] Bush said he admired some members of the NAACP
NAACP
and would seek to work with them "in other ways."[37] On July 20, 2006, Bush addressed the NAACP
NAACP
national convention. He made a bid for increasing support by African Americans
African Americans
for Republicans, in the midst of a midterm election. He referred to Republican Party support for civil rights.[38][39] Tax exempt status In October 2004 the Internal Revenue Service
Internal Revenue Service
informed the NAACP
NAACP
that it was investigating its tax-exempt status based on chairman Julian Bond's speech at its 2004 Convention, in which he criticized President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
as well as other political figures.[40][41] In general, the US Internal Revenue Code
Internal Revenue Code
prohibits organizations granted tax-exempt status from "directly or indirectly participating in, or intervening in, any political campaign on behalf of (or in opposition to) any candidate for elective public office."[42] The NAACP
NAACP
denounced the investigation as retaliation for its success in increasing the number of African Americans
African Americans
who were voting.[40][43] In August 2006, the IRS investigation concluded with the agency's finding "that the remarks did not violate the group's tax-exempt status."[44] LGBT rights As the American LGBT rights movement gained steam after the Stonewall riots of 1969, the NAACP
NAACP
became increasingly affected by the movement to gain rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. Bond, while chairman of the NAACP, became an outspoken supporter of the rights of gays and lesbians, and stated his support for same-sex marriage. He boycotted the 2004 funeral services for Coretta Scott King, as he said the King children had chosen an anti-gay megachurch. This was in contradiction to their mother's longstanding support for the rights of gay and lesbian people.[45] In a 2005 speech in Richmond, Virginia, Bond said:

African Americans... were the only Americans who were enslaved for two centuries, but we were far from the only Americans suffering discrimination then and now.... Sexual disposition parallels race. I was born this way. I have no choice. I wouldn't change it if I could. Sexuality is unchangeable.[46]

In a 2007 speech on the Martin Luther King Day Celebration at Clayton State University in Morrow, Georgia, Bond said, "If you don't like gay marriage, don't get gay married." His positions have pitted elements of the NAACP
NAACP
against religious groups in the Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
who oppose gay marriage, mostly within the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). The NAACP
NAACP
became increasingly vocal in opposition against state-level constitutional amendments to ban same-sex marriage and related rights. State NAACP
NAACP
leaders such as William J. Barber, II of North Carolina participated actively against North Carolina Amendment 1 in 2012, but it was passed by conservative voters. On May 19, 2012, the NAACP's board of directors formally endorsed same-sex marriage as a civil right, voting 62-2 for the policy in a Miami, Florida quarterly meeting.[47][48] Benjamin Jealous, the organization's president, said of the decision, "Civil marriage is a civil right and a matter of civil law.... The NAACP's support for marriage equality is deeply rooted in the 14th Amendment of the United States Constitution and equal protection of all people." Possibly significant in the NAACP's vote was its concern with the HIV/AIDS crisis in the black community; while AIDS support organizations recommend that people live a monogamous lifestyle, the government did not recognize same-sex relationships as part of this.[49] As a result of this endorsement, Rev. Keith Ratliff Sr. of Des Moines, Iowa resigned from the NAACP
NAACP
board.[50] Travel warning regarding Missouri On June 7, 2017, the NAACP
NAACP
issued a warning for African-American travelers to Missouri:

Individuals traveling in the state are advised to travel with extreme CAUTION. Race, gender and color based crimes have a long history in Missouri. Missouri, home of Lloyd Gaines, Dred Scott and the dubious distinction of the Missouri
Missouri
Compromise and one of the last states to lose its slaveholding past, may not be safe.... [ Missouri
Missouri
Senate Bill] SB 43 legalizes individual discrimination and harassment in Missouri and would prevent individuals from protecting themselves from discrimination, harassment, and retaliation in Missouri. Moreover, over-zealous enforcement of routine traffic violations in Missouri
Missouri
against African Americans
African Americans
has resulted in an increasing trend that shows African Americans
African Americans
are 75% more likely to be stopped than Caucasians.[51] Missouri
Missouri
NAACP
NAACP
Conference president Rod Chapel, Jr., suggested that visitors to Missouri
Missouri
"should have bail money."[52] Geography

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The organization's national initiatives, political lobbying, and publicity efforts were handled by the headquarters staff in New York and Washington DC. Court strategies were developed by the legal team based for many years at Howard University.[citation needed] NAACP
NAACP
local branches have also been important.[citation needed] When, in its early years, the national office launched campaigns against The Birth of a Nation, it was the local branches that carried out the boycotts. When the organization fought to expose and outlaw lynching, the branches carried the campaign into hundreds of communities. And while the Legal Defense Fund developed a federal court strategy of legal challenges to segregation, many branches fought discrimination using state laws and local political opportunities, sometimes winning important victories. Those victories were mostly achieved in Northern and Western states before World War II. When the Southern civil rights movement gained momentum in the 1940s and 1950s, credit went both to the Legal Defense Fund attorneys and to the massive network of local branches that Ella Baker and other organizers had spread across the region.[citation needed] Local organizations built a culture of Black political activism.[4] Current activities Youth Youth sections of the NAACP
NAACP
were established in 1936; there are now more than 600 groups with a total of more than 30,000 individuals in this category. The NAACP
NAACP
Youth & College Division is a branch of the NAACP
NAACP
in which youth are actively involved. The Youth Council is composed of hundreds of state, county, high school and college operations where youth (and college students) volunteer to share their opinions with their peers and address issues that are local and national. Sometimes volunteer work expands to a more international scale. Youth and College Division "The mission of the NAACP
NAACP
Youth & College Division shall be to inform youth of the problems affecting African Americans
African Americans
and other racial and ethnic minorities; to advance the economic, education, social and political status of African Americans
African Americans
and other racial and ethnic minorities and their harmonious cooperation with other peoples; to stimulate an appreciation of the African Diaspora and other people of color's contribution to civilization; and to develop an intelligent, militant effective youth leadership." ACT-SO program Since 1978 the NAACP
NAACP
has sponsored the Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics (ACT-SO) program for high school youth around the United States. The program is designed to recognize and award African-American youth who demonstrate accomplishment in academics, technology, and the arts. Local chapters sponsor competitions in various categories for young people in grades 9–12. Winners of the local competitions are eligible to proceed to the national event at a convention held each summer at locations around the United States. Winners at the national competition receive national recognition, along with cash awards and various prizes.[53] Partner organizations The Emerald Cities Collaborative is a partner organization with the NAACP. Criticism Main article: Resignation of Shirley Sherrod In May 2012 right-wing journalist Andrew Breitbart
Andrew Breitbart
publicized an edited video of a speech at a NAACP-sponsored Georgia event by USDA worker Shirley Sherrod. The mainstream press repeated his words without criticism, and the organization itself added their own words without properly checking what had happened.[54] The NAACP
NAACP
president and CEO has since apologized.[citation needed] The organization has never had a woman president, except on a temporary basis, and there have been calls to name one. Lorraine C. Miller served as interim president after Benjamin Jealous
Benjamin Jealous
stepped down. Maya Wiley
Maya Wiley
was rumored to be in line for the position in 2013, but Cornell William Brooks
Cornell William Brooks
was selected.[55][56] See also

African American portal

African-American Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
(1896–1954) Chicago Better Housing Association The Crisis, official magazine NAACP
NAACP
New Orleans Branch NAACP
NAACP
Theatre Awards NAACP
NAACP
Theatre Award – President's Award Niagara Movement Racial integration

References

^ NAACP
NAACP
is usually pronounced "N double-A C P."

^ naacp.org, August 4, 2011, " NAACP
NAACP
Passes Resolution Supporting Strong Clean Air Act Archived August 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.". Accessed December 8, 2011. ^ Charitynavigator.org ^ Kwame Anthony Appiah, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., eds. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, in articles "Civil Rights Movement" by Patricia Sullivan (pp 441-455) and "National Association for the Advancement of Colored
Colored
People" by Kate Tuttle (pp 1,388-1,391). ISBN 0-465-00071-1. ^ a b " NAACP
NAACP
History and Geography". Mapping American Social Movements Through the 20th Century. University of Washington. Retrieved April 13, 2017.  ^ " NAACP
NAACP
– Our Mission". Archived from the original on June 11, 2008. Retrieved September 5, 2008.  ^ "Contact Us". National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Archived from the original on November 9, 2009. Retrieved November 17, 2009.  ^ NAACP, "Youth and College – Advisor's Manual", p 9. ^ Ian Urbina, "Health Executive Named Chairwoman of N.A.A.C.P.", The New York Times, February 21, 2010, p. 4. ^ Texeira, Erin (March 5, 2007). " NAACP
NAACP
president to step down, cites discord with board". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved March 4, 2007.  ^ "The NAACP
NAACP
Records". Information Bulletin, March 2010. Library of Congress. Retrieved January 4, 2017. ^ Dempsey, Beth (November 7, 2011). " NAACP
NAACP
Archives Go Digital". ProQuest. Retrieved January 4, 2017.  ^ Laguardia, Cheryl; Swoger, Bonnie J. M. (June 5, 2014). "ProQuest's NAACP
NAACP
Papers, History Vault & Treehouse". Reference eReviews. Library Journal. Retrieved January 4, 2017. ^ a b Goldman, Mark (2007). City on the edge : Buffalo, New York. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. pp. 19–22. ISBN 9781591024576.  ^ " Niagara Movement
Niagara Movement
First Annual Meeting". Retrieved November 27, 2012.  ^ a b "The story of the Niagara Movement
Niagara Movement
and the N.A.A.C.P."  ^ "Niagara Movement". W.E.B. DuBois Papers, Special
Special
Collections and University Archives W.E.B Du Bois Library, UMass, Amherst, Massachusetts.  ^ a b " NAACP
NAACP
Timeline". National Association for the Advancement of Colored
Colored
People. Archived from the original on June 17, 2010.  ^ Simkin, John. " William English Walling
William English Walling
biography". Spartacus Educational. Archived from the original on January 4, 2014.  ^ Kathryn Kish Sklar, "Florence Kelley", in Rima Lunin Schultz and Adele Hast (eds), Women Building Chicago, 1790–1990: A Biographical Dictionary, Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2001, p. 463. ^ Library of Congress. " NAACP
NAACP
Founder Charles Edward Russell". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on May 24, 2013.  ^ Marlin, John Tepper. "NAACP, Happy 100th Birthday". The Huffington Post. Retrieved March 12, 2017.  ^ " NAACP
NAACP
– How NAACP
NAACP
Began". Archived from the original on January 22, 2009.  ^ a b Howard Sachar. "Working to Extend America's Freedoms: Jewish involvement in the Civil Rights movement". Excerpt from A History of Jews in America, published by Vintage Books. MyJewishLearning.com. Archived from the original on March 1, 2009. Retrieved February 4, 2009.  ^ Kenneth Robert Janken, Walter White: Mr. NAACP, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2006, p.49 ^ Kenneth Robert Janken, Walter White: Mr. NAACP, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2006, p.2 and 42 ^ Benjamin L. Hooks, "Birth and Separation of the NAACP
NAACP
Legal Defense and Educational Fund," Crisis 1979 86(6): 218-220. 0011-1422 ^ Richard L. Pacelle, Jr; Brett W. Curry; Bryan W. Marshall (2011). Decision Making by the Modern Supreme Court. Cambridge University Press. p. 111.  ^ James T. Patterson and William W. Freehling, Brown v. Board of Education: A civil rights milestone and its troubled legacy (2001). ^ Randall Kennedy, "Martin Luther King's constitution: a legal history of the Montgomery bus boycott." Yale Law Journal 98.6 (1989): 999-1067. ^ Judith Bloom Fradin, and Dennis B. Fradin, The power of one: Daisy Bates and the Little Rock Nine
Little Rock Nine
(Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2004). ^ a b c Marable, Manning (August 2002). "The NAACP's 93rd Convention: An Assessment (archived copy)" (PDF). Along the Color Line. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 6, 2007.  ^ a b c d " NAACP
NAACP
Leader Quits Under Fire". CBS News. August 9, 2000.  ^ "Bush campaign denounces Dallas
Dallas
NAACP
NAACP
comments on Lieberman". CNN. August 9, 2000.  ^ Duncan Campbell (August 10, 2000). "Black leader suspended for anti-semitic Lieberman slur". London: The Guardian.  ^ AJCongress on Statement by NAACP
NAACP
Chapter Director on Lieberman, American Jewish Congress
American Jewish Congress
(AJC), August 9, 2000. ^ "Editorial: No mutual respect: Mr. Bush unwisely forgoes NAACP meeting". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. July 17, 2004.  ^ a b c Allen, Mike (July 10, 2004). "Bush Criticizes NAACP's Leadership". The Washington Post. p. A05.  ^ "President Bush addresses the National Association for the Advancement of Colored
Colored
People's (NAACP) national convention" (video). FORA.tv. July 20, 2006.  ^ Bush invokes civil rights in NAACP
NAACP
speech, Associated Press (reprinted by MSNBC.com), July 20, 2006. (retrieved on October 14, 2008). ^ a b Janofsky, Michael (October 29, 2004). "Citing July Speech, I.R.S. Decides to Review N.A.A.C.P." The New York Times.  ^ " NAACP
NAACP
chairman calls for Bush's ouster". CNN. July 13, 2004.  ^ "Election Year Activities and the Prohibition on Political Campaign Intervention for Section 501(c)(3) Organizations". Internal Revenue Service. February 2006. Archived from the original on March 5, 2011.  ^ Anderson, Makebra M (February 8, 2005). " NAACP
NAACP
says IRS has no "Legitimate" Claim". National Newspaper Publishers Association. Amsterdam News.  ^ Fears, Darryl (September 1, 2006). "IRS Ends 2-Year Probe Of NAACP's Tax Status". The Washington Post.  ^ Bronner, Angela (September 25, 2006). "BV Q&A With Julian Bond; Why This Civil Rights Icon Embraces Gay Rights". Blackvoices.com. Archived from the original on May 4, 2010. Retrieved April 13, 2017.  ^ " NAACP
NAACP
chair says 'gay rights are civil rights'". Washington Blade. April 8, 2004. Archived from the original on March 21, 2006. Retrieved September 24, 2009.  ^ Michael Barbaro (May 19, 2012). "N.A.A.C.P. Endorses Same-Sex Marriage". The Caucus. The New York Times.  ^ " NAACP
NAACP
Passes Resolution in Support of Marriage Equality". NAACP. May 19, 2012.  ^ Castellanos, Dalina (May 19, 2012). " NAACP
NAACP
endorses same-sex marriage, says it's a civil right". Los Angeles Times.  ^ After NAACP's Gay Marriage Stance, Discord And Discussion. NPR (June 8, 2012). Retrieved on 2014-05-24. ^ http://www.monaacp.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/170605-NAACP-MO-Travel-Advisory.pdf. The following linguistic corrections have been made: loose > lose, over zealous > over-zealous, Dredd > Dred, African-Americans > African Americans.− ^ Nancy Coleman, " NAACP
NAACP
issues its first statewide travel advisory, for Missouri," CNN, August 3, 2017, http://www.cnn.com/2017/08/02/us/naacp-missouri-travel-advisory-trnd/index.html. ^ " NAACP
NAACP
Proudly Announces 30th Anniversary ACT-SO Medalists". National Association for the Advancement of Colored
Colored
People. Archived from the original on February 4, 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2009.  ^ Rich, Frank (May 28, 2012). "Post-Racial Farce". New York.  ^ "Amid Tumult, N.A.A.C.P. Elects 18th Leader". The New York Times. May 17, 2014.  ^ "Who's going to be the next president of the NAACP?". The Washington Post. September 20, 2013. 

Further reading

Alexander, Shawn Leigh. An Army of Lions: The Civil Rights Struggle Before the NAACP. (University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Press, 2012). Berg, Manfred. The Ticket to Freedom: The NAACP
NAACP
and the Struggle for Black Political Integration (Univ. Press of Florida. 2007). Browne-Marshall, Gloria J. The Voting Rights War: The NAACP
NAACP
and the Ongoing Struggle for Justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2016. Bynum, Thomas L. NAACP: Youth and the Fight for Black Freedom, 1936–1965. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 2013. Carle, Susan D. Defining the Struggle: National Racial Justice Organizing, 1880–1915 (Oxford UP, 2013). 404pp. focus on NAACP. Dalfiume, Richard. "The Forgotten Years of the Negro Revolution," Journal of American History
Journal of American History
55 (June 1969): 99-100. fulltext in JSTOR Fleming, Cynthia Griggs. In the Shadow of Selma: The Continuing Struggle for Civil Rights in the Rural South. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2004. Goings, Kenneth W. The NAACP
NAACP
Comes of Age: The Defeat of Judge John J. Parker. (1990). Hughes, Langston. Fight for Freedom: The Story of the NAACP. (1962) Janken, Kenneth Robert. White: The Biography of Walter White, Mr. NAACP. New York: The New Press, 2003. Jonas, Gilbert S. Freedom's Sword: The NAACP
NAACP
and the Struggle against Racism in America, 1909–1969. London: Routledge, 2005. Kellogg, Charles Flint. NAACP: A History of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored
Colored
People. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1967. Lewis, David Levering. W.E.B. DuBois. In Two Volumes. (1994, 2001). Mosnier, L. Joseph. Crafting Law in the Second Reconstruction: Julius Chambers, the NAACP
NAACP
Legal Defense Fund, and Title VII. University of North Carolina, 2005. Reed, Christopher Robert. The Chicago NAACP
NAACP
and the Rise of Black Professional Leadership, 1910–1966. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1997. Ring, Natalie J. "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" in Encyclopedia of American Studies, ed. Simon J. Bronner (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2015), online. Ross, Barbara Joyce. J. E. Spingarn and the Rise of the NAACP, 1911–1939. (1972) Ryan, Yvonne. Roy Wilkins: The Quiet Revolutionary and the NAACP. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 2014. Sartain, Lee. Borders of Equality: The NAACP
NAACP
and the Baltimore
Baltimore
Civil Rights Struggle, 1914–1970. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2013. Sartain, Lee. Invisible Activists: Women of the Louisiana NAACP
NAACP
and the Struggle for Civil Rights, 1915–1945. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press. Press 2007. St. James, Warren D. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored
Colored
People: A Case Study in Pressure Groups. (1958) Schneider, Mark Robert. We Return Fighting: The Civil Rights Movement in the Jazz Age. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press, 2001. Sullivan, Patricia. Lift Every Voice: The NAACP
NAACP
and the Making of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: The New Press, 2010. Thompson, Christina M. (2010). A More Perfect Union: Race, Rights, and Rhetoric in the NAACP
NAACP
and the White Citizens' Council. (M.A. thesis) Simmons College. OCLC 754658741.  Topping, Simon; "'Supporting Our Friends and Defeating Our Enemies': Militancy and Nonpartisanship in the NAACP, 1936–1948," Journal of African American History, Vol. 89, 2004 in JSTOR Tushnet, Mark V. The NAACP's Legal Strategy against Segregated Education, 1925–1950. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1987. Wedin, Carolyn. Inheritors of the Spirit: Mary White Ovington
Mary White Ovington
and the Founding of the NAACP. Wiley 1998. Woodley, Jenny. Art for Equality: The NAACP's Cultural Campaign for Civil Rights. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 2014. Verney, Kevern and Lee Sartain (eds.), Long Is the Way and Hard: One Hundred Years of the NAACP. (2009). Zangrando, Robert. The NAACP
NAACP
Crusade Against Lynching, 1909–1950. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1980.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to NAACP.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Barack Obama's Remarks at NAACP
NAACP
centennial

Official website NAACP
NAACP
History and Geography Map of NAACP
NAACP
branches One Person, One Vote project Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
Veterans, crmvet.org Annual ACT-SO Contest, naacp-Los Angeles.org Official site of the Brooklyn, New York Branch, brooklynnaacp.org NAACP
NAACP
in Georgia, georgiaencyclopedia.org President Obama NAACP
NAACP
Speech: "Your Destiny Is In Your Hands … No Excuses" – video by The Huffington Post NAACP
NAACP
Turns 100: The History and Future of the Nation's Oldest and Largest Civil Rights Organization, democracywow.org video FBI file on the NAACP

Archives

Overview of NAACP
NAACP
records at the Library of Congress, the official repository of the national organization NAACP
NAACP
branches database, including membership numbers and officer names. From the Mapping American Social Movements project at the University of Washington. Niagara Movement
Niagara Movement
Du Bois Papers, Special
Special
Collections and University Archives, Umass Amherst National Association for the Advancement of Colored
Colored
People, Region 1 Photograph Collection, ca. 1940–1982 at The Bancroft Library National Association for the Advancement of Colored
Colored
People, Region I, Records, 1942–1986 (bulk 1945–1977) at The Bancroft Library National Association for the Advancement of Colored
Colored
People, Vancouver Branch records. 1914–1967. 2.10 cubic feet (5 boxes). At the Labor Archives of Washington, University of Washington
University of Washington
Libraries Special Collections NAACP
NAACP
Convention in Atlanta, Civil Rights Digital Library.

v t e

National Association for the Advancement of Colored
Colored
People

Leaders

Presidents/CEOs (executive secretaries 1910–77; executive directors 1977–96)

Frances Blascoer (1910–11) Mary White Ovington
Mary White Ovington
(1911–12) Mary Childs Nerney (1912–16) Mary White Ovington
Mary White Ovington
(1916) Royall Freeman Nash (1916–17) James Weldon Johnson
James Weldon Johnson
(1917–18) John R. Shillady (1918–20) James Weldon Johnson
James Weldon Johnson
(1920–31) Walter Francis White
Walter Francis White
(1931–55) Roy Wilkins
Roy Wilkins
(1955–77) Benjamin Hooks (1977–92) Benjamin Chavis
Benjamin Chavis
(1993–94) Earl Shinhoster (1994–96) Kweisi Mfume
Kweisi Mfume
(1996–2004) Dennis Courtland Hayes (2005) Bruce S. Gordon (2005–7) Dennis Courtland Hayes (2007–8) Benjamin Jealous
Benjamin Jealous
(2008–13) Lorraine Miller
Lorraine Miller
(interim, 2013–2014) Cornell William Brooks
Cornell William Brooks
(2014–2017)

Elected presidents (1909–96, abolished)

Moorfield Storey
Moorfield Storey
(1909–29) Joel Elias Spingarn
Joel Elias Spingarn
(1930–39) Arthur B. Spingarn (1940–65) Kivie Kaplan (1966–75) William Montague Cobb
William Montague Cobb
(1976–82) James Kemp (1983) Enolia McMillan
Enolia McMillan
(1984–90) Hazel N. Dukes (1990–92) Rupert Richardson (1992–96)

Chairpersons

William English Walling
William English Walling
(1910–11) Oswald Garrison Villard
Oswald Garrison Villard
(1911–14) Joel Elias Spingarn
Joel Elias Spingarn
(1914–19) Mary White Ovington
Mary White Ovington
(1919–34) Louis T. Wright
Louis T. Wright
(1934–53) Channing Heggie Tobias
Channing Heggie Tobias
(1953–60) Robert C. Weaver
Robert C. Weaver
(1960–61) Stephen Gill Spottswood
Stephen Gill Spottswood
(1961–75) Margaret Bush Wilson
Margaret Bush Wilson
(1975–83) Kelly Alexander Sr (1983–84) William Gibson (1985–95) Myrlie Evers-Williams
Myrlie Evers-Williams
(1995–98) Julian Bond
Julian Bond
(1998–2010) Roslyn Brock (2010–present)

See also

NAACP
NAACP
Theatre Awards NAACP
NAACP
Image Awards NAACP
NAACP
Legal Defense and Educational Fund NAACP
NAACP
Youth Council Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics Spingarn Medal Niagara Movement National Negro Committee The Crisis

v t e

Civil rights
Civil rights
movement

Notable events (timeline)

Prior to 1954

Murder of Harry and Harriette Moore

1954–1959

Brown v. Board of Education

Bolling v. Sharpe Briggs v. Elliott Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County Gebhart v. Belton

White America, Inc. Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company Emmett Till Montgomery bus boycott

Browder v. Gayle

Tallahassee bus boycott Mansfield school desegregation 1957 Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom

"Give Us the Ballot"

Royal Ice Cream sit-in Little Rock Nine

National Guard blockade

Civil Rights Act of 1957 Kissing Case Biloxi wade-ins

1960–1963

Greensboro sit-ins Nashville sit-ins Sit-in movement Civil Rights Act of 1960 Gomillion v. Lightfoot Boynton v. Virginia Rock Hill sit-ins Robert F. Kennedy's Law Day Address Freedom Rides

attacks

Garner v. Louisiana Albany Movement University of Chicago sit-ins "Second Emancipation Proclamation" Meredith enrollment, Ole Miss riot "Segregation now, segregation forever"

Stand in the Schoolhouse Door

1963 Birmingham campaign

Letter from Birmingham Jail Children's Crusade Birmingham riot 16th Street Baptist Church bombing

John F. Kennedy's Report to the American People on Civil Rights March on Washington

"I Have a Dream"

St. Augustine movement

1964–1968

Twenty-fourth Amendment Bloody Tuesday Freedom Summer

workers' murders

Civil Rights Act of 1964 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches

"How Long, Not Long"

Voting Rights Act of 1965 Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections March Against Fear White House
White House
Conference on Civil Rights Chicago Freedom Movement/Chicago open housing movement Memphis sanitation strike King assassination

funeral riots

Poor People's Campaign Civil Rights Act of 1968 Green v. County School Board of New Kent County

Activist groups

Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights Atlanta Student Movement Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Congress of Racial Equality
Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE) Committee on Appeal for Human Rights Council for United Civil Rights Leadership Dallas
Dallas
County Voters League Deacons for Defense and Justice Georgia Council on Human Relations Highlander Folk School Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights Montgomery Improvement Association Nashville Student Movement NAACP

Youth Council

Northern Student Movement National Council of Negro Women National Urban League Operation Breadbasket Regional Council of Negro Leadership Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC) Southern Regional Council Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
(SNCC) The Freedom Singers Wednesdays in Mississippi Women's Political Council

Activists

Ralph Abernathy Victoria Gray Adams Zev Aelony Mathew Ahmann William G. Anderson Gwendolyn Armstrong Arnold Aronson Ella Baker Marion Barry Daisy Bates Harry Belafonte James Bevel Claude Black Gloria Blackwell Randolph Blackwell Unita Blackwell Ezell Blair Jr. Joanne Bland Julian Bond Joseph E. Boone William Holmes Borders Amelia Boynton Raylawni Branch Ruby Bridges Aurelia Browder H. Rap Brown Guy Carawan Stokely Carmichael Johnnie Carr James Chaney J. L. Chestnut Colia Lafayette Clark Ramsey Clark Septima Clark Xernona Clayton Eldridge Cleaver Kathleen Cleaver Charles E. Cobb Jr. Annie Lee Cooper Dorothy Cotton Claudette Colvin Vernon Dahmer Jonathan Daniels Joseph DeLaine Dave Dennis Annie Devine Patricia Stephens Due Joseph Ellwanger Charles Evers Medgar Evers Myrlie Evers-Williams Chuck Fager James Farmer Walter E. Fauntroy James Forman Marie Foster Golden Frinks Andrew Goodman Fred Gray Jack Greenberg Dick Gregory Lawrence Guyot Prathia Hall Fannie Lou Hamer William E. Harbour Vincent Harding Dorothy Height Lola Hendricks Aaron Henry Oliver Hill Donald L. Hollowell James Hood Myles Horton Zilphia Horton T. R. M. Howard Ruby Hurley Jesse Jackson Jimmie Lee Jackson Richie Jean Jackson T. J. Jemison Esau Jenkins Barbara Rose Johns Vernon Johns Frank Minis Johnson Clarence Jones J. Charles Jones Matthew Jones Vernon Jordan Tom Kahn Clyde Kennard A. D. King C.B. King Coretta Scott King Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King Sr. Bernard Lafayette James Lawson Bernard Lee Sanford R. Leigh Jim Letherer Stanley Levison John Lewis Viola Liuzzo Z. Alexander Looby Joseph Lowery Clara Luper Malcolm X Mae Mallory Vivian Malone Thurgood Marshall Benjamin Mays Franklin McCain Charles McDew Ralph McGill Floyd McKissick Joseph McNeil James Meredith William Ming Jack Minnis Amzie Moore Douglas E. Moore Harriette Moore Harry T. Moore William Lewis Moore Irene Morgan Bob Moses William Moyer Elijah Muhammad Diane Nash Charles Neblett Edgar Nixon Jack O'Dell James Orange Rosa Parks James Peck Charles Person Homer Plessy Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Fay Bellamy Powell Al Raby Lincoln Ragsdale A. Philip Randolph George Raymond Jr. Bernice Johnson Reagon Cordell Reagon James Reeb Frederick D. Reese Gloria Richardson David Richmond Bernice Robinson Jo Ann Robinson Bayard Rustin Bernie Sanders Michael Schwerner Cleveland Sellers Charles Sherrod Alexander D. Shimkin Fred Shuttlesworth Modjeska Monteith Simkins Glenn E. Smiley A. Maceo Smith Kelly Miller Smith Mary Louise Smith Maxine Smith Ruby Doris Smith-Robinson Charles Kenzie Steele Hank Thomas Dorothy Tillman A. P. Tureaud Hartman Turnbow Albert Turner C. T. Vivian Wyatt Tee Walker Hollis Watkins Walter Francis White Roy Wilkins Hosea Williams Kale Williams Robert F. Williams Andrew Young Whitney Young Sammy Younge Jr. James Zwerg

Influences

Nonviolence

Padayatra

Sermon on the Mount Mahatma Gandhi

Ahimsa Satyagraha

The Kingdom of God Is Within You Frederick Douglass W. E. B. Du Bois Mary McLeod Bethune

Related

Jim Crow
Jim Crow
laws Plessy v. Ferguson

Separate but equal

Buchanan v. Warley Hocutt v. Wilson Sweatt v. Painter Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States Katzenbach v. McClung Loving v. Virginia Fifth Circuit Four Brown Chapel Holt Street Baptist Church Edmund Pettus Bridge March on Washington Movement African-American churches attacked Journey of Reconciliation Freedom Songs

"Kumbaya" "Keep Your Eyes on the Prize" "Oh, Freedom" "This Little Light of Mine" "We Shall Not Be Moved" "We Shall Overcome"

Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam

"Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence"

Watts riots Voter Education Project 1960s counterculture In popular culture

King Memorial Birmingham Civil Rights National Monument Freedom Riders
Freedom Riders
National Monument Civil Rights Memorial

Noted historians

Taylor Branch Clayborne Carson John Dittmer Michael Eric Dyson Chuck Fager Adam Fairclough David Garrow David Halberstam Vincent Harding Steven F. Lawson Doug McAdam Diane McWhorter Charles M. Payne Timothy Tyson Akinyele Umoja Movement photographers

v t e

African American topics

History

Atlantic slave trade Maafa Slavery in the United States Partus sequitur ventrem Free negro Reconstruction era Military history of African Americans Jim Crow
Jim Crow
laws Nadir of American race relations Redlining Great Migration Civil rights movement
Civil rights movement
1865–1896 / 1896–1954 / 1954–68 Black Power
Black Power
movement Second Great Migration Afrocentrism New Great Migration Post–civil rights era Inauguration of Barack Obama 2009 / Inauguration of Barack Obama 2013 Black Lives Matter

Culture

Art African-American names Afrofuturism Black mecca Dance Film Juneteenth Kwanzaa Literature Music Musical theater Neighborhoods Sexual orientation Soul food

Education, science and technology

Black schools Black colleges and universities Museums African-American studies Inventors and scientists Women

in computer science in medicine in STEM fields

Religion

Black church Black theology Doctrine of Father Divine American Society of Muslims Nation of Islam Black Hebrew Israelites

Political movements

Pan-Africanism Self-determination

Nationalism

Black Power Black fist Anarchism Capitalism Conservatism Populism Leftism Garveyism Back-to-Africa movement

Civic and economic groups

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
(NAACP) Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC) Congress of Racial Equality
Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE) Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
(SNCC) Black Panther Party National Urban League
National Urban League
(NUL) Rights organizations Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH) Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
College Fund United Negro College Fund
United Negro College Fund
(UNCF) National Black Chamber of Commerce (NBCC) National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) National Council of Negro Women
National Council of Negro Women
(NCNW)

Sports

Negro league baseball

Baseball color line

Black players in professional American football African Americans
African Americans
in the Canadian Football League Black players in ice hockey

Athletic associations and conferences

Central (CIAA) Southern (SIAC) Mid-Eastern (MEAC) Southwestern (SWAC)

Ethnic subdivisions

Black Indians Gullah Fula Igbo Louisiana Creole (of color) Melungeon Yoruba

Demographics

Neighborhoods

list

U.S. cities with large populations

2000 majorities 2010 majorities

Metropolitan areas Black Belt

Languages

English

American English African-American English

Gullah Louisiana Creole French

By state/city

Alabama Florida Georgia (Atlanta) Illinois (Chicago) Iowa (Davenport) Louisiana Maryland Massachusetts (Boston) Michigan
Michigan
(Detroit) Mississippi Nebraska (Omaha) New York

New York City

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(Philadelphia) Puerto Rico Tennessee Texas
Texas
(Houston)

Diaspora

Africa

Gambia Ghana Liberia Sierra Leone Back-to-Africa movement

Americas

Caribbean history Canada

Nova Scotia

Dominican Republic Haiti Mexico Trinidad and Tobago

Other

France Israel

Lists

African Americans

visual artists Republicans US senators

African-American firsts

mayors US state firsts

Neighborhoods Landmark African-American legislation African American-related articles Topics related to the African diaspora

Category Portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 225491580 LCCN: n80049704 ISNI: 0000 0001 2019 0436 GND: 1047543-6 SUDOC: 028031407 BNF: cb11994871d (data) NLA: 35373774

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