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NāMARūPA is a dvandva compound in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Pali
Pali
meaning "name (NāMA) and form (RūPA)".

CONTENTS

* 1 Nāmarūpa in Hinduism

* 2 Nāmarūpa in Buddhism
Buddhism

* 2.1 Psychobio constituents * 2.2 Empty of self * 2.3 Part of the cycle of suffering

* 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 Sources

NāMARūPA IN HINDUISM

The term _nāmarūpa_ is used in Hindu
Hindu
thought, _nāma_ describing the spiritual or essential properties of an object or being, and _rūpa_ the physical presence that it manifests. These terms are used similarly to the way that 'essence ' and 'accident ' are used in Catholic
Catholic
theology to describe transubstantiation . The distinction between nāma and rūpa in Hindu
Hindu
thought explains the ability of spiritual powers to manifest through inadequate or inanimate vessels - as observed in possession and oracular phenomena, as well as in the presence of the divine in images that are worshiped through pūja .

Nāma Rupatmak Vishva is the Vedanta (a school of Sanatana Dharma / Hinduism ) term for the manifest Universe, viz. The World as we know it. Since every object in this World has a Nāma and Rupa,the World is called Nāma Rupatmak Vishva. The Paramātma (or Creator) is not manifest in this Nāma Rupatmak Vishva but is realized by a Sādhaka(student) by means of Bhakti (devotion), Karma (duty), Jnana (knowledge), Yoga
Yoga
(Union, a Hindu
Hindu
school), or a combination of all of these methodologies. See also: Hiranyagarbha

NāMARūPA IN BUDDHISM

_THE 12 NIDāNAS:_

IGNORANCE

FORMATIONS

CONSCIOUSNESS

NAME & FORM

SIX SENSE BASES

CONTACT

FEELING

CRAVING

CLINGING

BECOMING

BIRTH

OLD AGE as _nāmarūpa_, they designate an individual being. Namarupa are also referred to as the five skandhas .

PSYCHOBIO CONSTITUENTS

In the Pali Canon , the Buddha describes _nāmarūpa_ in this manner (English on left, Pali
Pali
on right):

"And what is name-&-form? Feeling , perception , intention, contact , & attention: This is called name. The four great elements , and the form dependent on the four great elements: This is called form . This name & this form are, , called name- text-decoration: none">Katamañca bhikkhave nāmarūpaṃ? Vedanā saññā cetanā phasso manasikāro, idaṃ vuccati nāmaṃ. Cattāro ca mahābhūtā , catunnaṃ ca mahābhūtānaṃ upādāyarūpaṃ, idaṃ vuccati rūpa ṃ. Iti idañca nāmaṃ, idañca rūpaṃ, idaṃ vuccati bhikkhave, nāmarūpaṃ._

Elsewhere in the Pali Canon , _nāmarūpa_ is used synonymously with the five aggregates .

EMPTY OF SELF

In keeping with the doctrine of anātman /anatta , "the absence of an (enduring, essential) self", NāMA and RūPA are held to be constantly in a state of flux, with only the continuity of experience (itself a product of dependent origination) providing an experience of any sort of conventional 'self'.

PART OF THE CYCLE OF SUFFERING

Nāmarūpa is the fourth of the Twelve Nidānas , preceded by consciousness (Pali: _viññāna _; Skt.: _vijñana_) and followed by the six sense bases (Pali: _saḷāyatana _; Skt: _ṣaḍāyatana_). Thus, in the Sutta Nipata , the Buddha explains to the Ven. Ajita how samsaric rebirth ceases: ...name & form, dear sir: Tell me, when asked this, where are they brought to a halt? This question you've asked, Ajita, I'll answer it for you — where name Pali
Pali
: _paticca-samuppāda_; English: dependent arising) * Skandha
Skandha
( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
; Pali
Pali
: _khandha_; English: aggregates)

NOTES

* ^ For example, Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 350, entry for "Nāma" (retrieved 2007-06-20), states: "nāma as metaphysical term is opposed to rūpa, text-decoration: none">arūpino khandhā, viz. vedanā saññā sankhāra viññāṇa...). These as the noëtic principle combd with the material principle make up the individual as it is distinguished by 'name text-decoration: none">Vibhańgasuttaṃ_. * ^ Rhys Davids & Stede, _op cit_. * ^ Thanissaro (1994). In explaining this specific exchange between Ven. Ajita and the Buddha, Ireland (1983, 1994), _n_. 2 states: This question and answer refers to the doctrine of dependent-arising (_paticca-samuppada _). Where rebirth-consciousness (_pati-sandhi-vinnana _) does not arise there is no establishment of an individual (mind-and-body, _namarupa_) in a realm of existence, nor the consequent appearance of old age and death and the other sufferings inherent in life.

SOURCES

* Ireland, John D. (trans.) (1983). _Ajita-manava-puccha: Ajita's Questions_ (Sn 5.1), from _The Discourse Collection: Selected Texts from the Sutta Nipata_ (WH 82). Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society . Retrieved 2007-06-20 from "Access to Insight" (1994) at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/kn/snp/snp.5.01.irel.html. * Rhys Davids , T.W. " rowspan="1">Preceded by Vijñāna TWELVE NIDāNAS NāMARūPA Succeeded by Ṣaḍāyatana

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