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The NāLAṭIYāR (Tamil : நாலடியார்) is a Tamil poetic work of didactic nature belonging to the Patiṉeṇkīḻkaṇakku anthology of Tamil literature . This belongs to the post Sangam period corresponding to between 100 – 500 CE. Nālaṭiyār contains 400 poems, each containing four lines. Every poem deals with morals and ethics, extolling righteous behaviour.

There is an old Tamil proverb praising the Nālaṭiyār that says " Nālaṭiyār and the Tirukkuṛaḷ are very good in expressing human thoughts just as the twigs of the banyan and the acacia trees are good in maintaining the teeth."

ஆலும் வேலும் பல்லுக்குறுதி; நாலும் இரண்டும் சொல்லுக்குறுதி. (Aalum vaelum pallukkuruthi; naalum irandum sollukkuruthi) Literal translation: "Banyan and acacia maintain oral health; Four and Two maintain moral health." (Here "Four" and "Two" refer to the quatrains and couplets of Nālaṭiyār and Tirukkuṛaḷ, respectively.)

CONTENTS

* 1 Didactic nature * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 References

DIDACTIC NATURE

Nālaṭiyār was composed by Jain monks . It is divided into three sections, the first section focusing on the importance of virtuous life, second section on the governance and management of wealth, and the third smaller section on the pleasures.

Nālaṭiyār is unique in the employment of similes, which help to teach the moral codes using simple examples from daily life. For example, one of the poems states that just like a calf placed in front of a vast herd of cows seeks out its mother unerringly and attaches itself, the deeds of the past home in on the doer and exact their price unfailingly.

SEE ALSO

* Tamil Jain

NOTES

* ^ Sheldon Pollock 2003 , p. 293.

REFERENCES

* Sheldon Pollock , ed. (2003), Literary Cultures in History: Reconstructions from South Asia, University of California Press , ISBN 0-520-22821-9 * Mudaliyar, Singaravelu A., Apithana Cintamani, An encyclopaedia of Tamil Literature, (1931) - Reprinted by Asian Educational Services, New Delhi (1983) * * *

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JAIN LITERATURE

FOURTEEN PURVAS (THE PRIOR KNOWLEDGE – CONSIDERED TOTALLY LOST)

* ŚVēTāMBARA CANONICAL TEXTS

ANGāGAMA

* Acharanga Sutra * Sutrakritanga * Sthananga Sutra * Samavayanga Sutra * Vyākhyāprajñapti * Jnatrdharmakathah * Upasakadasah * Antakrddaasah * Anuttaraupapātikadaśāh * Prasnavyakaranani * Vipakasruta * Drstivada (now extinct)

UPANGA āGAMAS

* Aupapatika * Rājapraśnīya * Jīvājīvābhigama * Prajñāpana * Sūryaprajñapti * Jambūdvīpaprajñapti * Candraprajñapti * Nirayārvalī * Kalpāvatamsikāh * Puspikāh * Puspacūlikāh * Vrasnidaśāh

CHEDASūTRA

* Ācāradaśāh * Brhatkalpa * Vyavahāra * Nishitha * Mahāniśītha * Jītakalpa * Kalpa Sūtra

MūLASūTRA

* Daśavaikālika * Uttaradhyayana * Āvaśyaka * Pindaniryukyti

PRAKīRNAKA SūTRA

* Catuhśarana * Āturapratyākhyanā * Bhaktaparijñā * Samstāraka * Tandulavaicarika * Candravedhyāka * Devendrastava * Ganividyā * Mahāpratyākhyanā * Vīrastava

CūLIKASūTRA

* Nandī-sūtra * Anuyogadvāra-sūtra

* DIGAMBARA TEXTS

AGAMAS

* Shatkhandagama * Kasayapahuda

PRATHAM -āNUYOGA

* Mahapurana

* Ādi purāṇa * Uttarapurana

* Harivamsa Purana

CARNāNUYOGA

* Mulachara * Trivarnācāra * Tattvartha Sutra (Note1) * Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra * Puruşārthasiddhyupāya

KARNáNUYOGA

* Gommatsāra * Sūryaprajñapti * Jayadhavalātikā * Tiloya Panatti * Lokavibhaga

DRAVYāNUYOGA

* Niyamasara * Pancastikayasara * Pravachanasara * Samayasāra * Aptamimamsa * Dravyasamgraha * Jnanarnava

COMMENTARY

* Sarvārthasiddhi (commentary on Tattvārthasūtra)

OTHERS

* Siribhoovalaya * Uvasagharam Stotra * Bhaktamara Stotra * Jinvani * Namokar Mantra

Tattvartha Sutra is accepted by both Digambara and Śvetāmbara as their texts although Śvetāmbaras do not include it under canonical texts.

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Jainism topics

GODS

* Tirthankara * Ganadhara * Arihant

PHILOSOPHY

* Ethics

* Ahimsa

* Epistemology

* Kevala Jñāna

* Jaina logic

* Anekāntavāda

* Jain cosmology

* Siddhashila * Naraka * Heavenly beings

* Karma

* Types * Causes

* Gunasthana

* Dravya

* Jīva

* Ajiva

* Pudgala * Dharma

* Tattva

* Asrava * Bandha * Samvara * Nirjara * Mokṣa

* Death * Saṃsāra * Ratnatraya * Kashaya

BRANCHES

DIGAMBARA

* Mula Sangha

* Balatkara Gana * Kashtha Sangha

* Taran Panth * Bispanthi * Terapanth * Yapaniya

ŚVēTāMBARA

* Murtipujaka

* Gaccha

* Kharatara * Tapa * Tristutik

* Sthānakavāsī * Terapanth

PRACTICES

* Sallekhana

* Meditation

* Sāmāyika

* Monasticism * Vegetarianism * Fasting * Rituals

* Festivals

* Paryushana * Kshamavani * Mahamastakabhisheka

* Upadhan * Tapas * Pratikramana

LITERATURE

* Agama

* Shatkhandagama * Kasayapahuda

* Mantra

* Namokar Mantra * Bhaktamara Stotra

* Tattvartha Sutra * Samayasāra * Aptamimamsa * Kalpa Sūtra

SYMBOLS

* Jain flag * Siddhachakra

* Ashtamangala

* Shrivatsa * Nandavarta

* Auspicious dreams * Swastika

ASCETICS

* Digambara monk * Aryika * Kshullak * Pattavali * Acharya

SCHOLARS

* Nalini Balbir * Colette Caillat * Chandabai * John E. Cort * Paul Dundas * Virchand Gandhi * Hermann Jacobi * Champat Rai Jain * Padmanabh Jaini * Jeffery D. Long * Hampa Nagarajaiah * Claudia Pastorino * Bal Patil * Jinendra Varni * Robert J. Zydenbos

COMMUNITY

* Śrāvaka * Sarak * Tamil

* Organisations

* Digambar Jain Mahasabha * Vishwa Jain Sangathan * JAINA

JAINISM IN

INDIA

* Bundelkhand * Delhi * Goa * Gujarat * Haryana

* Karnataka

* North

* Kerala

* Maharashtra

* Mumbai

* Rajasthan * Uttar Pradesh

OVERSEAS

* Canada * Europe * United States * Japan * Singapore * Hong Kong * Pakistan * Belgium * Africa * Southeast Asia * Australia

JAINISM AND

* Buddhism * Hinduism * Islam * Sikhism * Non-creationism

DYNASTIES AND EMPIRES

* Ikshvaku * Maurya * Kalinga * Kadamba * Ganga * Chalukya * Rashtrakuta * Hoysala * Pandayan

RELATED

* History

* Timeline

* Pañca-Parameṣṭhi * Pratima * Śalākāpuruṣa * Tirtha * Samavasarana

* Jain calendar

* Samvatsari

* Panch Kalyanaka * Statue of Ahimsa * Temple * Sculpture * Art * Law * Nigoda * Jain terms and concepts * Sexual differences

LISTS

* List of Jains * List of Jain temples * List of Jain ascetics * List of Digambar Jain ascetics * Topics List (index)

NAVBOXES

* Gods * Literature * Monks ">

* PORTAL * COMMONS * WIKIQUOTE * WIKISOURCE

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