Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of
people or to the study of such myths.
A folklore genre, myth is a feature of every culture. Many sources for
myths have been proposed, ranging from personification of nature or
personification of natural phenomena, to truthful or hyperbolic
accounts of historical events to explanations of existing rituals. A
culture's collective mythology helps convey belonging, shared and
religious experiences, behavioral models, and moral and practical
The study of myth began in ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek
myths by Euhemerus,
Sallustius were developed by the
Neoplatonists and later revived by
Renaissance mythographers. The
nineteenth-century comparative mythology reinterpreted myth as a
primitive and failed counterpart of science (Tylor), a "disease of
language" (Müller), or a misinterpretation of magical ritual
Recent approaches often view myths as manifestations of psychological,
cultural, or societal truths, rather than as inaccurate historical
3.4 Myth-ritual theory
History of the academic discipline
6 Comparative mythology
7 Modern mythology
8 See also
8.2 Mythological archetypes
Myth and religion
8.5 Popular culture and media
11 Further reading
12 External links
12.1 Journals about mythology
Odysseus Overcome by Demodocus' Song, by Francesco Hayez, 1813–15
The term mythology predates the word myth by centuries. It first
appeared in the fifteenth century, borrowed from the Middle French
term mythologie. The word mythology, ("exposition of myths"), comes
Middle French mythologie, from
Late Latin mythologia, from Greek
μυθολογία mythología ("legendary lore, a telling of mythic
legends; a legend, story, tale") from μῦθος mythos ("myth") and
-λογία -logia ("study"). Both terms translated the subject
of Latin author Fulgentius' fifth-century Mythologiæ, which was
concerned with the explication of Greek and Roman stories about their
gods, commonly referred to as classical mythology. Although
Fulgentius' conflation with the contemporary African Saint Fulgentius
is now questioned, the Mythologiæ explicitly treated its subject
matter as allegories requiring interpretation and not as true
The word mythología [μυθολογία] appears in Plato, but was
used as a general term for "fiction" or "story-telling" of any
kind, combining mỹthos [μῦθος, "narrative, fiction"] and
-logía [-λογία, "discourse, able to speak about"]. From
Lydgate until the seventeenth or eighteenth-century, mythology was
similarly used to mean a moral, fable, allegory or a parable. From
its earliest use in reference to a collection of traditional stories
or beliefs, mythology implied the falsehood of the stories being
described. It came to be applied by analogy with similar bodies of
traditional stories among other polytheistic cultures around the
world. The Greek loanword mythos (pl. mythoi) and Latinate
mythus (pl. mythi) both appeared in English before the first
example of myth in 1830.
Legend and Folklore
Ballads of bravery (1877) part of Arthurian mythology
In present use, mythology usually refers to the collected myths of a
group of people, but may also mean the study of such myths. For
example, Greek mythology,
Roman mythology and
Hittite mythology all
describe the body of myths retold among those cultures. Dundes defined
myth as a sacred narrative that explains how the world and humanity
evolved into their present form. Dundes classified a sacred narrative
as "a story that serves to define the fundamental worldview of a
culture by explaining aspects of the natural world and delineating the
psychological and social practices and ideals of a society".
Lincoln defined myth as "ideology in narrative form." Scholars in
other fields use the term myth in varied ways. In a broad
sense, the word can refer to any traditional story,
popular misconception or imaginary entity. Due to this pejorative
sense, some scholars opted for the term mythos. Its use was
similarly pejorative and now more commonly refers to its Aristotelian
sense as a "plot point" or to a collective mythology, as in the
world building of H.P. Lovecraft.
The term is often distinguished from didactic literature such as
fables, but its relationship with other traditional stories, such as
legends and folktales, is more nebulous. Main characters in myths
are usually gods, demigods or supernatural humans, while
legends generally feature humans as their main characters.
However, many exceptions or combinations exist, as in the Iliad,
Odyssey and Aeneid.
Myths are often endorsed by rulers and
priests and are closely linked to religion or spirituality. In
fact, many societies group their myths, legends and history together,
considering myths to be true accounts of their remote
past. Creation myths particularly, take place in a
primordial age when the world had not achieved its later
form. Other myths explain how a society's customs,
institutions and taboos were established and sanctified. A
separate space is created for folktales, which are not
considered true by anyone. As stories spread to other cultures or
as faiths change, myths can come to be considered folktales.
Its divine characters are recast as either as humans or demihumans
such as giants, elves and faeries.
Palmyrenian relief Louvre
Main article: Euhemerism
See also: Herodotus
One theory claims that myths are distorted accounts of historical
events. According to this theory, storytellers repeatedly
elaborate upon historical accounts until the figures in those accounts
gain the status of gods. For example, the myth of the wind-god
Aeolus may have evolved from a historical account of a king who taught
his people to use sails and interpret the winds. Herodotus
(fifth-century BC) and
Prodicus made claims of this kind. This
theory is named euhemerism after mythologist
Euhemerus (c. 320 BC),
who suggested that Greek gods developed from legends about human
Some theories propose that myths began as allegories for natural
Apollo represents the sun,
Poseidon represents water, and
so on. According to another theory, myths began as allegories for
philosophical or spiritual concepts:
Athena represents wise judgment,
Aphrodite desire, and so on. Müller supported an allegorical
theory of myth. He believed myths began as allegorical descriptions of
nature and gradually came to be interpreted literally. For example, a
poetic description of the sea as "raging" was eventually taken
literally and the sea was then thought of as a raging god.
See also: Mythopoeic thought
Some thinkers claimed that myths result from the personification of
objects and forces. According to these thinkers, the ancients
worshiped natural phenomena, such as fire and air, gradually deifying
them. For example, according to this theory, ancients tended to
view things as gods, not as mere objects. Thus, they described
natural events as acts of personal gods, giving rise to myths.
Most cultures across the globe have some form of mythology
Myth and ritual
According to the myth-ritual theory, myth is tied to ritual. In
its most extreme form, this theory claims myths arose to explain
rituals. This claim was first put forward by Smith, who
claimed that people begin performing rituals for reasons not related
to myth. Forgetting the original reason for a ritual, they account for
it by inventing a myth and claiming the ritual commemorates the events
described in that myth. Frazer claimed that humans started out
with a belief in magical rituals; later, they began to lose faith in
magic and invented myths about gods, reinterpreting their rituals as
religious rituals intended to appease the gods.
Holy Grail digital art part of Christian mythology
Eliade argued that one of the foremost functions of myth is to
establish models for behavior and that myths may provide a
religious experience. By telling or reenacting myths, members of
traditional societies detach themselves from the present, returning to
the mythical age, thereby coming closer to the divine.
Honko asserted that, in some cases, a society reenacts a myth in an
attempt to reproduce the conditions of the mythical age. For example,
it might reenact the healing performed by a god at the beginning of
time in order to heal someone in the present. Similarly, Barthes
argued that modern culture explores religious experience. Since it is
not the job of science to define human morality, a religious
experience is an attempt to connect with a perceived moral past, which
is in contrast with the technological present.
Pattanaik defines mythology as "a subjective truth of people that is
communicated through stories, symbols and rituals". He adds, "unlike
fantasy that is nobody’s truth, and history that seeks to be
everybody’s truth, mythology is somebody’s truth."
History of the academic discipline
Historically, the important approaches to the study of mythology have
been those of Vico, Schelling, Schiller, Jung, Freud, Lévy-Bruhl,
Lévi-Strauss, Frye, the Soviet school, and the
Myth and Ritual
Myths and legends of
The critical interpretation of myth began with the Presocratics.
Euhemerus was one of the most important pre-modern mythologists. He
interpreted myths as accounts of actual historical events - distorted
over many retellings. Sallustius divided myths into five
categories – theological, physical (or concerning natural laws),
animistic (or concerning soul), material, and mixed. Mixed concerns
myths that show the interaction between two or more of the previous
categories and are particularly used in initiations.
Plato famously condemned poetic myth when discussing education in the
Republic. His critique was primarily on the grounds that the
uneducated might take the stories of gods and heroes literally.
Nevertheless, he constantly referred to myths throughout his writings.
Platonism developed in the phases commonly called Middle Platonism
and neoplatonism, writers such as Plutarch, Porphyry, Proclus,
Damascius wrote explicitly about the symbolic
interpretation of traditional and Orphic myths.
Interest in polytheistic mythology revived during the Renaissance,
with early works on mythography appearing in the sixteenth-century,
such as the Theologia Mythologica (1532). While myths are not the same
as fables, legends, folktales, fairy tales, anecdotes, or fiction, the
concepts may overlap. Notably, during the nineteenth century period of
Romanticism, folktales and fairy tales were perceived as eroded
fragments of earlier mythology (famously by the
Brothers Grimm and
Mythological themes were consciously employed in literature, beginning
with Homer. The resulting work may expressly refer to a mythological
background without itself becoming part of a body of myths (Cupid and
Psyche). Medieval romance in particular plays with this process of
turning myth into literature. Euhemerism, as stated earlier, refers to
the rationalization of myths, putting themes formerly imbued with
mythological qualities into pragmatic contexts. An example of this
would be following a cultural or religious paradigm shift (notably the
re-interpretation of pagan mythology following Christianization).
Conversely, historical and literary material may acquire mythological
qualities over time. For example, the
Matter of Britain
Matter of Britain (the legendary
history of Great Britain, especially those focused on
King Arthur and
the knights of the Round Table) and the Matter of France, based on
historical events of the fifth and eighth-centuries respectively, were
first made into epic poetry and became partly mythological over the
following centuries. "Conscious generation" of mythology was termed
mythopoeia by Tolkien and was notoriously also suggested, separately,
by Nazi ideologist Alfred Rosenberg.
The first scholarly theories of myth appeared during the second half
of the nineteenth-century. In general, these nineteenth-century
theories framed myth as a failed or obsolete mode of thought, often by
interpreting myth as the primitive counterpart of modern science.
For example, Tylor interpreted myth as an attempt at a literal
explanation for natural phenomena. Unable to conceive impersonal
natural laws, early humans tried to explain natural phenomena by
attributing souls to inanimate objects, giving rise to animism.
According to Tylor, human thought evolved through stages, starting
with mythological ideas and gradually progressing to scientific ideas.
Not all scholars, not even all nineteenth-century scholars, accepted
Lévy-Bruhl claimed "the primitive mentality is a condition
of the human mind, and not a stage in its historical development."
Müller called myth a "disease of language". He speculated that myths
arose due to the lack of abstract nouns and neuter gender in ancient
languages. Anthropomorphic figures of speech, necessary in such
languages, were eventually taken literally, leading to the idea that
natural phenomena were in actuality conscious beings or gods.
Frazer saw myths as a misinterpretation of magical rituals, which were
themselves based on a mistaken idea of natural law. According to
Frazer, humans begin with an unfounded belief in impersonal magical
laws. When they realize applications of these laws do not work, they
give up their belief in natural law in favor of a belief in personal
gods controlling nature, thus giving rise to religious myths.
Meanwhile, humans continue practicing formerly magical rituals through
force of habit, reinterpreting them as reenactments of mythical
events. Finally humans come to realize nature follows natural laws,
and they discover their true nature through science. Here again,
science makes myth obsolete as humans progress "from magic through
religion to science."
Segal asserted that by pitting mythical thought against modern
scientific thought, such theories imply modern humans must abandon
Prometheus (1868) by Gustave Moreau. In the mythos of
Aeschylus (the Greek trilogy
Prometheus Bound, Prometheus
Prometheus is bound and tortured
for giving fire to humanity
Many twentieth-century theories rejected the nineteenth-century
theories' opposition of myth and science. In general,
"twentieth-century theories have tended to see myth as almost anything
but an outdated counterpart to science […]. Consequently, modern
individuals are not obliged to abandon myth for science."
Jung tried to understand the psychology behind world myths. Jung
asserted that all humans share certain innate unconscious
psychological forces, which he called archetypes. He believed
similarities between the myths of different cultures reveals the
existence of these universal archetypes.
Lévi-Strauss believed myths reflect patterns in the mind and
interpreted those patterns more as fixed mental structures,
specifically pairs of opposites (good/evil, compassionate/callous),
rather than unconscious feelings or urges.
In his appendix to Myths, Dreams and Mysteries, and in The
Myth of the
Eternal Return, Eliade attributed modern humans’ anxieties to their
rejection of myths and the sense of the sacred.
In the 1950s, Barthes published a series of essays examining modern
myths and the process of their creation in his book Mythologies.
Following the Structuralist Era (roughly the 1960s to 1980s), the
predominant anthropological and sociological approaches to myth
increasingly treated myth as a form of narrative that can be studied,
interpreted and analyzed like ideology, history and culture. In other
words, myth is a form of understanding and telling stories that is
connected to power, political structures, and political and economic
interests. These approaches contrast with approaches such as those of
Campbell and Eliade that hold that myth has some type of essential
connection to ultimate sacred meanings that transcend cultural
specifics. In particular, myth was studied in relation to history from
diverse social sciences. Most of these studies share the assumption
that history and myth are not distinct in the sense that history is
factual, real, accurate, and truth, while myth is the opposite.
Conrad Hyers wrote that
...myth today has come to have negative connotations which are the
complete opposite of its meaning in a religious context... In a
religious context, however, myths are storied vehicles of supreme
truth, the most basic and important truths of all. By them people
regulate and interpret their lives and find worth and purpose in their
Myths put one in touch with sacred realities, the
fundamental sources of being, power, and truth. They are seen not only
as being the opposite of error but also as being clearly
distinguishable from stories told for entertainment and from the
workaday, domestic, practical language of a people. They provide
answers to the mysteries of being and becoming, mysteries which, as
mysteries, are hidden, yet mysteries which are revealed through story
Myths deal not only with truth but with ultimate
Main article: Comparative mythology
Comparative mythology is the systematic comparison of myths from
different cultures. It seeks to discover underlying themes that are
common to the myths of multiple cultures. In some cases, comparative
mythologists use the similarities between separate mythologies to
argue that those mythologies have a common source. This source may
inspire myths or provide a common "protomythology" that diverged into
the mythologies of each culture.
Nineteenth-century interpretations of myth were often comparative,
seeking a common origin for all myths. Later scholars tend to
avoid universal statements about mythology. One exception to this
modern trend is Campbell's The
Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949),
which claims that all hero myths follow the same underlying pattern.
This theory of a monomyth later fell out of favor.
1929 Belgian banknote, depicting Ceres, Neptune and caduceus
In modern society, myth is often regarded as a collection of stories.
Scholars in the field of cultural studies research how myth has worked
itself into modern discourses. Mythological discourse can reach
greater audiences than ever before via digital media. Various mythic
elements appear in television, cinema and video games.
Although myth was traditionally transmitted through the oral tradition
on a small scale, the film industry has enabled filmmakers to transmit
myths to large audiences via film. In Jungian psychology myths are
the expression of a culture or society’s goals, fears, ambitions and
Film is an expression of the society in which it was
produced and reflects the culture of its era and location.
The basis of modern visual storytelling is rooted in the mythological
tradition. Many contemporary films rely on ancient myths to construct
Disney Corporation is well-known among cultural study
scholars for "reinventing" traditional childhood myths. While many
films are not as obvious as Disney fairy tales, the plots of many
films are based on the rough structure of myths. Mythological
archetypes, such as the cautionary tale regarding the abuse of
technology, battles between gods and creation stories, are often the
subject of major film productions. These films are often created under
the guise of cyberpunk action films, fantasy, dramas and apocalyptic
21st century films such as Clash of the Titans, Immortals and Thor
continue the trend of mining traditional mythology to frame modern
plots. Authors use mythology as a basis for their books, such as Rick
Riordan, whose Percy Jackson and the Olympians series is situated in a
modern-day world where the Greek deities are manifest, as well as
his Kane Chronicles with the Egyptian pantheon and
Magnus Chase with
the Norse gods.
Modern myths such as urban legends shows that myth-making continues.
Myth-making is not a collection of stories fixed to a remote time and
place, but an ongoing social practice within every society.
Archetypal literary criticism
LGBT themes in mythology
Poles in mythology
Structuralist theory of mythology
First man or woman (other)
Myth and religion
Jesus in comparative mythology
Magic and mythology
Religion and mythology
Tahiti and Society Islands mythology
Lists of deities
List of death deities
List of legendary creatures by type
Lists of legendary creatures
List of lunar deities
List of mythological objects
List of mythological places
List of mythologies
List of women warriors in folklore
Popular culture and media
Mythopoeia, artificially constructed mythology, mainly for the purpose
^ Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. "myth, n. Oxford University Press
^ a b Kirk 1973, p. 8.
^ Johnson, Samuel. "Mythology" in A Dictionary of the English
Language: in which the Words are Deduced from their Originals, and
Illustrated in their Different Significations by Examples from the
Best Writers to which are Prefixed a
History of the Language and an
English Grammar, p. 1345. W. Strahan (London), 1755.
^ Johnson, Samuel. A Dictionary of the English Language, p. 1345. W.
Strahan (London), 1755. Accessed 20 Aug 2014.
^ Johnson's Dictionary, for example, has entries for mythology,
mythologist, mythologize, mythological, and mythologically but none
^ Lydgate, John. Troyyes Book, Vol. II, ll. 2487. (in Middle English)
Reprinted in Henry Bergen's Lydgate's Troy Book, Vol. I, p. 216. Kegan
Paul, Trench, Trübner, & Co. (London), 1906. Accessed 20 Aug
^ "...I [ Paris ] was ravisched in-to paradys.
"And Þus Þis god [sc. Mercury], diuers of liknes,
"More wonderful Þan I can expresse,
"Schewed hym silf in his appearance,
"Liche as he is discriued in Fulgence,
"In Þe book of his methologies..."
^ "mythology". Online Etymology Dictionary
^ a b c d Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. "mythology, n." 2003.
Accessed 20 Aug 2014.
^ Hays, Gregory. "The date and identity of the mythographer
Fulgentius" in Journal of Medieval Latin, Vol. 13, pp. 163 ff. 2003.
^ Fulgentius, Fabius Planciades (1971). Fulgentius the Mythographer.
Ohio State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8142-0162-6.
^ Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "-logy, comb. form". Oxford
University Press (Oxford), 1903.
^ Browne, Thomas. Pseudodoxia Epidemica: or, Enquiries into Many
Received Tenets and Commonly Presumed Truths, Vol. I, Ch. VIII. Edward
Dod (London), 1646. Reprinted 1672.
^ All which [sc. John Mandevil's support of Ctesias's claims] may
still be received in some acceptions of morality, and to a pregnant
invention, may afford commendable mythologie; but in a natural and
proper exposition, it containeth impossibilities, and things
inconsistent with truth.
^ Shuckford, Samuel. The Creation and Fall of Man. A Supplemental
Discourse to the Preface of the First Volume of the
Sacred and Profane
History of the World Connected, pp. xx–xxi. J. & R. Tonson &
S. Draper (London), 1753. Accessed 20 Aug 2014.
Mythology came in upon this Alteration of their [Egyptians'
Theology, is obviouſly evident: for the mingling the Hiſtory of
theſe Men when Mortals, with what came to be aſcribed to them when
Gods, would naturally occaſion it. And of this Sort we generally find
the Mythoi told of them..."
^ Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. "On the
Prometheus of Æschylus: An Essay,
preparatory to a series of disquisitions respecting the Egyptian, in
connection with the sacerdotal, theology, and in contrast with the
mysteries of ancient Greece." Royal Society of Literature (London), 18
May 1825. Reprinted in Coleridge, Henry Nelson (1836). The Literary
Remains of Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Shakespeare, with introductory
matter on poetry, the drama, and the stage. Notes on Ben Jonson;
Beaumont and Fletcher; On the
Prometheus of Æschylus [and others. W.
Pickering. pp. 335–.
^ "Long before the entire separation of metaphysics from poetry, that
is, while yet poesy, in all its several species of verse, music,
statuary, &c. continued mythic;—while yet poetry remained the
union of the sensuous and the philosophic mind;—the efficient
presence of the latter in the synthesis of the two, had manifested
itself in the sublime mythus περὶ γενέσεως τοῦ
νοῦ ἐν ἀνθρωποῖς concerning the genesis, or birth of
the νοῦς or reason in man."
Abraham of Hekel (1651). "Historia Arabum(
History of the Arabs)".
Chronicon orientale, nunc primum Latinitate donatum ab Abrahamo
Ecchellensi Syro Maronita e Libano, linguarum Syriacae, ... cui
accessit eiusdem Supplementum historiae orientalis (The Oriental
Chronicles. e Typographia regia. pp. 175–. (in Latin)
Translated in paraphrase in Blackwell, Thomas (1748). "Letter
Seventeenth". Letters Concerning Mythology. printed in the year.
^ Anonymous review of Upham, Edward (1829). The
History and Doctrine
of Budhism: Popularly Illustrated: with Notices of the Kappooism, Or
Demon Worship, and of the Bali, Or Planetary Incantations, of Ceylon.
R. Ackermann. In the Westminster Review, No. XXIII, Art. III, p.
44. Rob't Heward (London), 1829. Accessed 20 Aug 2014.
^ "According to the rabbi Moses Ben Maimon, Enos, discoursing on the
splendor of the heavenly bodies, insisted that, since God had thus
exalted them above the other parts of creation, it was but reasonable
that we should praise, extol, and honour them. The consequence of this
exhortation, says the rabbi, was the building of temples to the stars,
and the establishment of idolatry throughout the world. By the Arabian
divines however, the imputation is laid upon the patriarch Abraham;
who, they say, on coming out from the dark cave in which he had been
brought up, was so astonished at the sight of the stars, that he
worshipped Hesperus, the Moon, and the Sun successively as they
rose. These two stories are good illustrations of the origin of
myths, by means of which, even the most natural sentiment is traced to
its cause in the circumstances of fabulous history.
^ a b Grassie, William (March 1998). "
Science as Epic? Can the modern
evolutionary cosmology be a mythic story for our time?".
Spirit. 9 (1). The word 'myth' is popularly understood to mean idle
fancy, fiction, or falsehood; but there is another meaning of the word
in academic discourse .... Using the original Greek term mythos is
perhaps a better way to distinguish this more positive and
all-encompassing definition of the word.
^ Lincoln, Bruce (2006). "An Early Moment in the Discourse of
"Terrorism": Reflections on a Tale from Marco Polo". Comparative
Studies in Society and History. 48 (2): 242–259.
doi:10.1017/s0010417506000107. JSTOR 3879351. More precisely,
mythic discourse deals in master categories that have multiple
referents: levels of the cosmos, terrestrial geographies, plant and
animal species, logical categories, and the like. Their plots serve to
organize the relations among these categories and to justify a
hierarchy among them, establishing the rightness (or at least the
necessity) of a world in which heaven is above earth, the lion the
king of beasts, the cooked more pleasing than the raw.
^ Dundes 1984, p. 147.
^ Doty 2004, pp. 11–12.
^ Segal 2015, p. 5.
^ Kirk 1984, p. 57.
^ Kirk 1973, p. 74.
^ Apollodorus 1976, p. 3.
^ "myth". Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (10th ed.).
Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster, Inc. 1993.
^ Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. "mythos, n." Oxford University
Press (Oxford), 2003.
^ Bascom 1965, p. 7.
^ a b c d e f g Bascom 1965, p. 9.
^ a b c "myths", A Dictionary of English Folklore
^ O'Flaherty, p. 78: "I think it can be well argued as a matter of
principle that, just as 'biography is about chaps', so mythology is
^ Kirk 1973, pp. 22, 32.
^ Kirk 1984, p. 55.
^ a b Eliade 1998, p. 23.
^ Pettazzoni 1984, p. 102.
^ Dundes 1984, p. 1.
^ a b Eliade 1998, p. 6.
^ Bascom 1965, p. 17.
^ Eliade 1998, p. 10–11.
^ Pettazzoni 1984, pp. 99–101.
^ Doty 2004, p. 114.
^ Bascom 1965, p. 13.
^ a b c Bulfinch 2004, p. 194.
^ a b c d e f Honko 1984, p. 45.
^ "Euhemerism", The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions
^ a b Segal 2015, p. 20.
^ Bulfinch 2004, p. 195.
^ Frankfort et al. 2013, p. 4.
^ Frankfort et al. 2013, p. 15.
^ Segal 2015, p. 61.
^ Graf 1996, p. 40.
^ Meletinsky 2014, pp. 19–20.
^ Segal 2015, p. 63.
^ a b Frazer 1913, p. 711.
^ Eliade 1998, p. 8.
^ a b Honko 1984, p. 51.
^ Eliade 1998, p. 19.
^ Honko 1984, p. 49.
^ Barthes 1972.
^ Pattanaik, Devdutt (14 September 2015). "Why I Insist On Calling
Myself A Mythologist". Swarajya. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
^ Guy Lanoue, Foreword to Meletinsky, p. viii
^ a b Segal 2015, p. 1.
^ On the
Gods and the World, ch. 5, See Collected Writings on the Gods
and the World, The
Prometheus Trust, Frome, 1995
^ Perhaps the most extended passage of philosophic interpretation of
myth is to be found in the fifth and sixth essays of Proclus’
Commentary on the Republic (to be found in The Works of
trans. Thomas Taylor, The
Prometheus Trust, Frome, 1996); Porphyry’s
analysis of the Homeric Cave of the Nymphs is another important work
in this area (Select Works of Porphyry, Thomas Taylor The Prometheus
Trust, Frome, 1994). See the external links below for a full English
^ "romance literature and performance". Encyclopedia Britannica.
^ Segal 2015, pp. 3–4.
^ Segal 2015, p. 4.
^ Mâche (1992). Music,
Myth and Nature, or The Dolphins of Arion.
^ Segal 2015, pp. 67–68.
^ a b Segal 2015, p. 3.
^ Segal 2015, p. 113.
^ Hyers 1984, p. 107.
^ Littleton 1973, p. 32.
^ Leonard 2007.
^ Northup 2006, p. 8.
^ Ostenson, Jonathan (2013). "Exploring the Boundaries of Narrative:
Video Games in the English Classroom" (PDF). www2.ncte.org/.
^ Singer, Irving (2008). Cinematic Mythmaking: Philosophy in Film. MIT
Press. pp. 3–6.
^ Indick, William (November 18, 2004). "Classical Heroes in Modern
Movies: Mythological Patterns of the Superhero". Journal of Media
^ Koven, Michael (2003).
Folklore Studies and Popular
Television: A Necessary Critical Survey. University of Illinois Press.
^ Corner 1999, pp. 47–59.
^ Mead, Rebecca (2014-10-22). "The Percy Jackson Problem". The New
Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved 2017-11-06.
^ Greenring, Tanner. "21 Modern Urban Legends That Will Keep You Up
Tonight". BuzzFeed. Retrieved 2017-11-06.
Apollodorus (1976). "Introduction".
Gods and Heroes of the Greeks: The
Library of Apollodorus. Translated by Simpson, Michael. Amherst:
University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 0-87023-206-1.
Armstrong, Karen (29 October 2010). A Short
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Look up myth or mythology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikiversity has learning resources about School:Comparative Mythology
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mythology.
The New Student's Reference Work/Mythology, ed. Beach (1914), at
Leonard, Scott. "The
History of Mythology: Part I". Youngstown State
Myths and Myth-Makers Old Tales and Superstitions Interpreted by
comparative mythology by John Fiske.
LIMC Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, a database of
ancient objects linked with mythology
Dreams, Visions, and Myths: Making Sense of Our World[permanent dead
Journals about mythology
Amaltea, Journal of
Mythological Studies Journal
Mythology / Nouvelle Mythologie Comparée
Studia Mythologica Slavica
The Journal of Germanic
Mythology and Folklore
Folklore genres, types, and subtypes
Rhyme (Nursery rhyme)
Religion and folk belief
Old wives' tale
Aarne–Thompson classification systems