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Lutrinae
Lutrinae
(otters) Melinae
Melinae
(European badgers) Mellivorinae
Mellivorinae
(honey badgers) Taxidiinae
Taxidiinae
(American badgers) Mustelinae
Mustelinae
(weasels, tayra, wolverines, martens, polecats)

Note ambiguity about classification at the section Systematics.

The Mustelidae
Mustelidae
(from Latin mustela, weasel) are a family of carnivorous mammals, including weasels, badgers, otters, martens, mink, and wolverines, among others. Mustelids are diverse and the largest family in the order Carnivora. The internal classification is still disputed, with rival proposals containing between two and eight subfamilies. One study, published in 2008, questions the long-accepted Mustelinae
Mustelinae
subfamily, and suggests that the Mustelidae
Mustelidae
consist of four major clades and three much smaller lineages.

Contents

1 Variety 2 Characteristics 3 Ecology 4 Diversity 5 Human uses 6 Systematics

6.1 Phylogeny

7 Notes 8 Further reading

Variety[edit]

Sthenictis
Sthenictis
sp. (American Museum of Natural History)

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Mustelids vary greatly in size and behaviour. The least weasel can be under a foot in length, while the giant otter can measure up to 1.7 m (5 ft 7 in) and sea otters can exceed 45 kg (99 lb) in weight. The wolverine can crush bones as thick as the femur of a moose to get at the marrow, and has been seen attempting to drive bears away from their kills. The sea otter uses rocks to break open shellfish to eat. The marten is largely arboreal, while the badger digs extensive networks of tunnels, called setts. Some mustelids have been domesticated: the ferret and the tayra are kept as pets (although the tayra requires a Dangerous Wild Animals licence in the UK), or as working animals for hunting or vermin control. Others have been important in the fur trade—the mink is often raised for its fur. As well as being one of the most species-rich families in the order Carnivora, the family Mustelidae
Mustelidae
is one of the oldest. Mustelid-like forms first appeared about 40 million years ago, roughly coinciding with the appearance of rodents. The direct ancestors of the modern mustelids first appeared about 15 million years ago. Characteristics[edit] Within a large range of variation, the mustelids exhibit some common characteristics. They are typically small animals with short legs, short, round ears, and thick fur. Most mustelids are solitary, nocturnal animals, and are active year-round.[1] With the exception of the sea otter,[2] they have anal scent glands that produce a strong-smelling secretion the animals use for sexual signaling and for marking territory. Most mustelid reproduction involves embryonic diapause.[3] The embryo does not immediately implant in the uterus, but remains dormant for some time. No development takes place as long as the embryo remains unattached to the uterine lining. As a result, the normal gestation period is extended, sometimes up to a year. This allows the young to be born under more favorable environmental conditions. Reproduction has a large energy cost and it is to a female's benefit to have available food and mild weather. The young are more likely to survive if birth occurs after previous offspring have been weaned. Mustelids are predominantly carnivorous, although some eat vegetable matter at times. While not all mustelids share an identical dentition, they all possess teeth adapted for eating flesh, including the presence of shearing carnassials. With variation between species, the most common dental formula is 3.1.3.13.1.3.2.[1] Ecology[edit]

Stoat
Stoat
killing a rabbit

Several members of the family are aquatic to varying degrees, ranging from the semiaquatic mink, to the river otters, and to the highly aquatic sea otter. The sea otter is one of the few nonprimate mammals known to use a tool while foraging. It uses "anvil" stones to crack open the shellfish that form a significant part of its diet. It is a "keystone species", keeping its prey populations in balance so some do not outcompete the others and destroy the kelp in which they live. The black-footed ferret is entirely dependent on another keystone species, the prairie dog. A family of four ferrets eats 250 prairie dogs in a year; this requires a stable population of prairie dogs from an area of some 500 acres (2.0 km2). The skunks were formerly included as a subfamily of the mustelids, but are now regarded as a separate family (the Mephitidae).[4] The mongoose and the meerkat bear a striking resemblance to many mustelids, but belong to a distinctly different suborder—the Feliformia
Feliformia
(all those carnivores sharing more recent origins with the cats) and not the Caniformia
Caniformia
(those sharing more recent origins with the dogs). Because the mongooses and the mustelids occupy similar ecological niches, convergent evolution has led to some similarity in form and behavior.[citation needed] Diversity[edit] The oldest fossil of the mustelids were dated at the end of the Oligocene to the beginning of the Miocene. “There is debate regarding which fossils from these epochs represent possible ancestral forms that led to Mustelidae
Mustelidae
and which fossils represent the first modern mustelids.”(Wund, M. 2005. "Mustelidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web.) From the fossil record we can see that Mustelids appeared in the late Oligocene period (33 mya) in Eurasia and migrated throughout the continents. The Mustelids inhabit every continent except Antarctica and Australia. The mustelids migrated all throughout the continents that were connected during the early Miocene. The Mustelids made their way to north and south and South America via the Bering land bridge. Human uses[edit]

Detail from Leonardo da Vinci's Lady with an Ermine, 1489–1490

Several mustelids, including the mink, the sable (a type of marten) and the stoat (ermine), boast exquisite and valuable furs, and have been accordingly hunted since prehistoric times. Since the early Middle Ages, the trade in furs was of great economic importance for northern and eastern European nations with large native populations of fur-bearing mustelids, and was a major economic impetus behind Russian expansion into Siberia
Siberia
and French and English expansion in North America. In recent centuries, fur farming, notably of mink, has also become widespread and provides the majority of the fur brought to market. One species, the sea mink ( Neovison
Neovison
macrodon) of New England and Canada, was driven to extinction by fur trappers. Its appearance and habits are almost unknown today because no complete specimens can be found and no systematic contemporary studies were conducted. The sea otter, which has the densest fur of any animal,[5] narrowly escaped the fate of the sea mink. The discovery of large populations in the North Pacific was the major economic driving force behind Russian expansion into Kamchatka, the Aleutian Islands, and Alaska, as well as a cause for conflict with Japan
Japan
and foreign hunters in the Kuril Islands. Together with widespread hunting in California and British Columbia, the species was brought to the brink of extinction until an international moratorium came into effect in 1911. Today, some mustelids are threatened for other reasons. Sea otters are vulnerable to oil spills and the indirect effects of overfishing; the black-footed ferret, a relative of the European polecat, suffers from the loss of American prairie; and wolverine populations are slowly declining because of habitat destruction and persecution. The rare European mink
European mink
Mustela lutreola
Mustela lutreola
is one of the most endangered mustelid species.[6] One mustelid, the ferret, has been domesticated and is a fairly common pet. Systematics[edit] Traditionally the Mustelidae
Mustelidae
have been divided into two subfamilies: the Lutrinae, comprising the otters, and the Mustelinae, comprising the weasels, martens, badgers and other mustelids.[7] Accordingly, the 57 living species of mustelid have been traditionally classified as follows:

Extant mustelidae species

(two subfamilies and 59 living species in 22 genera)

Subfamily Mustelinae

Genus Arctonyx

Hog badger, A. collaris

Genus Eira

Tayra, E. barbara

Genus Galictis

Greater grison, G. vittata Lesser grison, G. cuja

Genus Gulo

Wolverine, G. gulo

Genus Ictonyx

Striped polecat, I. striatus Saharan striped polecat, I. libycus

Genus Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel, L. patagonicus

Genus Martes

American marten, M. americana Yellow-throated marten, M. flavigula Beech marten, M. foina Nilgiri marten, M. gwatkinsii Pine marten, M. martes Japanese marten, M. melampus Sable, M. zibellina

Genus Pekania

Fisher, P. pennanti

Genus Meles

Japanese badger, M. anakuma Asian badger, M. leucurus European badger, M. meles

Genus Mellivora

Honey badger, M. capensis

Genus Melogale

Bornean ferret-badger, M. everetti Chinese ferret-badger, M. moschata Javan ferret-badger, M. orientalis Burmese ferret-badger, M. personata Vietnam ferret-badger, M. cucphuongensis

Genus Mustela

Amazon weasel, M. africana Mountain weasel, M. altaica Stoat
Stoat
(ermine), M. erminea Steppe polecat, M. eversmannii Colombian weasel, M. felipei Long-tailed weasel, M. frenata Japanese weasel, M. itatsi Yellow-bellied weasel, M. kathiah European mink, M. lutreola Indonesian mountain weasel, M. lutreolina Black-footed ferret, M. nigripes Least weasel, M. nivalis Malayan weasel, M. nudipes European polecat, M. putorius

Domesticated ferret, M. p. furo

Siberian weasel, M. sibirica Back-striped weasel, M. strigidorsa Egyptian weasel, M. subpalmata

Genus Neovison

American mink, N. vison Sea mink, N. macrodon (19th-century †)

Genus Poecilogale

African striped weasel, P. albinucha

Genus Taxidea

American badger, T. taxus

Genus Vormela

Marbled polecat, V. peregusna

Subfamily Lutrinae
Lutrinae
(otters)

Genus Aonyx

African clawless otter, A. capensis Oriental small-clawed otter, A. cinerea

Genus Enhydra

Sea otter, E. lutris

Genus Lontra

North American river otter, L. canadensis Southern river otter, L. provocax Neotropical otter, L. longicaudis Marine otter, L. felina

Genus Lutra

Eurasian otter, L. lutra Hairy-nosed otter, L. sumatrana

Genus Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter, H. maculicollis

Genus Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter, L. perspicillata

Genus Pteronura

Giant otter, P. brasiliensis

Fossil mustelids

Extinct genera of the family Mustelidae
Mustelidae
include:

Brachypsalis Chamitataxus Cyrnaonyx Ekorus Megalictis Oligobunis Potamotherium Sthenictis Teruelictis

Phylogeny[edit] The traditional classification of the family Mustelidae
Mustelidae
has recently been questioned. A multigene phylogeny constructed by Koepfli et al (2008) [8] found that the Mustelidae
Mustelidae
comprise four major clades and three monotypic lineages. This scheme makes the traditional Mustelinae paraphyletic. The revised Mustelinae
Mustelinae
is a sister clade to the Lutrinae and together these two subfamilies make up the largest clade. The early mustelids appear to have undergone two rapid bursts of diversification in Eurasia, with the resulting species only spreading to other continents later.[8] Examination of the mitochondrial DNA suggests that the Taxidiinae diverged first, followed by the Melinae.[9] The position of the Helictidinae is unclear because the mitochondrial evidence suggests the subfamily is related to the Lutrinae- Mustelinae
Mustelinae
clade, while the intron data suggest a relationship to the Martinae. The following cladogram illustrates the eight subfamily scheme of Koepfli et al (2008),[8] with additional American species as placed by Harding & Smith (2009).[10]The genetic studies on which the scheme was based did not include the genus Lyncodon,[8] which is therefore unplaced, but it is probably allied with Mustela
Mustela
and Neovison.[11]

Mustelidae

Lutrinae

Aonyx

Aonyx
Aonyx
capensis (African clawless otter)

Aonyx
Aonyx
cinerea (Oriential small-clawed otter)

Lutrogale

Lutrogale
Lutrogale
perspicillata (smooth-coated otter)

Lutra 

Lutra
Lutra
lutra (European otter)

Lutra
Lutra
sumatrana (hairy-nosed otter)

Enhydra

Enhydra
Enhydra
lutris (sea otter)

Hydrictis

Hydrictis
Hydrictis
maculicollis (spotted-necked otter)

Lontra

Lontra
Lontra
canadensis (North American river otter)

Lontra
Lontra
felina (marine otter)

Lontra
Lontra
longicaudis (Neotropical river otter)

(New World   river otters) 

Pteronura  

Pteronura
Pteronura
brasiliensis (giant otter)

(otters)

Mustelinae

Mustela
Mustela
altaica (mountain weasel)

Mustela
Mustela
nivalis (least weasel)

Mustela
Mustela
eversmanni (steppe polecat)

Mustela
Mustela
putorius ( European polecat
European polecat
or common ferret)

Mustela
Mustela
nigripes (black-footed ferret)

Mustela lutreola
Mustela lutreola
(European mink)

Mustela
Mustela
sibirica (Siberian weasel)

Mustela
Mustela
itatsi (Japanese weasel)

Mustela
Mustela
erminea (stoat or ermine)

Mustela
Mustela
nudipes (Malaysian weasel)

Mustela
Mustela
strigidorsa (black-striped weasel)

Mustela
Mustela
africana (Amazonian or tropical weasel)

Mustela
Mustela
felipei (Colombian weasel)

Mustela
Mustela
frenata (long-tailed weasel)

Neovison
Neovison
vison (American mink)

(weasels etc)

Galictinae 

Poecilogale
Poecilogale
albinucha (African striped weasel)

Ictonyx
Ictonyx
striatus (striped polecat)

Ictonyx
Ictonyx
libyca (Saharan striped polecat)

Vormela

Vormela
Vormela
peregusna (marbled polecat)

Galictis

Galictis
Galictis
vittata (greater grisón)

Galictis
Galictis
cuja (lesser grisón)

(weasel‑like species) 

Helictidinae  

Melogale

Melogale
Melogale
moschata (Chinese ferret-badger)

Melogale
Melogale
personata (Burmese ferret-badger)

Martinae

Martes

Martes
Martes
americana (American marten)

Martes
Martes
martes (pine marten)

Martes
Martes
zibellina (sable)

Martes
Martes
melampus (Japanese marten)

Martes
Martes
foina (beech marten)

Martes
Martes
flavigula (yellow-throated marten)

Gulo

Gulo
Gulo
gulo (wolverine)

Pekania

Pekania
Pekania
pennanti (fisher)

Eira 

Eira barbara
Eira barbara
(tayra)

 

Melinae

Meles   

Meles meles
Meles meles
(European badger)

Arctonyx   

Arctonyx
Arctonyx
collaris (hog badger)

Mellivorinae   

Mellivora

Mellivora
Mellivora
capensis (honey badger)

Taxidiinae   

Taxidea

Taxidea
Taxidea
taxus (American badger)

Notes[edit]

^ a b King, Carolyn (1984). Macdonald, D, ed. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 108–109. ISBN 0-87196-871-1.  ^ Kenyon, Karl W. (1969). The Sea Otter
Otter
in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife.  ^ Amstislavsky, Sergei, and Yulia Ternovskaya. "Reproduction in mustelids." Animal
Animal
Reproduction Science 60 (2000): 571-581. ^ Dragoo and Honeycutt; Honeycutt, Rodney L (1997). "Systematics of Mustelid-like Carnivores". Journal of Mammalogy. Journal of Mammalogy, Vol. 78, No. 2. 78 (2): 426–443. doi:10.2307/1382896. JSTOR 1382896.  ^ Perrin, William F., Wursig, Bernd, and Thewissen, J.G.M. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, 2nd ed. Academic Press; 2 edition (December 8, 2008). Page 529. [1] ^ Lodé, Thierry; Cornier, J. P.; Le Jacques, D. (2001). "Decline in endangered species as an indication of anthropic pressures: the case of European mink
European mink
Mustela lutreola
Mustela lutreola
western population". Environmental management. 28 (6): 727–735. doi:10.1007/s002670010257. PMID 11915962.  ^ "Wilson & Reeder's Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World, Third Edition". Retrieved 2008-07-31.  ^ a b c d Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Deere, K.A.; Slater, G.J.; Begg, C.; Begg, K.; Grassman, L.; Lucherini, M.; Veron, G.; Wayne, R.K. (February 2008). "Multigene phylogeny of the Mustelidae: Resolving relationships, tempo and biogeographic history of a mammalian adaptive radiation". BMC Biology. 6: 10. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-6-10. PMC 2276185 . PMID 18275614.  ^ Yu L, Peng D, Liu J, Luan P, Liang L, Lee H, Lee M, Ryder OA, Zhang Y (2011). "On the phylogeny of Mustelidae
Mustelidae
subfamilies: analysis of seventeen nuclear non-coding loci and mitochondrial complete genomes". BMC Evol Biol. 11 (1): 92. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-92. PMC 3088541 . PMID 21477367.  ^ Harding, Larisa E.; Smith, Felisa A. (2009). " Mustela
Mustela
or Vison? Evidence for the taxonomic status of the American mink
American mink
and a distinct biogeographic radiation of American weasels". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 52: 632–642. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.05.036.  ^ Wilson, D.E.; Mittermeier, R.A., eds. (2009). Handbook of the Mammals of the World, vol. 1. Barcelona: Lynx
Lynx
Ediciones. p. 656. ISBN 978-84-96553-49-1. 

Further reading[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Mustelidae

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mustelidae.

Whitaker, John O. (1980-10-12). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mammals. Alfred A. Knopf. p. 745. ISBN 0-394-50762-2. 

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter
Otter
civet (C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q25437 ADW: Mustelidae EoL: 7670 EPPO: 1MUSTF Fauna Europaea: 12636 Fossilworks: 41086 GBIF: 5307 ITIS: 180545 MSW: 14001075 NCBI:

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