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The Society of the Muslim Brothers (Arabic: جماعة الإخوان المسلمين‎ Jamāʻat al-Ikhwān al-Muslimīn), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
(الإخوان المسلمون al-Ikhwān al-Muslimūn), is a transnational Sunni
Sunni
Islamist
Islamist
organization founded in Egypt
Egypt
by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna
Hassan al-Banna
in 1928.[8][9][10][11] The organization gained supporters throughout the Arab world
Arab world
and influenced other Islamist
Islamist
groups such as Hamas[12] with its "model of political activism combined with Islamic charity work",[13] and in 2012 sponsored the elected political party in Egypt after the January Revolution in 2011. However, it faced periodic government crackdowns for alleged terrorist activities, and as of 2015 is considered a terrorist organization by the governments of Bahrain,[14][15] Egypt,[16] Russia,[17] Syria,[18] Saudi Arabia[19] and the United Arab Emirates.[20] The Brotherhood's stated goal is to instill the Quran
Quran
and the Sunnah as the "sole reference point for ... ordering the life of the Muslim family, individual, community ... and state".[21] For many years the movement was financed by Saudi Arabia, with which it shared some enemies[who?] and some points[which?] of doctrine.[22][23] As a Pan-Islamic, religious, and social movement, it preached Islam, taught the illiterate, and set up hospitals and business enterprises. The group spread to other Muslim countries but has its largest, or one of its largest, organizations in Egypt
Egypt
despite a succession of government crackdowns in 1948,[24][25] 1954,[26] 1965, and 2013 after plots, or alleged plots, of assassination and overthrow were uncovered.[27][28][29] The Arab Spring
Arab Spring
brought it legalization and substantial political power at first, but as of 2013 it has suffered severe reversals.[30] The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
was legalized in 2011 and won several elections,[31] including the 2012 presidential election when its candidate Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi
became Egypt's first president to gain power through an election,[32] though one year later, following massive demonstrations and unrest, he was overthrown by the military and placed under house arrest.[33] The Brotherhood itself claims to be a peaceful, democratic organization,[34][35] and that its leader "condemns violence and violent acts".[36]

Contents

1 Beliefs

1.1 Mottos

2 Strategy and organization 3 In Egypt

3.1 Founding 3.2 Post–World War II 3.3 Mubarak era 3.4 2011 revolution and after 3.5 Controversy 3.6 General leaders

4 In the Middle East

4.1 Bahrain 4.2 Iran 4.3 Turkey 4.4 Iraq 4.5 Israel 4.6 Palestine 4.7 Jordan 4.8 Qatar 4.9 Kuwait 4.10 Saudi Arabia 4.11 Lebanon 4.12 Syria 4.13 United Arab Emirates 4.14 Yemen

5 Elsewhere in Africa

5.1 Algeria 5.2 Libya 5.3 Mauritania 5.4 Morocco 5.5 Somalia 5.6 Sudan 5.7 Tunisia

6 Europe

6.1 Germany 6.2 Russia 6.3 United Kingdom

7 Other states

7.1 Indonesia 7.2 United States

8 Criticism

8.1 Motives 8.2 Status of non-Muslims 8.3 Response to criticisms

9 Foreign relations

9.1 Designation as a terrorist organization

9.1.1 Outside the Middle East

9.2 Relationship to diplomatic crises in Qatar

10 See also 11 Footnotes 12 References 13 External links

Beliefs[edit]

Part of a series on: Islamism

Fundamentals

Islam History Culture Economics Politics Secularism

Ideology

Islamism Qutbism Salafism Shia Islamism

Islamic fundamentalism

Concepts

Caliphate Islamic democracy Islamic socialism Islamic state

Islamic monarchy Islamic republic

Islamization (of knowledge) Jihad Pan-Islamism Post-Islamism Sharia Shura Slavery Two-nation theory Ummah

Influences

Anti-imperialism Anti-Zionism Islamic Golden Age Islamic revival

Movements Scholastic

Ahl-i Hadith Deobandi Madkhalism Sahwa movement Wahhabism

Political

Hizb ut-Tahrir Iranian Revolution Jamaat-e-Islami Millî Görüş Muslim Brotherhood List of Islamic political parties

Militant

Militant Islamism
Islamism
based in

MENA region South Asia Southeast Asia Sub-Saharan Africa

Key texts

Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (Iqbal 1930s)

Principles of State and Government (Asad 1961)

Ma'alim fi al-Tariq
Ma'alim fi al-Tariq
("Milestones") (Qutb 1965)

Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist ("Velayat-e faqih") (Khomeini 1970)

Heads of state

Ali Khamenei Omar al-Bashir Muammar Gaddafi Ruhollah Khomeini Mohamed Morsi Mohammad Omar House of Saud House of Thani Zia-ul-Haq

Key ideologues

Muhammad Abduh Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī Qazi Hussain Ahmad Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani Muhammad Asad Hassan al-Banna Necmettin Erbakan Rached Ghannouchi Safwat Hegazi Muhammad Iqbal Ali Khamenei Ruhollah Khomeini Abul A'la Maududi Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani Yusuf al-Qaradawi Sayyid Qutb Tariq Ramadan Ata Abu Rashta Rashid Rida Navvab Safavi Ali Shariati Haji Shariatullah Hassan Al-Turabi Ahmed Yassin

Related topics

Criticism of Islamism Islam
Islam
and other religions Islamophobia Reform movements Modernity (Modernism)

Islam
Islam
portal Politics portal

v t e

The Brotherhood's English-language website describes its principles as including firstly the introduction of the Islamic Sharia
Sharia
as "the basis for controlling the affairs of state and society" and secondly, working to unify "Islamic countries and states, mainly among the Arab states, and liberate them from foreign imperialism".[37] According to a spokesman on its English-language website, the Muslim Brotherhood believes in reform, democracy, freedom of assembly, press, etc.

We believe that the political reform is the true and natural gateway for all other kinds of reform. We have announced our acceptance of democracy that acknowledges political pluralism, the peaceful rotation of power and the fact that the nation is the source of all powers. As we see it, political reform includes the termination of the state of emergency, restoring public freedoms, including the right to establish political parties, whatever their tendencies may be, and the freedom of the press, freedom of criticism and thought, freedom of peaceful demonstrations, freedom of assembly, etc. It also includes the dismantling of all exceptional courts and the annulment of all exceptional laws, establishing the independence of the judiciary, enabling the judiciary to fully and truly supervise general elections so as to ensure that they authentically express people's will, removing all obstacles that restrict the functioning of civil society organizations, etc.[38]

Its founder, Hassan Al-Banna, was influenced by Islamic modernist reformers Muhammad Abduh
Muhammad Abduh
and Rashid Rida
Rashid Rida
(who attacked the taqlid of the official `ulama, and he insisted that only the Quran
Quran
and the best-attested hadiths should be sources of the Sharia),[39] with the group structure and approach being influenced by Sufism.[40][41] Al-Banna avoided controversies over doctrine. It downplayed doctrinal differences between schools (although takfiring Bahais and Ahmadi Muslims) emphasizing the political importance of worldwide unity of the Muslim Nation (umma).[42] As Islamic Modernist
Islamic Modernist
beliefs were co-opted by secularist rulers and official `ulama, the Brotherhood has become traditionalist and conservative, "being the only available outlet for those whose religious and cultural sensibilities had been outraged by the impact of Westernization".[43] Al-Banna believed the Quran
Quran
and Sunnah constitute a perfect way of life and social and political organization that God has set out for man. Islamic governments must be based on this system and eventually unified in a Caliphate. The Muslim Brotherhood's goal, as stated by its founder al-Banna was to drive out British colonial and other Western influences, reclaim Islam's manifest destiny—an empire, stretching from Spain to Indonesia.[44] The Brotherhood preaches that Islam
Islam
will bring social justice, the eradication of poverty, corruption and sinful behavior, and political freedom (to the extent allowed by the laws of Islam). Blended with methods of modern social sciences, some key thinkers of Brotherhood have also contemplated the Islamic perspective on bureaucratic effectiveness, mapping out solutions to problems of formalism and irresponsiveness to public concerns in public administration, which pertains to the pro-democratic tenets of Muslim Brotherhood.[45] Such variations of thoughts have also purportedly negated the realities of contemporary Muslim countries as their authors have proclaimed.[46] On the issue of women and gender the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
interprets Islam
Islam
conservatively. Its founder called for "a campaign against ostentation in dress and loose behavior", "segregation of male and female students", a separate curriculum for girls, and "the prohibition of dancing and other such pastimes ... "[47] There have been breakaway groups from the movement, including the Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya
Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya
and Al Takfir Wal Hijra.[48] Prominent figures of the Brotherhood include Sayyid Qutb, a highly influential and anti-Semitic thinker of Islamic supremacism, and the author of Milestones.[49] Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
criticized the Brotherhood, and accused it of betraying jihad and the ideals of Qutb.[50][51] Mottos[edit] The Brotherhood's "most frequently used slogan" (according to the BBC) is " Islam
Islam
is the Solution" (الإسلام هو الحل).[52] According to academic Khalil Yusuf, its motto "was traditionally" "Believers are but Brothers."[53] Strategy and organization[edit] The Muslim Brotherhood's position on political participation varied according to the "domestic situation" of each branch, rather than ideology. For many years its stance was "collaborationist" in Kuwait and Jordan; for "pacific opposition" in Egypt; "armed opposition" in Libya and Syria.[54] A 1982 document, later known as The Muslim Brotherhood Project outlined "a global vision of a worldwide strategy for Islamic policy [or 'political Islam']" for the Brotherhood was found in Switzerland and translated into English by Scott Burgess in 2005.[55] (A book on the document was published under the name La conquête de l'Occident: Le projet secret des Islamistes (The conquest of the West: The Islamists' Secret Project) by Sylvain Besson.[55] An MB-translated four-year plan for the period 2008–2011 found during a police investigation in Germany outlines a two-pronged strategy: externally, the MB is presented as an organisation ready for dialogue and a willing partner for cooperation with political institutions and decision makers. Internally, the goal remains to create a state based on Sharia
Sharia
law where MB takes the position as the leading organisation for all Muslims. The plan also outlines a clear demarcation towards the United States, Israel, Jews
Jews
in general and non-believers.[56] The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
is a transnational organization as opposed a political party, but its members have created political parties in several countries, such as the Islamic Action Front in Jordan, Hamas in Gaza and the West Bank, and the former Freedom and Justice Party in Egypt. These parties are staffed by Brotherhood members, but are otherwise kept independent from the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
to some degree, unlike Hizb ut-Tahrir, which is highly centralized.[57] The Brotherhood has been described as a "combination of neo-Sufic tariqa" (with al-Banna as the original murshid i.e., guide of the tariqa) "and a political party".[39] The Egyptian Brotherhood has a pyramidal structure with "families" (or usra, which consists of four to five people and is headed by a naqib, or "captain)[58][59] at the bottom, "clans" above them, "groups" above clans and "battalions" or "phalanxes" above groups.[39][60] Potential Brethren start out as Muhib or "lovers", and if approved move up to become a muayyad, or "supporter", then to muntasib or "affiliated", (who are nonvoting members). If a muntasib "satisfies his monitors", he is promoted to muntazim, or "organizer", before advancing to the final level -- ach 'amal, or "working brother".[58] With this slow careful advancement, the loyalty of potential members can be "closely probed" and obedience to orders assured.[58] At the top of the hierarchy is the Guidance Office (Maktab al-Irshad), and immediately below it is the Shura
Shura
Council. Orders are passed down through a chain of command:[61]

The Shura
Shura
Council has the duties of planning, charting general policies and programs that achieve the goal of the Group.[61] It is composed of roughly 100 Muslim Brothers. Important decisions, such as whether to participate in elections, are debated and voted on within the Shura
Shura
Council and then executed by the Guidance Office.[58] Its resolutions are binding to the Group and only the General Organizational Conference can modify or annul them and the Shura Office has also the right to modify or annul resolutions of the Executive Office. It follows the implementation of the Group's policies and programs. It directs the Executive Office and it forms dedicated branch committees to assist in that.[61] Executive Office or Guidance Office (Maktab al-Irshad), which is composed of approximately 15 longtime Muslim Brothers and headed by the supreme guide or General Masul (murshid) Each member of the Guidance Office oversees a different portfolio, such as university recruitment, education, or politics. Guidance Office members are elected by the Shura
Shura
Council.[58] Divisions of the Guidance/Executive Office include:

Executive leadership Organizational office Secretariat general Educational office Political office Sisters office

The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
aimed to build a transnational organization. In the 1940s, the Egyptian Brotherhood organized a "section for Liaison with the Islamic World" endowed with nine committees.[62] Groups were founded in Lebanon
Lebanon
(1936), in Syria
Syria
(1937), and Transjordan (1946). It also recruited members among the foreign students who lived in Cairo where its headquarters became a center and a meeting place for representatives from the whole Muslim world.[63] In each country with an MB there is a Branch committee with a Masul (leader) appointed by the General Executive leadership with essentially the same Branch-divisions as the Executive office. "Properly speaking" Brotherhood branches exist only in Arab countries of the Middle East where they are "in theory" subordinate to the Egyptian General Guide. Beyond that the Brotherhood sponsors national organizations in countries like Tunisia
Tunisia
(Nahda), Morocco (Justice and Charity party), Algeria (Movement of Society for Peace).[64] Outside the Arab world
Arab world
it also has influence, with former President of Afghanistan, Burhanuddin Rabbani, having adopted MB ideas during his studies at Al-Azhar University, and many similarities between mujahideen groups in Afghanistan and Arab MBs.[64] Angkatan Belia Islam
Islam
Malaysia in Malaysia is close to the Brotherhood.[64] According to scholar Olivier Roy, as of 1994 "an international agency" of the Brotherhood "assures the cooperation of the ensemble" of its national organizations. The agency's "composition is not well known, but the Egyptians maintain a dominant position".[64] In Egypt[edit] Main article: Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in Egypt Founding[edit] Main article: Ittihad Party Hassan al-Banna
Hassan al-Banna
founded the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in the city of Ismailia in March 1928 along with six workers of the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
Company, as a Pan-Islamic, religious, political, and social movement.[65] The Suez Canal Company helped Banna build the mosque in Ismailia
Ismailia
that would serve as the Brotherhood's headquarters, according to Richard Mitchell's The Society of Muslim Brothers.[66] According to al-Banna, contemporary Islam
Islam
had lost its social dominance, because most Muslims had been corrupted by Western influences. Sharia
Sharia
law based on the Qur'an
Qur'an
and the Sunnah
Sunnah
were seen as laws passed down by God that should be applied to all parts of life, including the organization of the government and the handling of everyday problems.[67] Al-Banna was populist in his message of protecting workers against the tyranny of foreign and monopolist companies. It founded social institutions such as hospitals, pharmacies, schools, etc. Al-Banna held highly conservative views on issues such as women's rights, opposing equal rights for women, but supporting the establishment of justice towards women.[47] The Brotherhood grew rapidly going from 800 members in 1936, to 200,000 by 1938 and over 2 million by 1948.[68] As its influence grew, it opposed British rule in Egypt
Egypt
starting in 1936,[69] but it was banned after being accused of violent killings[70] including the assassination of a Prime Minister by a young Brotherhood member.[71][72][73] Post–World War II[edit]

Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
fighters in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War

In November 1948, following several bombings and assassination attempts by the Brotherhood, the Egyptian government arrested 32 leaders of the Brotherhood's "secret apparatus" and banned the Brotherhood.[74] At this time the Brotherhood was estimated to have 2000 branches and 500,000 members or sympathizers.[75] In succeeding months Egypt's prime minister was assassinated by a Brotherhood member, and following that Al-Banna himself was assassinated in what is thought to be a cycle of retaliation. In 1952, members of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
were accused of taking part in the Cairo
Cairo
Fire that destroyed some 750 buildings in downtown Cairo – mainly night clubs, theatres, hotels, and restaurants frequented by British and other foreigners.[76] In 1952 Egypt's monarchy was overthrown by a group of nationalist military officers (Free Officers Movement) who had formed a cell within the Brotherhood during the first war against Israel in 1948.[77] However, after the revolution Gamal Abdel Nasser, the leader of the 'free officers' cell, after deposing the first President of Egypt, Muhammad Neguib, in a coup, quickly moved against the Brotherhood, blaming them for an attempt on his life. The Brotherhood was again banned and this time thousands of its members were imprisoned, many being tortured and held for years in prisons and concentration camps. In the 1950s and 1960s many Brotherhood members sought sanctuary in Saudi Arabia.[78] From the 1950s, Al-Banna's son-in-law Said Ramadan
Said Ramadan
emerged as a major leader of the Brotherhood and the movement's unofficial "foreign minister". Ramadan built a major center for the Brotherhood centered on a mosque in Munich, which became "a refuge for the beleaguered group during its decades in the wilderness".[79] In the 1970s after the death of Nasser and under the new President (Anwar Sadat), the Egyptian Brotherhood was invited back to Egypt
Egypt
and began a new phase of participation in Egyptian politics.[80] Imprisoned Brethren were released and the organization was tolerated to varying degrees with periodic arrests and crackdowns until the 2011 Revolution.[citation needed] Mubarak era[edit] During the Mubarak era, observers both defended and criticized the Brotherhood. It was the largest opposition group in Egypt, calling for "Islamic reform", and a democratic system in Egypt. It had built a vast network of support through Islamic charities working among poor Egyptians.[81] According to ex- Knesset
Knesset
member and author Uri Avnery the Brotherhood was religious but pragmatic, "deeply embedded in Egyptian history, more Arab and more Egyptian than fundamentalist". It formed "an old established party which has earned much respect with its steadfastness in the face of recurrent persecution, torture, mass arrests and occasional executions. Its leaders are untainted by the prevalent corruption, and admired for their commitment to social work".[82] It also developed a significant movement online.[83][84] In the 2005 parliamentary elections, the Brotherhood became "in effect, the first opposition party of Egypt's modern era". Despite electoral irregularities, including the arrest of hundreds of Brotherhood members, and having to run its candidates as independents (the organization being technically illegal), the Brotherhood won 88 seats (20% of the total) compared to 14 seats for the legal opposition.[85] During its term in parliament, the Brotherhood "posed a democratic political challenge to the regime, not a theological one", according to one The New York Times
The New York Times
journalist,[85] while another report praised it for attempting to transform "the Egyptian parliament into a real legislative body", that represented citizens and kept the government "accountable".[85][86] But fears remained about its commitment to democracy, equal rights, and freedom of expression and belief—or lack thereof.[87] In December 2006, a campus demonstration by Brotherhood students in uniforms, demonstrating martial arts drills, betrayed to some such as Jameel Theyabi, "the group's intent to plan for the creation of militia structures, and a return by the group to the era of 'secret cells'".[88] Another report highlighted the Muslim Brotherhood's efforts in Parliament to combat what one member called the "current US-led war against Islamic culture
Islamic culture
and identity," forcing the Minister of Culture at the time, Farouk Hosny, to ban the publication of three novels on the ground they promoted blasphemy and unacceptable sexual practices.[89] In October 2007, the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
issued a detailed political platform. Among other things, it called for a board of Muslim clerics to oversee the government, and limiting the office of the presidency to Muslim men. In the "Issues and Problems" chapter of the platform, it declared that a woman was not suited to be president because the office's religious and military duties "conflict with her nature, social and other humanitarian roles". While proclaiming "equality between men and women in terms of their human dignity", the document warned against "burdening women with duties against their nature or role in the family".[90] Internally, some leaders in the Brotherhood disagreed on whether to adhere to Egypt's 32-year peace treaty with Israel. A deputy leader declared the Brotherhood would seek dissolution of the treaty,[91] while a Brotherhood spokesman stated the Brotherhood would respect the treaty as long as "Israel shows real progress on improving the lot of the Palestinians".[92] 2011 revolution and after[edit] Further information: Egyptian Revolution of 2011, Freedom and Justice Party (Egypt), and 2013 Egyptian coup d'état Following the Egyptian Revolution of 2011
Egyptian Revolution of 2011
and fall of Hosni Mubarak, the Brotherhood was legalized[27] and was at first very successful, dominating the 2011 parliamentary election and winning the 2012 presidential election, before the overthrow of President Mohamed Morsi a year later, leading to a crackdown on the Brotherhood again. On 30 April 2011, the Brotherhood launched a new party called the Freedom and Justice Party, which won 235 of the 498 seats in the 2011 Egyptian parliamentary elections, far more than any other party.[93][94] The party rejected the "candidacy of women or Copts for Egypt's presidency", but not for cabinet positions.[95]

Then-U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry
John Kerry
meeting with then-Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi, May 2013

The Muslim Brotherhood's candidate for Egypt's 2012 presidential election was Mohamed Morsi, who defeated Ahmed Shafiq—the last prime minister under Mubarak's rule—with 51.73% of the vote.[96] Some high level supporters[97][98] and former Brotherhood officials[99] have reiterated hostility toward Zionism,[100] although during his campaign Morsi himself promised to stand for peaceful relations with Israel.[101] Within a short period, serious public opposition developed to President Morsi. In late November 2012, he "temporarily" granted himself the power to legislate without judicial oversight or review of his acts, on the grounds that he needed to "protect" the nation from the Mubarak-era power structure.[102][103] He also put a draft constitution to a referendum that opponents complained was "an Islamist
Islamist
coup".[104] These issues[105]—and concerns over the prosecutions of journalists, the unleashing of pro-Brotherhood gangs on nonviolent demonstrators, the continuation of military trials, new laws that permitted detention without judicial review for up to 30 days,[106] and the seeming impunity given to Islamist
Islamist
radical attacks on Christians and other minorities[107]—brought hundreds of thousands of protesters to the streets starting in November 2012.[108][109] By April 2013, Egypt
Egypt
had "become increasingly divided" between President Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi
and " Islamist
Islamist
allies" and an opposition of "moderate Muslims, Christians and liberals". Opponents accused "Morsi and the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
of seeking to monopolize power, while Morsi's allies say the opposition is trying to destabilize the country to derail the elected leadership".[110][dead link] Adding to the unrest were severe fuel shortages and electricity outages, which raised suspicions among some Egyptians that the end of gas and electricity shortages since the ouster of President Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi
was evidence of a conspiracy to undermine him, although other Egyptians say it was evidence of Morsi's mismanagement of the economy.[111] On 3 July 2013, Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi
was removed from office and put into house arrest by the military,[112] that happened shortly after a popular uprising of tens of millions of Egyptians began.[113][114][115][116][117] demanding the resignation of Morsi. There were also limited counter-protests in support of Morsi;[118] those were originally intended to celebrate the one-year anniversary of Morsi's inauguration, and started days before the uprising. On 14 August, the interim government declared a month-long state of emergency, and riot police cleared the pro-Morsi sit-in during the Rabaa sit-in dispersal of August 2013. Violence escalated rapidly following armed protesters attacking police, according to the National Council for Human Rights' report;[119] this led to the deaths of over 600 people and injury of some 4,000,[120][121] with the incident resulting in the most casualties in Egypt's modern history.[122] In retaliation, Brotherhood supporters looted and burned police stations and dozens of churches in response to the violence, though a Muslim Brotherhood spokesperson condemned the attacks on Christians and instead blamed military leaders for plotting the attacks.[123] The crackdown that followed has been called the worst for the Brotherhood's organization "in eight decades".[124] By 19 August, Al Jazeera reported that "most" of the Brotherhood's leaders were in custody.[125][126] On that day Supreme Leader Mohammed Badie
Mohammed Badie
was arrested,[127] crossing a "red line", as even Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak
had never arrested him.[128] On 23 September, a court ordered the group outlawed and its assets seized.[129] Prime Minister, Hazem Al Beblawi
Hazem Al Beblawi
on 21 December 2013, declared the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
as a terrorist organisation after a car bomb ripped through a police building and killed at least 14 people in the city of Mansoura, which the government blamed on the Muslim Brotherhood, despite no evidence and an unaffiliated Sinai-based terror group claiming responsibility for the attack.[130]

A group of pro-Brotherhood protesters holding the Rabia sign
Rabia sign
and making the associated gesture during a pro-Brotherhood protest held in October 2013.

On 24 March 2014, an Egyptian court sentenced 529 members of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
to death[131] following an attack on a police station, an act described by Amnesty International
Amnesty International
as "the largest single batch of simultaneous death sentences we've seen in recent years […] anywhere in the world".[132] By May 2014, approximately 16,000 people (and as high as more than 40,000 by what The Economist calls an "independent count"),[133] mostly Brotherhood members or supporters, have allegedly been arrested by police since the 2013 uprising.[134] On 2 February 2015, an Egyptian court sentenced another 183 members of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
to death.[135] An editorial in The New York Times
The New York Times
claimed that "leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood, which became the leading political movement in the wake of Egypt’s 2011 popular uprising, are languishing in prison, unfairly branded as terrorists[...] Egypt’s crushing authoritarianism could well persuade a significant number of its citizens that violence is the only tool they have for fighting back".[136] Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi
was sentenced to death on 16 May 2015, along with 120 others.[137] Foreigners were threatened with violence by a Turkey-based free-to-air satellite television channel owned by exiled Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood members.[138] Violence was endorsed by a Turkey-based office of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood.[citation needed] The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
claimed that Muslims did not carry out the Botroseya Church bombing and claimed it was a false flag conspiracy by the Egyptian government and Copts, in a statement released in Arabic on the FJP's website,[139] but its claim was challenged by 100 Women participant Nervana Mahmoud[140][141] and Hoover Institution and Hudson Institute
Hudson Institute
fellow Samuel Tadros.[142] The Muslim Brotherhood released an Arabic-language statement claiming the attack was carried out by the Egyptian security forces working for the Interior Ministry.[citation needed] The Anti-Coup Alliance said that "full responsibility for the crime" was on the "coup authority".[citation needed] The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
released an English-language commentary on the bombing and said it condemned the terrorist attack.[143] Qatar-based Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
members are suspected to have helped a Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
agent carry out the bombing, according to the Egyptian government.[144][145][146] The Qatar-based supporter was named as Mohab Mostafa El-Sayed Qassem.[147][148][149] The terrorist was named as Mahmoud Shafiq Mohamed Mostaf.[150] The Arabic-language website of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
commemorated the anniversary of the death of its leader, Hassan al-Banna, and repeated his words calling for the teachings of Islam
Islam
to spread all over the world and to raise the "flag of Jihad", taking their land, "regaining their glory", "including diaspora Muslims" and demanding an Islamic State and a Muslim government, a Muslim people, a Muslim house, and Muslim individuals.[151] The Brotherhood cited some of Hassan al-Banna's sayings calling for brotherhood between Muslims.[citation needed] The death of Omar Abdel Rahman, a convicted terrorist, received condolences from the Muslim Brotherhood.[citation needed] Mekameleen TV, a Turkey-based free-to-air satellite television channel run by exiled Brotherhood supporters, mourned his death and claimed it was "martyrdom". Mekameleen supports the Brotherhood[citation needed] Condolences were sent upon Omar Abdel Rahman's death by the website of the Muslim Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party in Egypt.[152] Controversy[edit] How much of the blame for the fall from power in Egypt
Egypt
of the Brotherhood and its allied Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) can be placed on the Brotherhood, and how much of it can be placed on its enemies in the Egyptian bureaucracy, media and security establishment is disputed. The Mubarak government’s state media portrayed the Brotherhood as secretive and illegal,[153] and numerous TV channels such as OnTV spent much of their air time vilifying the organization.[154] But the Brotherhood took a number of controversial steps and also acquiesced to or supported crackdowns by the military during Morsi’s presidency.[155] Before the revolution, the Muslim Brotherhood’s supporters appeared at a protest at Al-Azhar University wearing military-style fatigues, after which the Mubarak government accused the organization of starting an underground militia.[156] When it came to power, the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
indeed tried to establish armed groups of supporters and it sought official permission for its members to be armed.[157] General leaders[edit]

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Mohammed Badie, the current leader

Founder and first General Leader (G.L.): (1928–1949) Hassan al Banna 2nd G.L.: (1949–1972) Hassan al-Hudaybi 3rd G.L.: (1972–1986) Umar al-Tilmisani 4th G.L.: (1986–1996) Muhammad Hamid Abu al-Nasr 5th G.L.: (1996–2002) Mustafa Mashhur 6th G.L.: (2002–2004) Ma'mun al-Hudaybi 7th G.L.: (2004–2010) Mohammed Mahdi Akef 8th G.L.: (16 January 2010) Mohammed Badie

In the Middle East[edit] Bahrain[edit] Further information: Al Eslah Society and Al-Menbar Islamic Society In Bahrain, the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
ideology is speculated to be represented by the Al Eslah Society and its political wing, the Al-Menbar Islamic Society.[citation needed] Following parliamentary elections in 2002, Al Menbar became the largest joint party with eight seats in the forty-seat Chamber of Deputies. Prominent members of Al Menbar include Dr. Salah Abdulrahman, Dr. Salah Al Jowder, and outspoken MP Mohammed Khalid. The party has generally backed government-sponsored legislation on economic issues, but has sought a clampdown on pop concerts, sorcery and soothsayers.[citation needed] Additionally, it has strongly opposed the government's accession to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
.[158] Iran[edit] See also: Iranian Call and Reform Organization Although Iran is a predominately Shi'ite Muslim country and the Muslim Brotherhood has never attempted to create a branch for Shi'ites,[64] Olga Davidson and Mohammad Mahallati claim the Brotherhood has had influence among Shia in Iran.[159] Navab Safavi, who founded Fada'iyan-e Islam, (also Fedayeen of Islam, or Fadayan-e Islam), an Iranian Islamic organization active in Iran in the 1940s and 1950s, was, according to Abbas Milani, "very much enamored of the Muslim Brotherhood".[160] Iranian Call and Reform Organization, a Sunni
Sunni
Islamist
Islamist
group active in Iran, has been described as an organization "that belongs to the Muslim Brotherhood"[161] or "Iranian Muslim Brotherhood",[162] while it has officially stated that it is not affiliated with the latter.[163] Turkey[edit]

Erdoğan performing the Rabaa gesture (which is used by Muslim Brotherhood supporters in Egypt
Egypt
protesting against the post-Brotherhood authorities)

The Turkish AKP, the ruling party of Turkey, publicly supported the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
during and a few months after the overthrow of the Muslim Brotherhood-affiliated Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi
in July 2013.[164][165] Then-Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan claimed in an interview that this was because "Turkey would stand by whoever was elected as a result of legitimate elections".[166] According to the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, each year after Morsi's overthrow has seen the AKP "significantly detach itself from the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in Egypt".[167] Iraq[edit] Further information: Iraqi Islamic Party, Hamas
Hamas
of Iraq, and Kurdistan Islamic Union The Iraqi Islamic Party
Iraqi Islamic Party
was formed in 1960 as the Iraqi branch of the Brotherhood,[168] but was banned from 1961 during the nationalist rule of Abd al-Karim Qasim. As government repression hardened under the Baath Party
Baath Party
from February 1963, the group was forced to continue underground. After the fall of the Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
government in 2003, the Islamic Party has reemerged as one of the main advocates of the country's Sunni
Sunni
community. The Islamic Party has been sharply critical of the U.S.-led occupation of Iraq, but still participates in the political process nevertheless.[169] Its leader is Iraqi Vice-President Tariq Al-Hashimi. Anti-infidel jihad was encouraged by Imams of the Muslim Brotherhood simultaneously while the US Army was having dialogues with them in Mosul. They pose as modern while encouraging violence at the same time. The role of political representatives of Sunnis was seized on by the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in Mosul since 2003.[citation needed] The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
was an active participation in the "Faith Campaign".[170] An ideology akin to the Brotherhood's was propagated in the faith campaign.[citation needed] Khaled al-Obaidi
Khaled al-Obaidi
said that he received a death threat and was declared a non-Muslim by the Muslim Brotherhood.[171] A pro-Turkish demonstration was held in London
London
by Muslim Brotherhood-sympathizing Iraqis.[citation needed] Also, in the north of Iraq there are several Islamic movements inspired by or part of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
network. The Kurdistan Islamic Union (KIU), a small political party holding 10 seats in the Kurdish parliament, was believed to be supportive of the Muslim Brotherhood in the 90's.[172] The group leaders and members have been continuously arrested by Kurdish authorities. Israel[edit] Further information: Islamic Movement in Israel 'Abd al-Rahman al-Banna, the brother of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
founder Hasan al-Banna, went to Mandatory Palestine
Mandatory Palestine
and established the Muslim Brotherhood there in 1935. Al-Hajj Amin al-Husseini, eventually appointed by the British as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in hopes of accommodating him, was the leader of the group in Palestine.[173] Another important leader associated with the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in Palestine was 'Izz al-Din al-Qassam, an inspiration to Islamists because he had been the first to lead an armed resistance in the name of Palestine against the British in 1935.[174] In 1945, the group established a branch in Jerusalem, and by 1947 twenty-five more branches had sprung up, in towns such as Jaffa, Lod, Haifa, Nablus, and Tulkarm, which total membership between 12,000 and 20,000.[citation needed] Brotherhood members fought alongside the Arab armies during the 1948 Arab–Israeli war, and, after Israel's creation, the ensuing Palestinian refugee
Palestinian refugee
crisis encouraged more Palestinian Muslims to join the group. After the war, in the West Bank, the group's activity was mainly social and religious, not political, so it had relatively good relations with Jordan
Jordan
during the Jordanian annexation of the West Bank. In contrast, the group frequently clashed with the Egyptian government that controlled the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
until 1967.[175] In the 1950s and 1960s, the Brotherhood's goal was "the upbringing of an Islamic generation" through the restructuring of society and religious education, rather than opposition to Israel, and so it lost popularity to insurgent movements and the presence of Hizb ut-Tahrir.[176] Eventually, however, the Brotherhood was strengthened by several factors:

The creation of al-Mujamma' al-Islami, the Islamic Center in 1973 by Shaykh Ahmad Yasin had a centralizing effect that encapsulated all religious organizations. The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
Society in Jordan
Jordan
and Palestine was created from a merger of the branches in the West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza and Jordan. Palestinian disillusion with the Palestinian militant groups caused them to become more open to alternatives. The Islamic Revolution in Iran offered inspiration to Palestinians. The Brotherhood was able to increase its efforts in Palestine and avoid being dismantled like militant groups because it did not focus on the occupation. While militant groups were being dismantled, the Brotherhood filled the void.[177]

Palestine[edit] Further information: Hamas Between 1967 and 1987, the year Hamas
Hamas
was founded, the number of mosques in Gaza tripled from 200 to 600, and the Muslim Brotherhood named the period between 1975 and 1987 a phase of "social institution building."[178] During that time, the Brotherhood established associations, used zakat (alms giving) for aid to poor Palestinians, promoted schools, provided students with loans, used waqf (religious endowments) to lease property and employ people, and established mosques. Likewise, antagonistic and sometimes violent opposition to Fatah, the Palestine Liberation Organization
Palestine Liberation Organization
and other secular nationalist groups increased dramatically in the streets and on university campuses.[179] In 1987, following the First Intifada, the Islamic Resistance Movement, or Hamas[177][180] was established from Brotherhood-affiliated charities and social institutions that had gained a strong foothold among the local population. During the First Intifada (1987–93), Hamas
Hamas
militarized and transformed into one of the strongest Palestinian militant groups. The Hamas
Hamas
takeover of the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
in 2007 was the first time since the Sudanese coup of 1989 that brought Omar al-Bashir
Omar al-Bashir
to power, that a Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
group ruled a significant geographic territory.[181] However, the 2013 overthrow of the Mohammad Morsi government in Egypt
Egypt
significantly weakened Hamas's position, leading to a blockade of Gaza and economic crisis.[182] Jordan[edit] Further information: Islamic Action Front The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in Jordan
Jordan
originates from the merging of two separate groups which represent the two components of the Jordanian public: the Transjordanian and the West Bank
West Bank
Palestinian.[183] On 9 November 1945 the Association of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
(Jam‘iyat al-Ikhwan al-Muslimin) was officially registered and Abu Qura became its first General Supervisor.[183] Abu Qura originally brought the Brotherhood to Jordan
Jordan
from Egypt
Egypt
after extensive study and spread of the teachings of Imam Hasan al-Banna.[183] While most political parties and movements were banned for a long time in Jordan
Jordan
such as Hizb ut-Tahrir, the Brotherhood was exempted and allowed to operate by the Jordanian monarchy. In 1948, Egypt, Syria, and Transjordan offered “volunteers” to help Palestine in its war against Israel. Due to the defeat and weakening of Palestine, the Transjordanian and Palestinian Brotherhood merged.[183] The newly merged Muslim Brotherhood in Jordan
Jordan
was primarily concerned with providing social services and charitable work as well as with politics and its role in the parliament. It was seen as compatible with the political system and supported democracy without the forced implementation of Sharia law which was part of its doctrine.[184] However, internal pressures from younger members of the Brotherhood who called for more militant actions as well as his failing health, Abu Qura resigned as the leader of the Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood. On 26 December 1953, Muhammad ‘Abd al-Rahman Khalifa, was elected by the movement’s administrative committee as the new leader of the Transjordanian Brotherhood and he retained this position until 1994. Khalifa was different than his predecessor and older members of the organization because he was not educated in Cairo, he was educated in Syria
Syria
and Palestine. He established close ties with Palestinian Islamists during his educational life which led him to be jailed for several months in Jordan
Jordan
for criticizing Arab armies in the war.[183] Khalifa also reorganized the Brotherhood and applied to the government to designate the Brotherhood as “a comprehensive and general Islamic Committee, instead of the previous basis of operation under the “Societies and Clubs Law”. This allowed the Brotherhood to spread throughout the country each with slight socioeconomic and political differences although the majority of the members were of the upper middle class. The radicalization of the Brotherhood began to take place after the peace process between Egypt
Egypt
and Israel, the Islamic Revolution of Iran, as well as their open criticism towards the Jordan-US relationship in the 1970s. Support for the Syrian branch of the Brotherhood also aided the radicalization of the group through open support and training for the rebel forces in Syria. The ideology began to transform into a more militant one which without it would not have the support of the Islamic radicals.[185] The Jordanian Brotherhood has formed its own political party, the Islamic Action Front. In 1989 they become the largest group in parliament, with 23 out of 80 seats, and 9 other Islamist
Islamist
allies.[186] A Brother was elected president of the National Assembly and the cabinet formed in January 1991 included several MBs.[187] Its radicalization which calls for more militant support for Hamas
Hamas
in Palestine has come into direct conflict with its involvement in the parliament and overall political process. The Brotherhood claimed its acceptance of democracy and the democratic process but only within their own groups. There is a high degree of dissent amongst Brotherhood leaders who do not share the same values therefore undermining its acceptance and commitment to democracy.[citation needed] In 2011, against the backdrop of the Arab Spring, the Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood "mobilized popular protests on a larger, more regular, and more oppositional basis than ever before".[188] and had uniquely positioned themselves as "the only traditional political actor to have remained prominent during [the] new phase of post-Arab Spring activism"[188] which led King Abdullah II and then-Prime Minister Marouf al-Bakhit
Marouf al-Bakhit
to invite the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
to join Bakhit's cabinet, an offer they refused.[189] The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
also boycotted the 2011 Jordanian municipal elections and led the 2011-12 Jordanian protests demanding a constitutional monarchy and electoral reforms, which resulted in the firing of Prime Minister Bakhit and the calling of early general elections in 2013.[188] As of late 2013, the movement in Jordan
Jordan
was described as being in "disarray".[190] The instability and conflict with the monarchy has led the relationship between the two to crumble. In 2015, some 400 members of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
defected from the original group including top leaders and founding members, to establish another Islamic group, with an allegedly moderate stance. The defectors said that they didn't like how things were run in the group and due to the group's relations with Hamas, Qatar
Qatar
and Turkey, which put suspicion on the group questioning if they are under the influence and working for the benefit of these states and organizations on the expense of the Jordanian state.[191] On 13 April 2016, Jordanian police raided and shut the Muslim Brotherhood headquarters in Amman. This comes despite the fact that the Jordanian branch cut ties with the mother Egyptian group in January 2016, a designated terrorist organization, a move that is considered to be exclusively cosmetic by experts. Jordanian authorities state that the reason of closure is because that the Brotherhood is unlicensed and is using the name of the defectors' licensed group. This comes after the Jordanian senate passed a new legislation for the regulation of political parties in 2014, the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
did not adhere by the regulations of the new law and so they did not renew their membership.[192] Qatar[edit] "The government of Qatar
Qatar
continued to back the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in Egypt, denouncing what Sheikh Tamim described as a 'military coup' that had taken place in Egypt
Egypt
in July 2013."[193] The ambassadors crisis also seriously threatened the GCC’s activities, adversely affected its functioning and could arguably even have led to its dissolution.[193] Kuwait[edit] Further information: Hadas Egyptian Brethren came to Kuwait in the 1950s as refugees from Arab nationalism and integrated into the education ministry and other parts of the state. The Brotherhood's charity arm in Kuwait is called Al Eslah (Social Reform Society)[194] and its political arm is called the Islamic Constitutional Movement (ICM) or "Hadas".[195][196] Members of ICM have been elected to parliament and served in the government and are "widely believed to hold sway with the Ministry of Awqaf" (Islamic endowment) and Islamic Affairs, but have never reached a majority or even a plurality — "a fact that has required them to be pragmatic about working with other political groups".[194] During the Invasion of Kuwait, the Kuwait MB (along with other MB in the Gulf States) supported the American-Saudi coalition forces against Iraq and "quit the brotherhood's international agency in protest" over its pro-Sadam stand.[197] However following the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
and the crackdown on the Egyptian Brotherhood, the Saudi government has put “pressure on other states that have Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
adherents, asking them to decree that the group is a terrorist organization”, and the local Kuwaiti and other Gulf state Brotherhoods have not been spared pressure from their local governments.[194] Saudi Arabia[edit] The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
helped the Brotherhood financially for "over half a century",[22][23] but the two became estranged during the Gulf War, and enemies after the election of Mohamed Morsi. Inside the kingdom, before the crushing of the Egyptian MB, the Brotherhood was called a group whose "many quiet supporters" made it "one of the few potential threats" to the royal family's control.[198] The Brotherhood first had an impact inside Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
in 1954 when thousands of Egyptian Brethren sought to escape president Gamal Abdel Nasser's clampdown, while (the largely illiterate) Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
was looking for teachers—who were also conservative pious Arab Muslims—for its newly created public school system.[199] The Muslim Brotherhood's brand of Islam
Islam
and Islamic politics differs from the strict Salafi creed, Wahhabiyya, officially held by the state of Saudi Arabia, and MB members "obeyed orders of the ruling family and ulama to not attempt to proselytize or otherwise get involved in religious doctrinal matters within the Kingdom. Nonetheless, the group "methodically ... took control of Saudi Arabia's intellectual life" by publishing books and participating in discussion circles and salons held by princes.[200] Although the organization had no "formal organizational presence" in the Kingdom,[201] (no political groups or parties are allowed to operate openly)[23] MB members became "entrenched both in Saudi society and in the Saudi state, taking a leading role in key governmental ministries".[202] In particular, many established themselves in Saudi educational system. One expert on Saudi affairs (Stephane Lacroix) has stated: "The education system is so controlled by the Muslim Brotherhood, it will take 20 years to change—if at all. Islamists see education as their base" in Saudi Arabia.[203] Relations between the Saudi ruling family and the Brotherhood became strained with Saudi opposition to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait and the willingness of Saudi government to allow US troops to be based in the Kingdom to fight Iraq.[202] The Brotherhood supported the Sahwah ("Awakening") movement that pushed for political change in the Kingdom.[204] In 2002, the then Saudi Interior Minister Prince Nayef denounced the Brotherhood, saying it was guilty of "betrayal of pledges and ingratitude" and was "the source of all problems in the Islamic world".[22] The ruling family was also alarmed by the Arab Spring and the example set by the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in Egypt, with president Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi
bringing an Islamist
Islamist
government to power by means of popular revolution and elections.[205] Sahwa figures published petitions for reform addressed to the royal government (in violation of Wahhabi
Wahhabi
quietist doctrine). After the overthrow of the Morsi government in Egypt, all the major Sahwa figures signed petitions and statements denouncing the removal of Morsi and the Saudi government support for it.[202] In March 2014, in a "significant departure from its past official stance" the Saudi government declared the Brotherhood a "terrorist organization", followed with a royal decree announced that, from now on,

"belonging to intellectual or religious trends or groups that are extremist or categorized as terrorist at the local, regional or international level, as well supporting them, or showing sympathy for their ideas and methods in whichever way, or expressing support for them through whichever means, or offering them financial or moral support, or inciting others to do any of this or promoting any such actions in word or writing”

will be punished by a prison sentence “of no less than three years and no more than twenty years".[202] Lebanon[edit] Further information: Islamic Group (Lebanon)

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The Islamic Group was founded in 1964. Syria[edit] Main article: Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
of Syria The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in Syria
Syria
was founded in the 1930s (according to lexicorient.com) or in 1945, a year before independence from France, (according to journalist Robin Wright). In the first decade or so of independence it was part of the legal opposition, and in the 1961 parliamentary elections it won ten seats (5.8% of the house). But after the 1963 coup that brought the secular Ba'ath Party to power it was banned.[206] It played a major role in the mainly Sunni-based movement that opposed the secularist, pan-Arabist Ba'ath Party. This conflict developed into an armed struggle that continued until culminating in the Hama uprising of 1982, when the rebellion was crushed by the military.[207] Membership in the Syrian Brotherhood became a capital offense in Syria in 1980 (under Emergency Law 49, which was revoked in 2011), but the headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood-linked Palestinian group, Hamas, was located in the Syria's capital Damascus, where it was given Syrian government support. This has been cited as an example of the lack of international centralization or even coordination of the Muslim Brotherhood.[208] The Brotherhood is said to have "resurrected itself" and become the "dominant group" in the opposition by 2012 during the Syrian Civil War according to the Washington Post
Washington Post
newspaper.[209] But by 2013 another source described it as having "virtually no influence on the conflict".[210] Syrian President Bashar al-Assad
Bashar al-Assad
welcomed the fall of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in Egypt
Egypt
and remarked that "Arab identity is back on the right track after the fall from power of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood, which had used religion for its own political gain".[211] United Arab Emirates[edit] Further information: Al Islah (United Arab Emirates) Since 2014, the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
has been considered as terrorist in the UAE.[20][212] "The UAE
UAE
considers the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
issue to be related to its own internal security, especially after the State Security Court in Abu Dhabi handed down tough penalties to members of "a Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
cell" for attempting to overthrow the state." [193] The Al Islah was founded in 1974. They belong to the Muslim Brotherhood.[213] Yemen[edit] Further information: Al-Islah (Yemen) The Muslim Brothers fought with North Yemen in the NDF rebellion as Islamic Front. The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
is the political arm of the Yemeni Congregation for Reform, commonly known as Al-Islah. Former President Ali Abdullah Saleh
Ali Abdullah Saleh
made substantial efforts to entrench the accusations of being in league with Al Qaeda.[214] The Treasury Department of the US used the label "Bin Laden loyalist" for Abdul Majeed al-Zindani, the Yemeni Muslim Brotherhood's leader.[215] Elsewhere in Africa[edit] Algeria[edit] Further information: Movement of Society for Peace

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The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
reached Algeria during the later years of the French colonial presence in the country (1830–1962).[citation needed] Sheikh Ahmad Sahnoun led the organization in Algeria between 1953 and 1954 during the French colonialism.[citation needed] Brotherhood members and sympathizers took part in the uprising against France in 1954–1962, but the movement was marginalized during the largely secular FLN one-party rule which was installed at independence in 1962. It remained unofficially active, sometimes protesting the government and calling for increased Islamization
Islamization
and Arabization of the country's politics.[citation needed] When a multi-party system was introduced in Algeria in the early 1990s, the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
formed the Movement of Society for Peace (MSP, previously known as Hamas), led by Mahfoud Nahnah until his death in 2003 (he was succeeded by present party leader Boudjerra Soltani). The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in Algeria did not join the Front islamique du salut (FIS), which emerged as the leading Islamist
Islamist
group, winning the 1991 elections and which was banned in 1992 following a military coup d'état, although some Brotherhood sympathizers did. The Brotherhood subsequently also refused to join the violent post-coup uprising by FIS sympathizers and the Armed Islamic Groups
Armed Islamic Groups
(GIA) against the Algerian state and military which followed, and urged a peaceful resolution to the conflict and a return to democracy. It has thus remained a legal political organization and enjoyed parliamentary and government representation. In 1995, Sheikh Nahnah ran for President of Algeria
President of Algeria
finishing second with 25.38% of the popular vote. During the 2000s (decade), the party—led by Nahnah's successor Boudjerra Soltani—has been a member of a three-party coalition backing President Abdelaziz Bouteflika. Libya[edit] Further information: Justice and Construction Party, Party of Reform and Development, and Homeland Party (Libya) A group of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
came to the Libyan kingdom in the 1950s as refugees escaping crackdown by the Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser, but it was not able to operate openly until after the First Libyan Civil War. They were viewed negatively by King Idris of Libya who had become increasingly wary of their activities. Muammar Gaddafi forbade all forms of Islamism
Islamism
in Libya and was an archenemy to the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
for long time. The group held its first public press conference on 17 November 2011, and on 24 December the Brotherhood announced that it would form the Justice and Construction Party (JCP) and contest the General National Congress
General National Congress
elections the following year.[216][217] The Libyan Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
has “little history of interactions with the masses.”[218] Despite predictions based on fellow post- Arab Spring
Arab Spring
nations Tunisia and Egypt
Egypt
that the Brotherhood's party would easily win the elections, it instead came a distant second to the National Forces Alliance, receiving just 10% of the vote and 17 out of 80 party-list seats.[219] Their candidate for Prime Minister, Awad al-Baraasi was also defeated in the first round of voting in September, although he was later made a Deputy Prime Minister under Ali Zeidan.[220][221] A JCP Congressman, Saleh Essaleh is also the vice speaker of the General National Congress.[222] The Party of Reform and Development is led by Khaled al-Werchefani, a former member of the Muslim Brotherhood.[223] Sallabi, the Head of Homeland Party, has close ties to Yusuf al-Qaradawi, the spiritual leader of the international Muslim Brotherhood.[224][citation needed] The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in Libya has come under widespread criticism, particularly for their alleged ties with extremist organizations operating in Libya.[225] In fact, the text of the U.S. Congress Muslim Brotherhood Terrorist Designation Act of 2015 directly accuses the militias of the Libyan Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
of “joining forces with United States designated terrorist organizations, particularly Ansar al-Sharia” who the United States blames for the attack on its compound in Benghazi.[226][227] There have been similar reports that those tasked with guarding the Benghazi consulate on the night of the assault were connected to the Muslim Brotherhood.[228] The Libyan Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
has lost much of its popular support since 2012 as the group was blamed for divisions in the country. Secular Libyan politicians have continued to voice concerns of the Brotherhood’s ties to extremist groups. In October 2017, spokesman of the Libyan National Army (LNA) colonel Ahmed Al Masmary claimed that “branches of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
affiliated to al-Qaeda” had joined forces with ISIS in Libya.[229] In the 2014 parliamentary elections, the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
won only 25 of the 200 available seats.[230] Mauritania[edit] Further information: National Rally for Reform and Development Changes to the demographic and political makeup of Mauritania in the 1970s heavily contributed to the growth of Islamism
Islamism
within Mauritanian society. Periods of severe drought resulted in urbanization, as large numbers of Mauritanians moved from the countryside to the cities, particularly Nouakchott, to escape the drought. This sharp increase in urbanization resulted in new civil associations being formed, and Mauritania's first Islamist
Islamist
organisation, known as Jemaa Islamiyya (Islamic Association) was formed by Mauritanians sympathetic to the Muslim Brotherhood.[231] There was increased activism relating to the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in the 1980s, partially driven by members of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood.[231] In 2007 the National Rally for Reform and Development, better known as Tewassoul, was legalized as a political party. The party is associated with the Mauritanian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood.[231] Morocco[edit] Further information: Justice and Development Party (Morocco) The Justice and Development Party was the largest vote-getter in Morocco's 2011 election, and as of May 2015, held the office of Prime Minister.[30] It is historically affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood,[citation needed] however, despite this, the party has reportedly "ostentatiously" praised the King of Morocco, while "loudly insisting that it is in no sense whatsoever a Muslim Brotherhood party"[30]—a development one source (Hussein Ibish), calls evidence of how "regionally discredited the movement has become".[citation needed] Somalia[edit] Somalia's wing of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
is known by the name Harakat Al-Islah or "Reform Movement".[citation needed] Muslim Brotherhood ideology reached Somalia in the early 1960s, but Al-Islah movement was formed in 1978 and slowly grew in the 1980s.[citation needed] Al-Islah has been described as "a generally nonviolent and modernizing Islamic movement that emphasizes the reformation and revival of Islam
Islam
to meet the challenges of the modern world", whose "goal is the establishment of an Islamic state" and which "operates primarily in Mogadishu".[232] The organization structured itself loosely and was not openly visible on the political scene of Somali society.[citation needed] Sudan[edit] Further information: National Islamic Front and National Congress (Sudan) See also: War in Darfur, Second Sudanese Civil War, and Human rights in Sudan Until the election of Hamas
Hamas
in Gaza, Sudan was the one country where the Brotherhood was most successful in gaining power, its members making up a large part of the government officialdom following the 1989 coup d'état by General Omar al-Bashir.[citation needed] However, the Sudanese government dominated by the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
affiliated National Islamic Front (NIF) has come under considerable criticism for its human rights policies, links to terrorist groups, and war in southern Sudan and Darfur.[citation needed] In 1945, a delegation from the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in Egypt
Egypt
visited Sudan and held various meetings inside the country advocating and explaining their ideology.[233][need quotation to verify] Sudan has a long and deep history with the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
compared to many other countries. By April 1949, the first branch of the Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
organization emerged.[233][need quotation to verify] However, simultaneously, many Sudanese students studying in Egypt
Egypt
were introduced to the ideology of the Brotherhood. The Muslim student groups also began organizing in the universities during the 1940s, and the Brotherhood's main support base has remained to be college educated.[233][need quotation to verify] In order to unite them, in 1954, a conference was held, attended by various representatives from different groups that appeared to have the same ideology. The conference voted to establish a Unified Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood Organization based on the teachings of Imam Hassan Al-banna.[233][need quotation to verify] An offshoot of the Sudanese branch of the Muslim Brotherhood, the Islamic Charter Front grew during the 1960, with Islamic scholar Hasan al-Turabi becoming its Secretary general in 1964.[234][need quotation to verify] The Islamic Charter Front (ICM) was renamed several times most recently being called the National Islamic Front (NIF). The Muslim Brotherhood/NIF's main objective in Sudan was to Islamize the society "from above" and to institutionalize the Islamic law throughout the country where they succeeded. To that end the party infiltrated the top echelons of the government where the education of party cadre, frequently acquired in the West, made them "indispensable". This approach was described by Turabi himself as the `jurisprudence of necessity`.[235][need quotation to verify] Meeting resistance from non-Islamists, from already established Muslim organisations, and from non-Muslims in the south, the Sudanese NIF government under Turabi and the NIF organized a coup to overthrow a democratically elected government in 1989, organized the Popular Defense Force which committed "widespread, deliberate and systematic atrocities against hundreds of thousands of southern civilians" in the 1990s.[236] The NIF government also employed "widespread arbitrary and extrajudicial arrest, torture, and execution of labor union officials, military officers, journalists, political figures and civil society leaders".[236][need quotation to verify] The views of at least some elements of the Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood were highlighted in a 3 August 2007 Al-Jazeera
Al-Jazeera
television interview of Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
leader Sheikh Sadeq Abdallah bin Al-Majed. As translated by the Israeli-based MEMRI, Bin Al-Majed told his interviewer that "the West, and the Americans in particular ... are behind all the tragedies that are taking place in Darfur", as they "realized that it Darfur
Darfur
is full of treasures"; that " Islam
Islam
does not permit a non-Muslim to rule over Muslims"; and that he had issued a fatwa prohibiting the vaccination of children, on the grounds that the vaccinations were "a conspiracy of the Jews
Jews
and Freemasons".[237] Tunisia[edit] Further information: Ennahda Movement

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Like their counterparts elsewhere in the Islamic world in general, the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
has influenced the Tunisian Islamists.[citation needed] One of the notable organization that was influenced and inspired by the Brotherhood is Ennahda (The Revival or Renaissance Party), which is Tunisia's major Islamist
Islamist
political grouping. An Islamist[who?] founded the organization in 1981.[citation needed] While studying in Damascus and Paris, Rashid Ghannouchi embraced the ideology of the Muslim Brotherhood, which he disseminated on his return to Tunisia.[citation needed] Europe[edit] Germany[edit] The Islamic Community of Germany (de: Islamische Gemeinschaft in Deutschland e.V, IGD) being constituent and founding organisation of the MB umbrella organisation FIOE, the MB is active in Germany with the IGD as a proxy. IGD members take care to not publicly declare their affiliation to the MB.[238] Russia[edit] The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
is banned in Russia
Russia
as a terrorist organisation.[239] As affirmed on 14 February 2003 by the decision of the Supreme Court of Russia, the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
coordinated the creation of an Islamic organisation called The Supreme Military Majlis ul- Shura
Shura
of the United Forces of Caucasian Mujahedeen (Russian: Высший военный маджлисуль шура объединённых сил моджахедов Кавказа), led by Ibn Al-Khattab
Ibn Al-Khattab
and Basaev; an organisation that committed multiple terror-attack acts in Russia
Russia
and was allegedly financed by drug trafficking, counterfeiting of coins and racketeering.[239] United Kingdom[edit] The first MB-affiliated organisations in the UK were founded in the 1960s, which comprised exiles and overseas students.[240] They promoted the works of Indian theologician Abu A’la Mawdudi and represented the Jama’at-e-Islami. In their initial phase they were politically inactive in the UK as they assumed they would return to their home countries and instead focused on recruiting new members and to support the MB in the Arab World.[240] In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the MB and its associated organisations changed to a new strategy of political activity in western countries with the purpose to promote the MB overseas but also preserve the autonomy of Muslim communities in the UK.[240] In the 1990s, the MB established publicly visible organisations and ostensibly "national" organisations to further its agenda, but membership in the MB was and remains a secret.[240] The MB dominated the Islamic Society of Britain (ISB), the Muslim Association of Britain (MAB) and founded the Muslim Council of Britain (MCB). MAB became politically active in foreign policy issues such as Palestine and Iraq, while MCB established a dialogue with the then governments.[240] In 1996, the first representative of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in the UK, Kamal el-Helbawy, an Egyptian, was able to say that "there are not many members here, but many Muslims in the UK intellectually support the aims of the Muslim Brotherhood".[citation needed] In September 1999, the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
opened a "global information centre" in London.[citation needed] Since 2001, the ISB has distanced itself from Muslim Brotherhood ideology along with the MCB.[240] In April 2014, David Cameron, who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom at the time, launched an investigation into the Muslim Brotherhood's activities in the UK and its alleged extremist activities.[241] Egypt
Egypt
welcomed the decision.[citation needed] After Cameron's decision, the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
reportedly moved its headquarters from London
London
to Austria
Austria
attempting to avoid the investigation.[citation needed] In a 2015 government report, the MB was found to not have been linked to terrorist related activity against in the UK and MAB has condemned Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
terrorist activity in the UK.[240] Other states[edit] Indonesia[edit] Further information: Prosperous Justice Party Several parties and organizations in Indonesia are linked or at least inspired by the Muslim Brotherhood, although none have a formal relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood. One of the Muslim Brotherhood-linked parties is the PKS (Prosperous Justice Party)[citation needed], which gained 6.79% of votes in the 2014 legislative election, down from 7.88% in the 2009 election. The PKS's relationship with the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
was confirmed by Yusuf al-Qaradawi, a prominent Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
leader.[242][need quotation to verify] The PKS was a member of President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono's government coalition with 3 ministers in the cabinet. United States[edit] According to The Washington Post, U.S. Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
supporters "make up the U.S. Islamic community's most organized force" by running hundreds of mosques and business ventures, promoting civic activities, and setting up American Islamic organizations to defend and promote Islam.[243] In 1963, the U.S. chapter of Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
was started by activists involved with the Muslim Students Association (MSA).[22] U.S. supporters of the Brotherhood also started other organizations including: North American Islamic Trust in 1971, the Islamic Society of North America
Islamic Society of North America
in 1981, the American Muslim Council in 1990, the Muslim American Society
Muslim American Society
in 1992 and the International Institute of Islamic Thought in the 1980s.[22] In addition, according to An Explanatory Memorandum on the General Strategic Goal for the Group in North America, the "Understanding of the Role of the Muslim Brotherhood in North America", and a relatively benign goal of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in North America is identified as the following:

Establishing an effective and a stable Islamic movement led by the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
which adopts Muslims' causes domestically and globally, and which works to expand the observant Muslim base, aims at unifying and directing Muslims' efforts, presents Islam
Islam
as a civilization alternative, and supports the global Islamic state wherever it is.[244][245]

A somewhat less benign-sounding goal from the same document, one that gives some observers pause and is less often referred to, occurs on page 7 of 18 (in the translation referred to):

The process of settlement is a ‘Civilization-Jihadist Process’ with all the word means. The Ikhwan [Muslim Brotherhood] must understand that their work in America is a kind of grand jihad in eliminating and destroying the Western civilization from within and ‘sabotaging’ its miserable house by their hands and the hands of the believers so that it is eliminated and God's religion [Islam] is made victorious over all other religions. [244][246]

During the Holy Land Foundation trial in 2007, several documents pertaining to the Brotherhood were unsuccessful in convincing the courts that the Brotherhood was involved in subversive activities. In one, dated 1984 called "Ikhwan in America" (Brotherhood in America), the author alleges that the activities of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in the US include going to camps to do weapons training (referred to as special work by the Muslim Brotherhood),[247] as well as engaging in counter-espionage against U.S. government agencies such as the FBI and CIA (referred to as Securing the Group).[248] Another (dated 1991) outlined a strategy for the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in the United States that involved “eliminating and destroying the Western civilization from within”.[249][250][251]

Penned in May of 1991 by a man named Mohamed Akram Adlouni, the 'Explanatory Memorandum on the General Strategic Goal for the Group in North America' was discovered during an FBI raid of a Virginia home in 2004. The document was admitted as an exhibit to the court during the 2007 Holy Land Foundation trial, in which that group was charged with laundering money. After the trial, the document became public. But, according to a 2009 opinion by the presiding judge, the memo was not considered 'supporting evidence' for that alleged money laundering scheme, nor any other conspiracy.[252]

Despite the apparent impotence of the documents, they continued to be widely publicized in American conservative circles.[249][253] U.S. Congress attempts to pass legislation criminalizing the group, put forward by the 114th Congress, were defeated. The Bill, called the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
Terrorist Designation Act of 2015, was introduced to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations by Senator Ted Cruz (R-TX). In it the bill states that the Department of State should designate the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
as a terrorist organization. If passed, the bill would have required the State Department to report to Congress within 60 days whether or not the group fits the criteria, and if it did not, to state which specific criteria it had not met.[254] Senator Cruz announced the legislation along with Representative Mario Díaz-Balart
Mario Díaz-Balart
(R-FL) in November 2015. However, it did not pass.[citation needed] This bill came after a handful of foreign countries made similar moves in recent years including Egypt, Russia, Saudi Arabia, and others, and after, according to Cruz, recent evidence emerged suggesting that the group supports terrorism. The senator further alleged that the group’s stated goal is to wage violent jihad against its enemies, which includes the United States, and the fact that the Obama administration has listed numerous group members on its terror list. Cruz further stated that the bill would "reject the fantasy that [the] parent institution [of the Muslim Brotherhood] is a political entity that is somehow separate from these violent activities".[255] The bill identifies three Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
entities in the U.S. including the Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR), a non-profit group denounced by the UAE
UAE
for its MB ties. This group is regarded by the Egyptian government as a Brotherhood lobby in the United States.[citation needed] The other two entities are the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) and the North American Islamic Trust (NAIT).[256] Conservatives in the Congress believe that the group is a breeding ground for radical Islam. Previous attempts were made in the previous year by Representative Michele Bachmann
Michele Bachmann
(R-MN), but it failed largely due to her allegation that Huma Abedin, Hillary Clinton's aide, had links to the organization, a statement which was dismissed by establishment Democrats and Republicans.[255] In February 2016, the House Judiciary Committee approved the legislation in a 17 to 10 vote, which if enacted could increase grounds for enforcing criminal penalties and give permission to the Secretary of Treasury to block financial transactions and freeze assets of anyone who has showed material support for the group.[257] Scholars against this classification claim that the group simply promotes Islamism, or the belief that society should be governed according to Islamic values and Sharia
Sharia
law.[258] Past U.S. presidential administrations have examined whether to designate the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
as a Foreign Terrorist Organization and have decided not to do so.[259] During the George W. Bush administration, the U.S. government investigated the Brotherhood and associated Islamist
Islamist
groups, but "after years of investigations, ... the U.S. and other governments, including Switzerland's, closed investigations of the Brotherhood leaders and financial group for lack of evidence, and removed most of the leaders from sanctions lists."[260] The Obama administration was also pressured to designate the Brotherhood as a terrorist organization, but did not do so.[261][262] Criticism[edit] The Brotherhood was criticised by Ayman al-Zawahiri
Ayman al-Zawahiri
in 2007 for its refusal to advocate the violent overthrow of the Mubarak government. Issam al-Aryan, a top Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
figure, denounced the al-Qaeda leader: "Zawahiri's policy and preaching bore dangerous fruit and had a negative impact on Islam
Islam
and Islamic movements across the world".[263] Dubai
Dubai
police chief, Dhahi Khalfan, accused Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood of an alleged plot to overthrow the UAE
UAE
government. He referred to the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
as "dictators" who want " Islamist
Islamist
rule in all the Gulf States".[264] The Sudanese Muzammil Faqiri attacked and slammed the Muslim Brotherhood for murdering people and said that Takfir wal-Hijra, ISIS, Sururism and Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
were products of the Muslim Brotherhood.[265] Dr. Abd Al-Hamid Al-Ansari denounced the Islamist
Islamist
and leftist excuse used by people with hidden motives, who say that Muslim Brotherhood people being tortured is a reason for radical religious extremism.[266] The label of "colonialist movement" was used against the Muslim Brotherhood, which was accused of anti-Nubian discrimination and racism by Osama Farouq, a Nubian leader in Egypt.[267] The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
has been denounced by Bassem Youssef.[268] Motives[edit]

This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this section to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available. (August 2017)

Numerous officials and reporters question the sincerity of the Muslim Brotherhood's pronouncements. These critics include, but are not limited to:

Juan Zarate, former U.S. White House
White House
counterterrorism chief (quoted in the conservative publication, FrontPage Magazine): "The Muslim Brotherhood is a group that worries us not because it deals with philosophical or ideological ideas but because it defends the use of violence against civilians".[269][270] Miles Axe Copeland, Jr., a prominent U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) operative who was one of the founding members of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) under William Donovan, divulged the confessions of numerous members of the Muslim Brotherhood. These confessions resulted from the harsh interrogations done against them by Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser, for their alleged involvement in the assassination attempt made against Nasser (an assassination attempt that many believe was staged by Nasser himself).[271] They revealed that the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
was merely a "guild" that fulfilled the goals of western interests: "Nor was that all. Sound beatings of the Moslem Brotherhood organizers who had been arrested revealed that the organization had been thoroughly penetrated, at the top, by the British, American, French and Soviet intelligence services, any one of which could either make active use of it or blow it up, whichever best suited its purposes. Important lesson: fanaticism is no insurance against corruption; indeed, the two are highly compatible".[272] Former U.S. Middle East peace envoy Dennis Ross, who told Asharq Alawsat newspaper that the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
is a global, not a local organization, governed by a Shura
Shura
(Consultative) Council, which rejects cessation of violence in Israel, and supports violence to achieve its political objectives elsewhere too.[273] The Interior Minister of Saudi Arabia, Prince Nayef bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud has alleged that the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
organization was the cause of most problems in the Arab world. 'The Brotherhood has done great damage to Saudi Arabia', he said. Prince Naif accused the foremost Islamist
Islamist
group in the Arab world
Arab world
of harming the interests of Muslims. 'All our problems come from the Muslim Brotherhood. We have given too much support to this group..." "The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
has destroyed the Arab world', he said. 'Whenever they got into difficulty or found their freedom restricted in their own countries, Brotherhood activists found refuge in the Kingdom which protected their lives... But they later turned against the Kingdom...' The Muslim Brotherhood has links to groups across the Arab world, including Jordan's main parliamentary opposition, the 'Islamic Action Front', and the 'Palestinian resistance movement, Hamas'". The Interior Minister's outburst against the Brotherhood came amid mounting criticism in the United States of Saudi Arabia's longstanding support for Islamist groups around the world..."[274] Sarah Mousa of Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
reported on the Muslim Brotherhood's highly improbable claim that opposition leader and Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
laureate Mohammad ElBaradei
Mohammad ElBaradei
(who has had a "rocky" relationship with the US) was "an American agent", and observed that the since-defunct Muslim Brotherhood-controlled Shura
Shura
Council's support of the slander demonstrated a lack of commitment to democracy.[275] Scholar Carrie Rosefsky Wickham finds official Brotherhood documents ambiguous on the issue of democracy: "This raises the question of whether the Brotherhood is supporting a transition to democracy as an end in itself or as a first step toward the ultimate establishment of a political system based not on the preferences of the Egyptian people but the will of God as they understand it".[276]

Status of non-Muslims[edit]

In 1997, Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
Supreme Guide Mustafa Mashhur told journalist Khalid Daoud[277] that he thought Egypt's Coptic Christians and Orthodox Jews
Jews
should pay the long-abandoned jizya poll tax, levied on non-Muslims in exchange for protection from the state, rationalized by the fact that non-Muslims are exempt from military service while it is compulsory for Muslims. He went on to say, "we do not mind having Christian members in the People's Assembly... [T]he top officials, especially in the army, should be Muslims since we are a Muslim country... This is necessary because when a Christian country attacks the Muslim country and the army has Christian elements, they can facilitate our defeat by the enemy".[278] According to The Guardian newspaper, the proposal caused an "uproar" among Egypt's 16 million Coptic Christians and "the movement later backtracked".[279]

Response to criticisms[edit] According to authors writing in the Council on Foreign Relations magazine Foreign Affairs: "At various times in its history, the group has used or supported violence and has been repeatedly banned in Egypt for attempting to overthrow Cairo's secular government. Since the 1970s, however, the Egyptian Brotherhood has disavowed violence and sought to participate in Egyptian politics".[280] Jeremy Bowen, the Middle East editor for the BBC, called it "conservative and non-violent".[281] The Brotherhood "has condemned" terrorism and the 9/11 attacks.[282][283] The Brotherhood itself denounces the "catchy and effective terms and phrases" like "fundamentalist" and "political Islam" which it claims are used by "Western media" to pigeonhole the group, and points to its "15 Principles" for an Egyptian National Charter, including "freedom of personal conviction ... opinion ... forming political parties ... public gatherings ... free and fair elections ..."[37] Similarly, some analysts maintain that whatever the source of modern Jihadi terrorism and the actions and words of some rogue members, the Brotherhood now has little in common with radical Islamists and modern jihadists who often condemn the Brotherhood as too moderate. They also deny the existence of any centralized and secretive global Muslim Brotherhood leadership.[284] Some claim that the origins of modern Muslim terrorism are found in Wahhabi
Wahhabi
ideology, not that of the Muslim Brotherhood.[285][286] According to anthropologist Scott Atran, the influence of the Muslim Brotherhood even in Egypt
Egypt
has been overstated by Western commentators. He estimates that it can count on only 100,000 militants (out of some 600,000 dues paying members) in a population of more than 80 million, and that such support as it does have among Egyptians—an often cited figure is 20 percent to 30 percent—is less a matter of true attachment than an accident of circumstance: secular opposition groups that might have countered it were suppressed for many decades, but in driving the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, a more youthful constellation of secular movements has emerged to threaten the Muslim Brotherhood's dominance of the political opposition.[287] This has not yet been the case, however, as evidenced by the Brotherhood's strong showing in national elections. Polls also indicate that a majority of Egyptians and other Arab nations endorse laws based on "Sharia".[288][289] Foreign relations[edit] On 29 June 2011, as the Brotherhood's political power became more apparent and solidified following the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, the United States announced that it would reopen formal diplomatic channels with the group, with whom it had suspended communication as a result of suspected terrorist activity. The next day, the Brotherhood's leadership announced that they welcomed the diplomatic overture.[290] In September 2014, Brotherhood leaders were expelled from Qatar. The New York Times reported: "Although the Brotherhood’s views are not nearly as conservative as the puritanical, authoritarian version of Islamic law enforced in Saudi Arabia, the Saudis and other gulf monarchies fear the group because of its broad organization, its mainstream appeal and its calls for elections".[291] Designation as a terrorist organization[edit] Countries and organizations below have officially listed the Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist organization.

Country Date References

 Russia 12 February 2003 [17]

 Syria 21 October 2013 [18]

 Egypt 25 December 2013 [292][293]

 Saudi Arabia 7 March 2014 [294]

 Bahrain 21 March 2014 [295][296]

 United Arab Emirates 15 November 2014 [20]

Outside the Middle East[edit] In February 2003, the Supreme Court of Russia
Russia
banned the Muslim Brotherhood, labelling it as a terrorist organization, and accusing the group of supporting Islamist
Islamist
rebels who want to create an Islamic state in the North Caucasus.[297][298] In January 2017, during his confirmation hearing, the former U.S. Secretary of State, Rex Tillerson, referred to the Muslim Brotherhood, along with Al-Qaeda, as an agent of radical Islam—a characterization that Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
member Sarah Leah Whitson
Sarah Leah Whitson
criticized on social media, disseminating a statement from the HRW Washington director saying that the conflation of the group with violent extremists was inaccurate.[299] The following month, The New York Times
The New York Times
reported that the administration of U.S. President Donald Trump
Donald Trump
was considering an order designating the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
as a foreign terrorist organization.[300][301] The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
was criticized by Secretary Tillerson.[302] The terrorist designation for the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
is opposed by Human Rights Watch and The New York Times, both liberal-leaning institutions.[303] The potential terrorist designation was criticized, in particular, by Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
member Laura Pitter.[301] The New York Times set forth its opposition in an editorial that claimed that the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
is a collection of movements, and argued that the organization as a whole does not merit the terrorist designation: "While the Brotherhood calls for a society governed by Islamic law, it renounced violence decades ago, has supported elections and has become a political and social organization".[304] The designation of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
as a terrorist organization is opposed by the Brennan Center for Justice, Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, Council of American-Islamic Relations and American Civil Liberties Union.[305] Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
and its director Kenneth Roth
Kenneth Roth
oppose proposals to designate the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
as a terrorist organization.[306] Gehad El-Haddad, a Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
member, denied that terrorism was practiced by the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in an editorial published by The New York Times.[307] In a report by the Carnegie Middle East Center, Nathan Brown and Michele Dunne argued that "designating the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
a foreign terrorist organization may actually backfire," writing: "The sweeping measure to declare the Brotherhood a foreign terrorist organization now being contemplated not only does not accord with the facts, but is also more likely to undermine than achieve its ostensible purpose and could result in collateral damage affecting other U.S. policy goals. The greatest damage might be in the realm of public diplomacy, as using a broad brush to paint all Muslim Brotherhood organizations as terrorists would be understood by many Muslims around the world as a declaration of war against non-violent political Islamists—and indeed against Islam
Islam
itself."[308] The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in Egypt
Egypt
avoids directly implicating itself materially in terrorism while it supports terrorism with words and encourages it, according to WINEP
WINEP
fellow Eric Trager, who advocated pushing them into a corner instead of designating them due to issues with materially connecting them to terrorism other than with their words.[309] The editorial boards of The New York Times
The New York Times
and the Washington Post oppose designation of the group as a terrorist organization.[304][310] Civil rights lawyer and adjunct professor of law Arjun Singh Sethi wrote that the push to designate the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
as a terrorist organization was based on anti-Islamic conspiracy theories, noting that "Two previous U.S. administrations concluded that it does not engage in terrorism, as did a recent report by the British government."[311] Ishaan Tharoor of the Washington Post
Washington Post
condemned the movement to designate the Brotherhood as a terrorist group.[312] A Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA) intelligence report from January 2017 warned that designation of the Brotherhood as a terrorist organization "may fuel extremism" and harm relations with U.S. allies. The report noted that the Brotherhood had "rejected violence as a matter of official policy and opposed al-Qa'ida and ISIS" and that while "a minority of MB [Muslim Brotherhood] members have engaged in violence, most often in response to harsh regime repression, perceived foreign occupation, or civil conflicts," designation of the organization as a terrorist group would prompt concern from U.S. allies in the Middle East "that such a step could destabilize their internal politics, feed extremist narratives, and anger Muslims worldwide." The CIA analysis stated: "MB groups enjoy widespread support across the Near East-North Africa region and many Arabs and Muslims worldwide would view an MB designation as an affront to their core religious and societal values. Moreover, a US designation would probably weaken MB leaders' arguments against violence and provide ISIS and al-Qa'ida additional grist for propaganda to win followers and support, particularly for attacks against US interests."[313] An article in The Atlantic
The Atlantic
against designating the Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist organization was written by Shadi Hamid.[314] Relationship to diplomatic crises in Qatar[edit] See also: Foreign relations of Qatar Qatar's relationship with Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
has been a persistent point of contention between Qatar
Qatar
and other Arab states, including Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
(UAE), Bahrain, and Egypt, which view the Brotherhood as a serious threat to social stability in those countries.[315] Following the overthrow of Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi
in July 2013, Qatar
Qatar
allowed some Brotherhood members who fled Egypt
Egypt
to live in the country. The Qatar-based Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
"housed them in a five-star Doha
Doha
hotel and granted them regular airtime for promoting their cause"; the station also broadcast protests against the post-Brotherhood authorities in Egypt
Egypt
by the Brotherhood, "and in some cases allegedly paid Muslim Brothers for the footage."[315] Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and Bahrain said that Qatar
Qatar
had violated the Gulf Cooperation Council
Gulf Cooperation Council
rule against interference in the internal affairs of other members, and in March 2014 all three countries withdrew their ambassadors from Qatar. After two months the diplomatic tensions, the issue with resolved, with Brotherhood leaders departing from Doha
Doha
later in 2014.[315] However, "from Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and the UAE’s standpoint, Qatar
Qatar
never lived up to the 2014 agreement and continued to serve as the nexus of the Brotherhood's regional networks."[315] This led to the 2017 Qatar
Qatar
diplomatic crisis, which is viewed as being precipitated in large part by a conflict over the Muslim Brotherhood. Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Bahrain, and Egypt
Egypt
made 13 demands of the government of Qatar, six of which reflect the group's opposition to Qatar's relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
and demand that the country cut ties to the Brotherhood.[315] See also[edit]

Middle East portal Islam
Islam
portal Politics portal Egypt
Egypt
portal

Politics of Egypt Islamism List of designated terrorist organizations Al-Ahbash Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani Sayyid Qutb Hassan al-Banna Yusuf al-Qaradawi Misr 25

Footnotes[edit]

^ What is the Muslim Brotherhood?, Al Jazeera, 18 June 2017 ^ Rick Perry and the Muslim Brotherhood: Compare and Contrast - Mona Eltahawy on social conservatism in Egypt
Egypt
and the U.S., J.J. GOULD, June 30, 2013 ^ The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
and the Future of Political Islam
Islam
in Egypt, Ashraf El-Sherif, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
website, October 21, 2014 ^ Washington’s Secret History with the Muslim Brotherhood, Ian Johnson, February 5, 2011 ^ Terrorism: Muslim Brotherhood, Jewish Virtual Library ^ The Muslim Brotherhood’s ‘right-wing’ politics game, Bassem Youssef, Al Arabiya English, Wednesday, 1 May 2013 ^ What Is the Muslim Brotherhood, and Will It Take Over Egypt?, Robert Dreyfuss, Mother Jones, February 11, 2011 ^ Kevin Borgeson; Robin Valeri (9 July 2009). Terrorism in America. Jones and Bartlett Learning. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-7637-5524-9. Retrieved 9 December 2012.  ^ "The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
and the Egyptian State in the Balance of Democracy". Metransparent. Retrieved 28 November 2012.  ^ "Islamic Terrorism's Links To Nazi Fascism". Aina. 5 July 2007. Retrieved 28 November 2012.  ^ "Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
is not to be trusted". Old Post-gazette. 22 January 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.  ^ U.S. Department of State. "Chapter 6 -- Terrorist Organizations". Country Reports on Terrorism. Retrieved 14 November 2015.  ^ Ghattas, Kim (9 February 2001). "Profile: Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood". BBC.  ^ " Bahrain
Bahrain
News Agency - Bahrain
Bahrain
backs Saudi Arabia, UAE, Foreign Minister says". Retrieved 3 November 2014.  ^ Anadolu Ajansı (c) 2011. " Bahrain
Bahrain
FM reiterates stance on Muslim Brotherhood". Retrieved 3 November 2014.  ^ "Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
declared 'terrorist group'". Bbc.co.uk. 25 December 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2014.  ^ a b "Resolution of the State Duma, 2 December 2003 N 3624-III GD "on the Application of the State Duma of the Russian Federation" on the suppression of the activities of terrorist organizations on the territory of the Russian Federation" (in Russian). Consultant Plus. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016.  ^ a b "Assad says 'factors not in place' for Syria
Syria
peace talks". Hurriyet
Hurriyet
(AFP). 21 October 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2013.  ^ " Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
declares Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
'terrorist group'". BBC. Retrieved 7 March 2014.  ^ a b c Alaa Shahine & Glen Carey, Bloomberg News (9 March 2014). "U.A.E. Supports Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
Against Qatar-Backed Brotherhood". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 9 March 2014.  ^ Kull, Steven (2011). Feeling Betrayed: The Roots of Muslim Anger at America. Brookings Institution Press. p. 167. The Muslim Brotherhood's stated goal has been to instill the Quran
Quran
and sunnah as the `sole reference point for ... ordering the life of the Muslim family, individual, community ... and state.`  ^ a b c d e Mintz, John; Farah, Douglas (10 September 2004). "In Search of Friends Among The Foes U.S. Hopes to Work With Diverse Group". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 November 2012.  ^ a b c Dreyfuss, Bob (13 July 2012). " Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and the Brotherhood: What the 'New York Times' Missed". The Nation. Retrieved 17 April 2014.  ^ Bruce Rutherford, Egypt
Egypt
After Mubarak (Princeton: Princeton UP, 2008), 99 ^ Hallett, Robin. Africa Since 1875. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press (1974), p. 138. ^ " Egypt
Egypt
opposition wary after talks". BBC. 9 February 2011.  ^ a b "'Shariah in Egypt
Egypt
is enough for us,' Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
leader says". Hürriyet Daily News. 23 May 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2012.  ^ Inside Egypt: The Land of the Pharaohs on the Brink of a Revolution by John R. Bradley, (Palgrave MacMillan, 2008), p.49 ^ Egypt
Egypt
global security.org ^ a b c Ibish, Hussein. "Is this the end of the failed Muslim Brotherhood project?". 5 October 2013. The National. Retrieved 8 October 2013.  ^ Wade, Nicholas (30 August 2013). "Egypt: What poll results reveal about Brotherhood's popularity". 29 August 2013. BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 8 October 2013. the Brotherhood won Egypt's five democratic votes,  ^ "Egypt's new president to pick woman, Christian VPs". CNN. Retrieved September 7, 2017.  ^ "President Morsi Ousted: First Democratically Elected Leader Under House Arrest". ABC News. Retrieved September 7, 2017.  ^ " Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
Rejects Al-Sisi As True Tyrant; Vows to Continue Peaceful Protest Action - Ikhwanweb". Retrieved 3 November 2014.  ^ "Pro-Democracy National Alliance Vows Escalated Peaceful Protests Across Egypt
Egypt
- Ikhwanweb". Retrieved 3 November 2014.  ^ " Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
Leader Badie Reiterates: Group Denounces Violence - Ikhwanweb". Retrieved 3 November 2014.  ^ a b "The Principles of The Muslim Brotherhood".  ^ "interview w/Dr. Mohamed El-Sayed Habib". Ikhwan Web. Retrieved 28 November 2012.  ^ a b c Ruthven, Malise (1984). Islam
Islam
in the World (first ed.). Penguin. p. 311.  ^ Paulo G. Pinto, " Sufism
Sufism
and the religious debate in Syria." Taken from Public Islam
Islam
and the Common Good, pg. 184. Volume 95 of Social, economic, and political studies of the Middle East and Asia. Eds. Armando Salvatore and Dale F. Eickelman. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2004. ISBN 9789004136212 ^ Carl W. Ernst, Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam
Islam
in the Contemporary World, pg. 180. Part of the Islamic Civilization and Muslim Networks series. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003. ISBN 9780807875803 ^ Elad-Altman, Israel. "The Brotherhood and the Shiite Question". Hudson Institute. Retrieved 29 December 2016.  ^ Ruthven, Malise (1984). Islam
Islam
in the World (first ed.). Penguin. p. 317.  ^ Davidson, Lawrence (1998) Islamic Fundamentalism Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn., ISBN 0-313-29978-1 pp. 97–98; ^ Abdelrahman, Abdelrahman Ahmed (1995). "An Islamic Perspective on Organizational Motivation". The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences. 12: 185–203.  ^ Abdelrahman, Abdelrahman Ahmed (Fall 1996). "Administrative Efficiency and Effectiveness: An Islamic Perspective". The Islamic Quarterly. 40: 3: 139–154.  ^ a b "Toward the Light" in Five Tracts of Hasan Al-Banna, trans. by Charles Wendell (Berkeley, 1978), ISBN 0-520-09584-7 pp. 126f. ^ The Salafist Movement, Frontline (PBS) ^ *Mura, Andrea (2014). "The Inclusive Dynamics of Islamic Universalism: From the Vantage Point of Sayyid Qutb's Critical Philosophy". Comparative Philosophy. 5 (1): 29–54.  ^ " Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
vs Al Qaeda" 19 January 2010 ^ ""MB Chief Criticism" 30 December 2007" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 August 2010.  ^ "Profile: Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood". 25 December 2013. BBC. Retrieved 3 April 2014.  ^ Yusuf, Khalil (January 27, 2014). "Does the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
still have a role to play in Egypt's revolutionary politics?". Middle East Monitor. Retrieved October 11, 2017.  ^ Roy, Olivier (1994). The Failure of Political Islam. Harvard University Press. p. 129. Retrieved 2 April 2015.  ^ a b "The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
"Project"" (PDF). investigativeproject.org. Retrieved 7 January 2016.  ^ Bayerischen Landesamts für Verfassungsschutz (2013). Verfassungsschutzbericht 2012 (PDF) (in German). Munich, Germany: Bayerisches Staatsministerium des Innern. p. 34. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 February 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2018. Eines der sichergestellten Dokumente ist ein in arabischer Sprache abgefasster Vierjahres‑Plan (2008–2011) der MB. Die darin vorgesehenen Maßnahmen basieren auf einer Doppelstrategie: Nach außen gibt sich die MB offen, tolerant und dialogbereit und strebt eine Zusammenarbeit mit politischen Institutionen und Entscheidungsträgern an, um so Einfluss im öffentlichen Leben zu gewinnen. Ihr Ziel bleibt aber die Errichtung einer auf der Scharia basierenden gesellschaftlichen und politischen Ordnung, wobei die MB für sich die Führungsrolle für alle Muslime beansprucht. Der Plan zeigt eine deutliche Abgrenzung gegenüber den USA, Israel, dem jüdischen Volk und Andersgläubigen.  ^ The Future of Political Islam, Graham E. Fuller, Palgrave MacMillan, (2003), p. 138. ^ a b c d e Trager, Eric (September–October 2011). "The Unbreakable Muslim Brotherhood: Grim Prospects for a Liberal Egypt". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 21 April 2015.  ^ Rubin, Barry (July 2012). "Understanding the Muslim Brotherhood". Foreign Policy Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2013-10-08. Retrieved 21 April 2015.  ^ Another source divides the structure into nuclei, cells, families, and phalanxes (source: Jameelah, Maryam (1980). Shaikh Hassan al Banna and al Ikhwan al Muslimun (2nd ed.). Lahore, Pakistan: Mohammad Ysuf Khan. pp. 16–17. ) ^ a b c Mishal Fahm Sulami (2003). The West and Islam: Western Liberal Democracy Versus the System of Shura. Psychology Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-415-31634-7. Retrieved 9 December 2012.  ^ Roy, Olivier (1994). The Failure of Political Islam. translator Volk, Carol. Harvard University Press. p. 110.  ^ Marshall, Katherine (2013). Global Institutions of Religion: Ancient Movers, Modern Shakers. Routledge. p. 122. Retrieved 20 April 2015.  ^ a b c d e Roy, Olivier (1994). The Failure of Political Islam. translator Volk, Carol. Harvard University Press. p. 111.  ^ *Mura, Andrea (2012). "A genealogical inquiry into early Islamism: the discourse of Hasan al-Banna". Journal of Political Ideologies. 17 (1): 61–85. doi:10.1080/13569317.2012.644986.  ^ London: Oxford University Press, 1969, p. 9 ^ Husaini, Ishak Musa (1956). The Moslem Brethren. Beirut: Khayat's College Book Cooperative. pp. 62–3. [speech by l-Banna]The Brethren understand Islam
Islam
in its fullest and most comprehensive implications, that it must have supervision over all affairs of individual and collective life and that everything must come under its rule and conform to its teachings. Whoever is a Muslim merely in his worship but imitates the non-believer in all other things is no better than an infidel.  ^ Husain,, Irfan; Cohen, Stephen P. (2012). Fatal Faultlines: Pakistan, Islam
Islam
and the West. Arc Manor LLC. p. 60. Retrieved 20 April 2015.  ^ Delanoue, G., "al-Ik̲h̲wānal-Muslimūn", Encyclopaedia of Islam, Brill Publishers  ^ Chamieh, Jebran, Traditionalists, Militants and Liberal in Present Islam, Research and Publishing House, 1995, p. 140. ^ Mitchell, Richard Paul, The Society of the Muslim Brothers, Oxford University Press, 1993, p. 68–69 ^ THE WORLD AFTER 9/11 : The Muslim Brotherhood
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In America. The Washington Post. ^ Lia, Brynjar. The Society of the Muslim Brothers in Egypt: The Rise of an Islamic Mass Movement 1928–1942. Ithica Press, 2006. p. 53 ^ Chamieh, Jebran, Traditionalists, Militants and Liberal in Present Islam, Research and Publishing House, 1995, p.140 ^ Wright, Robin, Sacred Rage 1985, p.179 ^ Wright, Lawrence (2 June 2008)."The Rebellion Within, An Al Qaeda mastermind questions terrorism". The New Yorker ^ "أسرار حركة الضباط الأحرار والإخوان المسلمون".  ^ Commins, David, The Wahhabi
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Mission and Saudi Arabia, I. B. Tauris, 2006, p.152 ^ Johnson, Ian (5 February 2011). "Washington's Secret History with the Muslim Brotherhood". The New York Review of Books. Archived from the original on 24 December 2015. One of the leaders, according to Eisenhower’s appointment book, was “The Honorable Saeed Ramahdan, Delegate of the Muslim Brothers”.* The person in question (in more standard romanization, Said Ramadan), was the son-in-law of the Brotherhood’s founder and at the time widely described as the group’s “foreign minister” (He was also the father of the controversial Swiss scholar of Islam, Tariq Ramadan).  ^ Kepel, Gilles, Jihad: the Trail of Political Islam, p. 83 ^ "ISocial programs bolster appeal of Muslim Brotherhood". IRIN. Retrieved 27 August 2010.  ^ 'Our Muslim Brothers,'. CounterPunch, 22–24 June 2012. ^ Courtney C. Radsch. "Arab Media & Society". Arab media society. Retrieved 11 November 2012.  ^ Lynch, Marc (5 March 2007). "Brotherhood of the blog". The Guardian. London.  ^ a b c Traub, James (29 April 2007). "Islamic Democrats?". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2011 ^ ""The Brotherhood Goes to Parliament"". Archived from the original on 1 October 2006. Retrieved 7 June 2017.  Samer Shehata from Georgetown University
Georgetown University
and Joshua Stacher from the British University in Egypt
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Middle East Report. Fall 2006. 29 November 2009 ^ Fawzi, Sameh (8 December 2005). "Brothers and Others" Archived 20 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Al Ahram Weekly. Retrieved 6 September 2011 ^ The Brotherhood's Power display Dar Al-Hayat (18 December 2006) ^ Bradley, John R., Inside Egypt: The Land of the Pharaohs on the Brink of a Revolution by John R. Bradley, Palgrave MacMillan, 2008, p. 62 ^ Bradley, John R., Inside Egypt, Palgrave MacMillan, (p. 65). ^ " Muslim Brotherhood
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seeks end to Israel treaty". The Washington Times.  ^ "Live Blog: Egypt
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in Crisis, Day 8". CBS News. 1 February 2011. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013.  ^ Interactive: Full Egypt
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election results, aljazeera.com, 1 February 2012 ^ Souaiaia, Ahmed. " Egypt
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and the Islamists". FPIF. Foreign Policy in Focus. Retrieved 2 June 2012.  ^ Freedom and Justice Party Open to Copt as Deputy, 11 May 2011 ^ All Things Considered (19 June 2012). "A Look at Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood Candidate". NPR. Retrieved 11 November 2012.  ^ Egyptian cleric Safwat Hegazi spoke at the announcement rally for the Muslim Brotherhood's candidate Morsi and expressed his hope and belief that Morsi would liberate Gaza, restore the Caliphate
Caliphate
of the "United States of the Arabs" with Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as its capital, and that "our cry shall be: 'Millions of martyrs march towards Jerusalem.'" ^ "Egyptian Cleric Safwat Higazi Launches MB Candidate Muhammad Mursi's Campaign: Mursi Will Restore the "United States of the Arabs" with Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as Its Capital". 1 May 2012. our cry shall be: 'Millions of martyrs march towards Jerusalem.'  ^ from the organization's 15-member Guidance Council ^ "Brotherhood of Hate: Muslim Brotherhood's Hatred for Jews
Jews
and Israel Flourishes in "New" Egypt
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– Introduction,". Anti-Defamation League. 12 December 2011. Archived from the original on 11 December 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.  ^ "Islamic presidential candidate promises democracy in Egypt". CNN. 15 June 2012. Archived from the original on 23 June 2012.  ^ Hendawi, Hamza (28 November 2012). "Egyptian courts suspend work to protest Morsi decrees". Salon. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012.  ^ Dina Bishara (28 November 2012). "Egyptian Labor between Morsi and Mubarak". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 8 December 2012.  ^ El Rashidi, Yasmine (7 February 2013). "Egypt: The Rule of the Brotherhood". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 24 September 2013. The Islamists’ TV channels and press called the completion of the draft constitution an “achievement,” “historic,” “an occasion,” “another step toward achieving the goals of the revolution.” The independent and opposition press described it as “an Islamist
Islamist
coup.”  ^ "Egypt's Mursi annuls controversial decree, opposition says not enough". Al Arabiya. 9 December 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012. The two issues – the decree and the referendum – were at the heart of anti-Mursi protests that have rocked Egypt
Egypt
in the past two weeks.  ^ Williams,, Daniel (15 August 2013). " Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
abuses continue under Egypt's military". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.  ^ El Rashidi, Yasmine (26 September 2013). "Egypt: The Misunderstood Agony". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 24 September 2013.  ^ David D. Kirkpatrick (26 April 2012). "President Mohamed Morsi
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of Egypt
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Said to Prepare Martial Law Decree". The New York Times. Egypt. Retrieved 8 December 2012.  ^ McCrumen, Stephanie; Hauslohner, Abigail (5 December 2012). "Egyptians take anti-Morsi protests to presidential palace". The Independent. London. Retrieved 5 December 2012.  ^ "Coptic pope's criticism of president marks trend in Egypt, where no one is above the fray". Associated Press. 9 April 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.  ^ HUBBARD, BEN; KIRKPATRICK, DAVID D. (10 July 2013). "Sudden Improvements in Egypt
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Suggest a Campaign to Undermine Morsi". nytimes.com.  ^ Bowen, Jeremy (July 1, 2013). "Egypt's army gives parties 48 hours to resolve crisis". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved September 5, 2017.  ^ El Rashidi, Yasmine (26 September 2013). "Egypt: The Misunderstood Agony". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 24 September 2013. ... 3.5 or 33 million Egyptians (the counts vary according to whom you choose to believe) who had taken to the streets on June 30 as part of the Tamarod movement. This protest was a symbolic vote of "no confidence" in President Morsi, urging him to step down, to call early elections, and to hand power to the chief justice in the interim.  ^ "Counting crowds: Was Egypt's uprising the biggest ever?". BBC
BBC
News. 16 July 2013 ^ Protesters across Egypt
Egypt
call for Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi
to go World news. The Guardian. ^ "Top Weekend Links: Millions protest in Egypt
Egypt
to oust Morsi". MSNBC. (1 July 2013). ^ "Egyptians Want Morsi Removed as Massive Protests Continue in Tahrir Square". U.S. News & World Report, (1 July 2013). ^ Morsi Supporters Protest In Egypt's Capital[permanent dead link]. Huffington Post. ^ " Egypt
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blames Morsi supporters for Rabaa".  ^ "Death toll from Egypt
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violence rises to 638: Health

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