The Society of the Muslim Brothers (Arabic: جماعة الإخوان
المسلمين Jamāʻat al-Ikhwān al-Muslimīn), better known
Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون al-Ikhwān
al-Muslimūn), is a transnational
Islamist organization founded
Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher
Hassan al-Banna in
1928. The organization gained supporters throughout the
Arab world and influenced other
Islamist groups such as Hamas with
its "model of political activism combined with Islamic charity
work", and in 2012 sponsored the elected political party in Egypt
after the January Revolution in 2011. However, it faced periodic
government crackdowns for alleged terrorist activities, and as of 2015
is considered a terrorist organization by the governments of
Bahrain, Egypt, Russia, Syria, Saudi Arabia
and the United Arab Emirates.
The Brotherhood's stated goal is to instill the
Quran and the Sunnah
as the "sole reference point for ... ordering the life of the
Muslim family, individual, community ... and state".
For many years the movement was financed by Saudi Arabia, with which
it shared some enemies[who?] and some points[which?] of
As a Pan-Islamic, religious, and social movement, it preached Islam,
taught the illiterate, and set up hospitals and business enterprises.
The group spread to other Muslim countries but has its largest, or one
of its largest, organizations in
Egypt despite a succession of
government crackdowns in 1948, 1954, 1965, and 2013 after
plots, or alleged plots, of assassination and overthrow were
Arab Spring brought it legalization and substantial political
power at first, but as of 2013 it has suffered severe reversals.
Muslim Brotherhood was legalized in 2011 and won several
elections, including the 2012 presidential election when its
Mohamed Morsi became Egypt's first president to gain power
through an election, though one year later, following massive
demonstrations and unrest, he was overthrown by the military and
placed under house arrest.
The Brotherhood itself claims to be a peaceful, democratic
organization, and that its leader "condemns violence and
2 Strategy and organization
3 In Egypt
3.2 Post–World War II
3.3 Mubarak era
3.4 2011 revolution and after
3.6 General leaders
4 In the Middle East
4.10 Saudi Arabia
4.13 United Arab Emirates
5 Elsewhere in Africa
6.3 United Kingdom
7 Other states
7.2 United States
8.2 Status of non-Muslims
8.3 Response to criticisms
9 Foreign relations
9.1 Designation as a terrorist organization
9.1.1 Outside the Middle East
9.2 Relationship to diplomatic crises in Qatar
10 See also
13 External links
Part of a series on:
Islamization (of knowledge)
Islamic Golden Age
List of Islamic political parties
Islamism based in
Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam
Principles of State and Government
Ma'alim fi al-Tariq
Ma'alim fi al-Tariq ("Milestones")
Governance of the Jurist ("Velayat-e faqih")
Heads of state
House of Saud
House of Thani
Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī
Qazi Hussain Ahmad
Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani
Abul A'la Maududi
Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani
Ata Abu Rashta
Criticism of Islamism
Islam and other religions
The Brotherhood's English-language website describes its principles as
including firstly the introduction of the Islamic
Sharia as "the basis
for controlling the affairs of state and society" and secondly,
working to unify "Islamic countries and states, mainly among the Arab
states, and liberate them from foreign imperialism".
According to a spokesman on its English-language website, the Muslim
Brotherhood believes in reform, democracy, freedom of assembly, press,
We believe that the political reform is the true and natural gateway
for all other kinds of reform. We have announced our acceptance of
democracy that acknowledges political pluralism, the peaceful rotation
of power and the fact that the nation is the source of all powers. As
we see it, political reform includes the termination of the state of
emergency, restoring public freedoms, including the right to establish
political parties, whatever their tendencies may be, and the freedom
of the press, freedom of criticism and thought, freedom of peaceful
demonstrations, freedom of assembly, etc. It also includes the
dismantling of all exceptional courts and the annulment of all
exceptional laws, establishing the independence of the judiciary,
enabling the judiciary to fully and truly supervise general elections
so as to ensure that they authentically express people's will,
removing all obstacles that restrict the functioning of civil society
Its founder, Hassan Al-Banna, was influenced by Islamic modernist
Muhammad Abduh and
Rashid Rida (who attacked the taqlid of
the official `ulama, and he insisted that only the
Quran and the
best-attested hadiths should be sources of the Sharia), with the
group structure and approach being influenced by Sufism.
Al-Banna avoided controversies over doctrine. It downplayed doctrinal
differences between schools (although takfiring Bahais and Ahmadi
Muslims) emphasizing the political importance of worldwide unity of
the Muslim Nation (umma).
Islamic Modernist beliefs were co-opted by secularist rulers and
official `ulama, the Brotherhood has become traditionalist and
conservative, "being the only available outlet for those whose
religious and cultural sensibilities had been outraged by the impact
of Westernization". Al-Banna believed the
Quran and Sunnah
constitute a perfect way of life and social and political organization
that God has set out for man. Islamic governments must be based on
this system and eventually unified in a Caliphate. The Muslim
Brotherhood's goal, as stated by its founder al-Banna was to drive out
British colonial and other Western influences, reclaim Islam's
manifest destiny—an empire, stretching from Spain to Indonesia.
The Brotherhood preaches that
Islam will bring social justice, the
eradication of poverty, corruption and sinful behavior, and political
freedom (to the extent allowed by the laws of Islam). Blended with
methods of modern social sciences, some key thinkers of Brotherhood
have also contemplated the Islamic perspective on bureaucratic
effectiveness, mapping out solutions to problems of formalism and
irresponsiveness to public concerns in public administration, which
pertains to the pro-democratic tenets of Muslim Brotherhood. Such
variations of thoughts have also purportedly negated the realities of
contemporary Muslim countries as their authors have proclaimed.
On the issue of women and gender the
Muslim Brotherhood interprets
Islam conservatively. Its founder called for "a campaign against
ostentation in dress and loose behavior", "segregation of male and
female students", a separate curriculum for girls, and "the
prohibition of dancing and other such pastimes ... "
There have been breakaway groups from the movement, including the
Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya and Al Takfir Wal Hijra. Prominent figures
of the Brotherhood include Sayyid Qutb, a highly influential and
anti-Semitic thinker of Islamic supremacism, and the author of
Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden criticized the Brotherhood, and
accused it of betraying jihad and the ideals of Qutb.
The Brotherhood's "most frequently used slogan" (according to the BBC)
Islam is the Solution" (الإسلام هو الحل).
According to academic Khalil Yusuf, its motto "was traditionally"
"Believers are but Brothers."
Strategy and organization
The Muslim Brotherhood's position on political participation varied
according to the "domestic situation" of each branch, rather than
ideology. For many years its stance was "collaborationist" in Kuwait
and Jordan; for "pacific opposition" in Egypt; "armed opposition" in
Libya and Syria. A 1982 document, later known as The Muslim
Brotherhood Project outlined "a global vision of a worldwide strategy
for Islamic policy [or 'political Islam']" for the Brotherhood was
found in Switzerland and translated into English by Scott Burgess in
2005. (A book on the document was published under the name La
conquête de l'Occident: Le projet secret des Islamistes (The conquest
of the West: The Islamists' Secret Project) by Sylvain Besson.
An MB-translated four-year plan for the period 2008–2011 found
during a police investigation in Germany outlines a two-pronged
strategy: externally, the MB is presented as an organisation ready for
dialogue and a willing partner for cooperation with political
institutions and decision makers. Internally, the goal remains to
create a state based on
Sharia law where MB takes the position as the
leading organisation for all Muslims. The plan also outlines a clear
demarcation towards the United States, Israel,
Jews in general and
Muslim Brotherhood is a transnational organization as opposed a
political party, but its members have created political parties in
several countries, such as the
Islamic Action Front in Jordan, Hamas
in Gaza and the West Bank, and the former Freedom and Justice Party in
Egypt. These parties are staffed by Brotherhood members, but are
otherwise kept independent from the
Muslim Brotherhood to some degree,
unlike Hizb ut-Tahrir, which is highly centralized. The
Brotherhood has been described as a "combination of neo-Sufic tariqa"
(with al-Banna as the original murshid i.e., guide of the tariqa) "and
a political party". The Egyptian Brotherhood has a pyramidal
structure with "families" (or usra, which consists of four to five
people and is headed by a naqib, or "captain) at the bottom,
"clans" above them, "groups" above clans and "battalions" or
"phalanxes" above groups. Potential Brethren start out as
Muhib or "lovers", and if approved move up to become a muayyad, or
"supporter", then to muntasib or "affiliated", (who are nonvoting
members). If a muntasib "satisfies his monitors", he is promoted to
muntazim, or "organizer", before advancing to the final level -- ach
'amal, or "working brother". With this slow careful advancement,
the loyalty of potential members can be "closely probed" and obedience
to orders assured.
At the top of the hierarchy is the Guidance Office (Maktab al-Irshad),
and immediately below it is the
Shura Council. Orders are passed down
through a chain of command:
Shura Council has the duties of planning, charting general
policies and programs that achieve the goal of the Group. It is
composed of roughly 100 Muslim Brothers. Important decisions, such as
whether to participate in elections, are debated and voted on within
Shura Council and then executed by the Guidance Office. Its
resolutions are binding to the Group and only the General
Organizational Conference can modify or annul them and the Shura
Office has also the right to modify or annul resolutions of the
Executive Office. It follows the implementation of the Group's
policies and programs. It directs the Executive Office and it forms
dedicated branch committees to assist in that.
Executive Office or Guidance Office (Maktab al-Irshad), which is
composed of approximately 15 longtime Muslim Brothers and headed by
the supreme guide or General Masul (murshid) Each member of the
Guidance Office oversees a different portfolio, such as university
recruitment, education, or politics. Guidance Office members are
elected by the
Shura Council. Divisions of the Guidance/Executive
Muslim Brotherhood aimed to build a transnational organization. In
the 1940s, the Egyptian Brotherhood organized a "section for Liaison
with the Islamic World" endowed with nine committees. Groups were
Lebanon (1936), in
Syria (1937), and Transjordan (1946). It
also recruited members among the foreign students who lived in Cairo
where its headquarters became a center and a meeting place for
representatives from the whole Muslim world.
In each country with an MB there is a Branch committee with a Masul
(leader) appointed by the General Executive leadership with
essentially the same Branch-divisions as the Executive office.
"Properly speaking" Brotherhood branches exist only in Arab countries
of the Middle East where they are "in theory" subordinate to the
Egyptian General Guide. Beyond that the Brotherhood sponsors national
organizations in countries like
Tunisia (Nahda), Morocco (Justice and
Charity party), Algeria (Movement of Society for Peace). Outside
Arab world it also has influence, with former President of
Afghanistan, Burhanuddin Rabbani, having adopted MB ideas during his
studies at Al-Azhar University, and many similarities between
mujahideen groups in Afghanistan and Arab MBs. Angkatan Belia
Islam Malaysia in Malaysia is close to the Brotherhood. According
to scholar Olivier Roy, as of 1994 "an international agency" of the
Brotherhood "assures the cooperation of the ensemble" of its national
organizations. The agency's "composition is not well known, but the
Egyptians maintain a dominant position".
Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt
Main article: Ittihad Party
Hassan al-Banna founded the
Muslim Brotherhood in the city of Ismailia
in March 1928 along with six workers of the
Suez Canal Company, as a
Pan-Islamic, religious, political, and social movement. The Suez
Canal Company helped Banna build the mosque in
Ismailia that would
serve as the Brotherhood's headquarters, according to Richard
Mitchell's The Society of Muslim Brothers. According to al-Banna,
Islam had lost its social dominance, because most Muslims
had been corrupted by Western influences.
Sharia law based on the
Qur'an and the
Sunnah were seen as laws passed down by God that should
be applied to all parts of life, including the organization of the
government and the handling of everyday problems.
Al-Banna was populist in his message of protecting workers against the
tyranny of foreign and monopolist companies. It founded social
institutions such as hospitals, pharmacies, schools, etc. Al-Banna
held highly conservative views on issues such as women's rights,
opposing equal rights for women, but supporting the establishment of
justice towards women. The Brotherhood grew rapidly going from 800
members in 1936, to 200,000 by 1938 and over 2 million by 1948.
As its influence grew, it opposed British rule in
Egypt starting in
1936, but it was banned after being accused of violent
killings including the assassination of a Prime Minister by a
young Brotherhood member.
Post–World War II
Muslim Brotherhood fighters in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War
In November 1948, following several bombings and assassination
attempts by the Brotherhood, the Egyptian government arrested 32
leaders of the Brotherhood's "secret apparatus" and banned the
Brotherhood. At this time the Brotherhood was estimated to have
2000 branches and 500,000 members or sympathizers. In succeeding
months Egypt's prime minister was assassinated by a Brotherhood
member, and following that Al-Banna himself was assassinated in what
is thought to be a cycle of retaliation.
In 1952, members of the
Muslim Brotherhood were accused of taking part
Cairo Fire that destroyed some 750 buildings in downtown
Cairo – mainly night clubs, theatres, hotels, and restaurants
frequented by British and other foreigners.
In 1952 Egypt's monarchy was overthrown by a group of nationalist
military officers (Free Officers Movement) who had formed a cell
within the Brotherhood during the first war against Israel in
1948. However, after the revolution Gamal Abdel Nasser, the leader
of the 'free officers' cell, after deposing the first President of
Egypt, Muhammad Neguib, in a coup, quickly moved against the
Brotherhood, blaming them for an attempt on his life. The Brotherhood
was again banned and this time thousands of its members were
imprisoned, many being tortured and held for years in prisons and
concentration camps. In the 1950s and 1960s many Brotherhood members
sought sanctuary in Saudi Arabia. From the 1950s, Al-Banna's
Said Ramadan emerged as a major leader of the Brotherhood
and the movement's unofficial "foreign minister". Ramadan built a
major center for the Brotherhood centered on a mosque in Munich, which
became "a refuge for the beleaguered group during its decades in the
In the 1970s after the death of Nasser and under the new President
(Anwar Sadat), the Egyptian Brotherhood was invited back to
began a new phase of participation in Egyptian politics.
Imprisoned Brethren were released and the organization was tolerated
to varying degrees with periodic arrests and crackdowns until the 2011
During the Mubarak era, observers both defended and criticized the
Brotherhood. It was the largest opposition group in Egypt, calling for
"Islamic reform", and a democratic system in Egypt. It had built a
vast network of support through Islamic charities working among poor
Egyptians. According to ex-
Knesset member and author Uri Avnery
the Brotherhood was religious but pragmatic, "deeply embedded in
Egyptian history, more Arab and more Egyptian than fundamentalist". It
formed "an old established party which has earned much respect with
its steadfastness in the face of recurrent persecution, torture, mass
arrests and occasional executions. Its leaders are untainted by the
prevalent corruption, and admired for their commitment to social
work". It also developed a significant movement online.
In the 2005 parliamentary elections, the Brotherhood became "in
effect, the first opposition party of Egypt's modern era". Despite
electoral irregularities, including the arrest of hundreds of
Brotherhood members, and having to run its candidates as independents
(the organization being technically illegal), the Brotherhood won 88
seats (20% of the total) compared to 14 seats for the legal
During its term in parliament, the Brotherhood "posed a democratic
political challenge to the regime, not a theological one", according
The New York Times
The New York Times journalist, while another report praised
it for attempting to transform "the Egyptian parliament into a real
legislative body", that represented citizens and kept the government
But fears remained about its commitment to democracy, equal rights,
and freedom of expression and belief—or lack thereof. In
December 2006, a campus demonstration by Brotherhood students in
uniforms, demonstrating martial arts drills, betrayed to some such as
Jameel Theyabi, "the group's intent to plan for the creation of
militia structures, and a return by the group to the era of 'secret
cells'". Another report highlighted the Muslim Brotherhood's
efforts in Parliament to combat what one member called the "current
US-led war against
Islamic culture and identity," forcing the Minister
of Culture at the time, Farouk Hosny, to ban the publication of three
novels on the ground they promoted blasphemy and unacceptable sexual
practices. In October 2007, the
Muslim Brotherhood issued a
detailed political platform. Among other things, it called for a board
of Muslim clerics to oversee the government, and limiting the office
of the presidency to Muslim men. In the "Issues and Problems" chapter
of the platform, it declared that a woman was not suited to be
president because the office's religious and military duties "conflict
with her nature, social and other humanitarian roles". While
proclaiming "equality between men and women in terms of their human
dignity", the document warned against "burdening women with duties
against their nature or role in the family".
Internally, some leaders in the Brotherhood disagreed on whether to
adhere to Egypt's 32-year peace treaty with Israel. A deputy leader
declared the Brotherhood would seek dissolution of the treaty,
while a Brotherhood spokesman stated the Brotherhood would respect the
treaty as long as "Israel shows real progress on improving the lot of
2011 revolution and after
Further information: Egyptian Revolution of 2011, Freedom and Justice
Party (Egypt), and 2013 Egyptian coup d'état
Egyptian Revolution of 2011
Egyptian Revolution of 2011 and fall of Hosni Mubarak,
the Brotherhood was legalized and was at first very successful,
dominating the 2011 parliamentary election and winning the 2012
presidential election, before the overthrow of President Mohamed Morsi
a year later, leading to a crackdown on the Brotherhood again.
On 30 April 2011, the Brotherhood launched a new party called the
Freedom and Justice Party, which won 235 of the 498 seats in the 2011
Egyptian parliamentary elections, far more than any other
party. The party rejected the "candidacy of women or Copts for
Egypt's presidency", but not for cabinet positions.
Then-U.S. Secretary of State
John Kerry meeting with then-Egyptian
President Mohamed Morsi, May 2013
The Muslim Brotherhood's candidate for Egypt's 2012 presidential
election was Mohamed Morsi, who defeated Ahmed Shafiq—the last prime
minister under Mubarak's rule—with 51.73% of the vote. Some high
level supporters and former Brotherhood officials have
reiterated hostility toward Zionism, although during his campaign
Morsi himself promised to stand for peaceful relations with
Within a short period, serious public opposition developed to
President Morsi. In late November 2012, he "temporarily" granted
himself the power to legislate without judicial oversight or review of
his acts, on the grounds that he needed to "protect" the nation from
the Mubarak-era power structure. He also put a draft
constitution to a referendum that opponents complained was "an
Islamist coup". These issues—and concerns over the
prosecutions of journalists, the unleashing of pro-Brotherhood gangs
on nonviolent demonstrators, the continuation of military trials, new
laws that permitted detention without judicial review for up to 30
days, and the seeming impunity given to
Islamist radical attacks
on Christians and other minorities—brought hundreds of
thousands of protesters to the streets starting in November
By April 2013,
Egypt had "become increasingly divided" between
Mohamed Morsi and "
Islamist allies" and an opposition of
"moderate Muslims, Christians and liberals". Opponents accused "Morsi
Muslim Brotherhood of seeking to monopolize power, while
Morsi's allies say the opposition is trying to destabilize the country
to derail the elected leadership".[dead link] Adding to the
unrest were severe fuel shortages and electricity outages, which
raised suspicions among some Egyptians that the end of gas and
electricity shortages since the ouster of President
Mohamed Morsi was
evidence of a conspiracy to undermine him, although other Egyptians
say it was evidence of Morsi's mismanagement of the economy.
On 3 July 2013,
Mohamed Morsi was removed from office and put into
house arrest by the military, that happened shortly after a
popular uprising of tens of millions of Egyptians
began. demanding the resignation of Morsi.
There were also limited counter-protests in support of Morsi;
those were originally intended to celebrate the one-year anniversary
of Morsi's inauguration, and started days before the uprising. On 14
August, the interim government declared a month-long state of
emergency, and riot police cleared the pro-Morsi sit-in during the
Rabaa sit-in dispersal of August 2013. Violence escalated rapidly
following armed protesters attacking police, according to the National
Council for Human Rights' report; this led to the deaths of over
600 people and injury of some 4,000, with the incident
resulting in the most casualties in Egypt's modern history. In
retaliation, Brotherhood supporters looted and burned police stations
and dozens of churches in response to the violence, though a Muslim
Brotherhood spokesperson condemned the attacks on Christians and
instead blamed military leaders for plotting the attacks. The
crackdown that followed has been called the worst for the
Brotherhood's organization "in eight decades". By 19 August, Al
Jazeera reported that "most" of the Brotherhood's leaders were in
custody. On that day Supreme Leader
Mohammed Badie was
arrested, crossing a "red line", as even
Hosni Mubarak had never
arrested him. On 23 September, a court ordered the group outlawed
and its assets seized. Prime Minister,
Hazem Al Beblawi
Hazem Al Beblawi on 21
December 2013, declared the
Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist
organisation after a car bomb ripped through a police building and
killed at least 14 people in the city of Mansoura, which the
government blamed on the Muslim Brotherhood, despite no evidence and
an unaffiliated Sinai-based terror group claiming responsibility for
A group of pro-Brotherhood protesters holding the
Rabia sign and
making the associated gesture during a pro-Brotherhood protest held in
On 24 March 2014, an Egyptian court sentenced 529 members of the
Muslim Brotherhood to death following an attack on a police
station, an act described by
Amnesty International as "the largest
single batch of simultaneous death sentences we've seen in recent
years […] anywhere in the world". By May 2014, approximately
16,000 people (and as high as more than 40,000 by what The Economist
calls an "independent count"), mostly Brotherhood members or
supporters, have allegedly been arrested by police since the 2013
uprising. On 2 February 2015, an Egyptian court sentenced another
183 members of the
Muslim Brotherhood to death.
An editorial in
The New York Times
The New York Times claimed that "leaders of the Muslim
Brotherhood, which became the leading political movement in the wake
of Egypt’s 2011 popular uprising, are languishing in prison,
unfairly branded as terrorists[...] Egypt’s crushing
authoritarianism could well persuade a significant number of its
citizens that violence is the only tool they have for fighting
Mohamed Morsi was sentenced to death on 16 May 2015, along with 120
Foreigners were threatened with violence by a Turkey-based free-to-air
satellite television channel owned by exiled Egyptian Muslim
Brotherhood members. Violence was endorsed by a Turkey-based
office of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood.
Muslim Brotherhood claimed that Muslims did not carry out the
Botroseya Church bombing and claimed it was a false flag conspiracy by
the Egyptian government and Copts, in a statement released in Arabic
on the FJP's website, but its claim was challenged by 100 Women
participant Nervana Mahmoud and Hoover Institution and
Hudson Institute fellow Samuel Tadros. The Muslim Brotherhood
released an Arabic-language statement claiming the attack was carried
out by the Egyptian security forces working for the Interior
Ministry. The
Anti-Coup Alliance said that "full
responsibility for the crime" was on the "coup authority".[citation
Muslim Brotherhood released an English-language commentary
on the bombing and said it condemned the terrorist attack.
Muslim Brotherhood members are suspected to have helped a
Muslim Brotherhood agent carry out the bombing, according to the
Egyptian government. The Qatar-based supporter was
named as Mohab Mostafa El-Sayed Qassem. The terrorist
was named as Mahmoud Shafiq Mohamed Mostaf.
The Arabic-language website of the
Muslim Brotherhood commemorated the
anniversary of the death of its leader, Hassan al-Banna, and repeated
his words calling for the teachings of
Islam to spread all over the
world and to raise the "flag of Jihad", taking their land, "regaining
their glory", "including diaspora Muslims" and demanding an Islamic
State and a Muslim government, a Muslim people, a Muslim house, and
Muslim individuals. The Brotherhood cited some of Hassan
al-Banna's sayings calling for brotherhood between Muslims.[citation
The death of Omar Abdel Rahman, a convicted terrorist, received
condolences from the Muslim Brotherhood. Mekameleen
TV, a Turkey-based free-to-air satellite television channel run by
exiled Brotherhood supporters, mourned his death and claimed it was
"martyrdom". Mekameleen supports the Brotherhood
Condolences were sent upon Omar Abdel Rahman's death by the website of
the Muslim Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party in Egypt.
How much of the blame for the fall from power in
Egypt of the
Brotherhood and its allied Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) can be
placed on the Brotherhood, and how much of it can be placed on its
enemies in the Egyptian bureaucracy, media and security establishment
is disputed. The Mubarak government’s state media portrayed the
Brotherhood as secretive and illegal, and numerous TV channels
such as OnTV spent much of their air time vilifying the
organization. But the Brotherhood took a number of controversial
steps and also acquiesced to or supported crackdowns by the military
during Morsi’s presidency. Before the revolution, the Muslim
Brotherhood’s supporters appeared at a protest at Al-Azhar
University wearing military-style fatigues, after which the Mubarak
government accused the organization of starting an underground
militia. When it came to power, the
Muslim Brotherhood indeed
tried to establish armed groups of supporters and it sought official
permission for its members to be armed.
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Mohammed Badie, the current leader
Founder and first General Leader (G.L.): (1928–1949) Hassan al Banna
2nd G.L.: (1949–1972) Hassan al-Hudaybi
3rd G.L.: (1972–1986) Umar al-Tilmisani
4th G.L.: (1986–1996) Muhammad Hamid Abu al-Nasr
5th G.L.: (1996–2002) Mustafa Mashhur
6th G.L.: (2002–2004) Ma'mun al-Hudaybi
7th G.L.: (2004–2010) Mohammed Mahdi Akef
8th G.L.: (16 January 2010) Mohammed Badie
In the Middle East
Al Eslah Society and Al-Menbar Islamic Society
In Bahrain, the
Muslim Brotherhood ideology is speculated to be
represented by the
Al Eslah Society and its political wing, the
Al-Menbar Islamic Society. Following parliamentary
elections in 2002, Al Menbar became the largest joint party with eight
seats in the forty-seat Chamber of Deputies. Prominent members of Al
Menbar include Dr. Salah Abdulrahman, Dr. Salah Al Jowder, and
outspoken MP Mohammed Khalid. The party has generally backed
government-sponsored legislation on economic issues, but has sought a
clampdown on pop concerts, sorcery and soothsayers.
Additionally, it has strongly opposed the government's accession to
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights .
See also: Iranian Call and Reform Organization
Although Iran is a predominately Shi'ite Muslim country and the Muslim
Brotherhood has never attempted to create a branch for Shi'ites,
Olga Davidson and Mohammad Mahallati claim the Brotherhood has had
influence among Shia in Iran. Navab Safavi, who founded
Fada'iyan-e Islam, (also Fedayeen of Islam, or Fadayan-e Islam), an
Iranian Islamic organization active in Iran in the 1940s and 1950s,
was, according to Abbas Milani, "very much enamored of the Muslim
Iranian Call and Reform Organization, a
Islamist group active in
Iran, has been described as an organization "that belongs to the
Muslim Brotherhood" or "Iranian Muslim Brotherhood", while
it has officially stated that it is not affiliated with the
Erdoğan performing the Rabaa gesture (which is used by Muslim
Brotherhood supporters in
Egypt protesting against the
The Turkish AKP, the ruling party of Turkey, publicly supported the
Muslim Brotherhood during and a few months after the overthrow of the
Muslim Brotherhood-affiliated Egyptian president
Mohamed Morsi in July
2013. Then-Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
claimed in an interview that this was because "Turkey would stand by
whoever was elected as a result of legitimate elections".
According to the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, each year
after Morsi's overthrow has seen the AKP "significantly detach itself
Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt".
Further information: Iraqi Islamic Party,
Hamas of Iraq, and Kurdistan
Iraqi Islamic Party
Iraqi Islamic Party was formed in 1960 as the Iraqi branch of the
Brotherhood, but was banned from 1961 during the nationalist rule
of Abd al-Karim Qasim. As government repression hardened under the
Baath Party from February 1963, the group was forced to continue
underground. After the fall of the
Saddam Hussein government in 2003,
the Islamic Party has reemerged as one of the main advocates of the
Sunni community. The Islamic Party has been sharply critical
of the U.S.-led occupation of Iraq, but still participates in the
political process nevertheless. Its leader is Iraqi
Vice-President Tariq Al-Hashimi.
Anti-infidel jihad was encouraged by Imams of the Muslim Brotherhood
simultaneously while the US Army was having dialogues with them in
Mosul. They pose as modern while encouraging violence at the same
time. The role of political representatives of Sunnis was seized on by
Muslim Brotherhood in Mosul since 2003.
Muslim Brotherhood was an active participation in the "Faith
Campaign". An ideology akin to the Brotherhood's was propagated
in the faith campaign.
Khaled al-Obaidi said that he received a death threat and was declared
a non-Muslim by the Muslim Brotherhood.
A pro-Turkish demonstration was held in
London by Muslim
Brotherhood-sympathizing Iraqis.
Also, in the north of Iraq there are several Islamic movements
inspired by or part of the
Muslim Brotherhood network. The Kurdistan
Islamic Union (KIU), a small political party holding 10 seats in the
Kurdish parliament, was believed to be supportive of the Muslim
Brotherhood in the 90's. The group leaders and members have been
continuously arrested by Kurdish authorities.
Further information: Islamic Movement in Israel
'Abd al-Rahman al-Banna, the brother of the
Muslim Brotherhood founder
Hasan al-Banna, went to
Mandatory Palestine and established the Muslim
Brotherhood there in 1935. Al-Hajj Amin al-Husseini, eventually
appointed by the British as Grand Mufti of
Jerusalem in hopes of
accommodating him, was the leader of the group in Palestine.
Another important leader associated with the
Muslim Brotherhood in
Palestine was 'Izz al-Din al-Qassam, an inspiration to Islamists
because he had been the first to lead an armed resistance in the name
of Palestine against the British in 1935. In 1945, the group
established a branch in Jerusalem, and by 1947 twenty-five more
branches had sprung up, in towns such as Jaffa, Lod, Haifa, Nablus,
and Tulkarm, which total membership between 12,000 and
Brotherhood members fought alongside the Arab armies during the 1948
Arab–Israeli war, and, after Israel's creation, the ensuing
Palestinian refugee crisis encouraged more Palestinian Muslims to join
the group. After the war, in the West Bank, the group's activity was
mainly social and religious, not political, so it had relatively good
Jordan during the Jordanian annexation of the West
Bank. In contrast, the group frequently clashed with the Egyptian
government that controlled the
Gaza Strip until 1967.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the Brotherhood's goal was "the upbringing of
an Islamic generation" through the restructuring of society and
religious education, rather than opposition to Israel, and so it lost
popularity to insurgent movements and the presence of Hizb
ut-Tahrir. Eventually, however, the Brotherhood was strengthened
by several factors:
The creation of al-Mujamma' al-Islami, the Islamic Center in 1973 by
Shaykh Ahmad Yasin had a centralizing effect that encapsulated all
Muslim Brotherhood Society in
Jordan and Palestine was created
from a merger of the branches in the
West Bank and Gaza and Jordan.
Palestinian disillusion with the Palestinian militant groups caused
them to become more open to alternatives.
The Islamic Revolution in Iran offered inspiration to Palestinians.
The Brotherhood was able to increase its efforts in Palestine and
avoid being dismantled like militant groups because it did not focus
on the occupation. While militant groups were being dismantled, the
Brotherhood filled the void.
Further information: Hamas
Between 1967 and 1987, the year
Hamas was founded, the number of
mosques in Gaza tripled from 200 to 600, and the Muslim Brotherhood
named the period between 1975 and 1987 a phase of "social institution
building." During that time, the Brotherhood established
associations, used zakat (alms giving) for aid to poor Palestinians,
promoted schools, provided students with loans, used waqf (religious
endowments) to lease property and employ people, and established
mosques. Likewise, antagonistic and sometimes violent opposition to
Palestine Liberation Organization
Palestine Liberation Organization and other secular
nationalist groups increased dramatically in the streets and on
In 1987, following the First Intifada, the Islamic Resistance
Movement, or Hamas was established from
Brotherhood-affiliated charities and social institutions that had
gained a strong foothold among the local population. During the First
Hamas militarized and transformed into one of
the strongest Palestinian militant groups.
Hamas takeover of the
Gaza Strip in 2007 was the first time since
the Sudanese coup of 1989 that brought
Omar al-Bashir to power, that a
Muslim Brotherhood group ruled a significant geographic
territory. However, the 2013 overthrow of the Mohammad Morsi
Egypt significantly weakened Hamas's position, leading
to a blockade of Gaza and economic crisis.
Further information: Islamic Action Front
Muslim Brotherhood in
Jordan originates from the merging of two
separate groups which represent the two components of the Jordanian
public: the Transjordanian and the
West Bank Palestinian. On 9
November 1945 the Association of the
Muslim Brotherhood (Jam‘iyat
al-Ikhwan al-Muslimin) was officially registered and Abu Qura became
its first General Supervisor. Abu Qura originally brought the
Egypt after extensive study and spread of
the teachings of Imam Hasan al-Banna. While most political
parties and movements were banned for a long time in
Jordan such as
Hizb ut-Tahrir, the Brotherhood was exempted and allowed to operate by
the Jordanian monarchy. In 1948, Egypt, Syria, and Transjordan offered
“volunteers” to help Palestine in its war against Israel. Due to
the defeat and weakening of Palestine, the Transjordanian and
Palestinian Brotherhood merged. The newly merged Muslim
Jordan was primarily concerned with providing social
services and charitable work as well as with politics and its role in
the parliament. It was seen as compatible with the political system
and supported democracy without the forced implementation of Sharia
law which was part of its doctrine. However, internal pressures
from younger members of the Brotherhood who called for more militant
actions as well as his failing health, Abu Qura resigned as the leader
of the Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood. On 26 December 1953, Muhammad
‘Abd al-Rahman Khalifa, was elected by the movement’s
administrative committee as the new leader of the Transjordanian
Brotherhood and he retained this position until 1994. Khalifa was
different than his predecessor and older members of the organization
because he was not educated in Cairo, he was educated in
Palestine. He established close ties with Palestinian Islamists during
his educational life which led him to be jailed for several months in
Jordan for criticizing Arab armies in the war. Khalifa also
reorganized the Brotherhood and applied to the government to designate
the Brotherhood as “a comprehensive and general Islamic Committee,
instead of the previous basis of operation under the “Societies and
Clubs Law”. This allowed the Brotherhood to spread throughout the
country each with slight socioeconomic and political differences
although the majority of the members were of the upper middle class.
The radicalization of the Brotherhood began to take place after the
peace process between
Egypt and Israel, the Islamic Revolution of
Iran, as well as their open criticism towards the Jordan-US
relationship in the 1970s. Support for the Syrian branch of the
Brotherhood also aided the radicalization of the group through open
support and training for the rebel forces in Syria. The ideology began
to transform into a more militant one which without it would not have
the support of the Islamic radicals.
The Jordanian Brotherhood has formed its own political party, the
Islamic Action Front. In 1989 they become the largest group in
parliament, with 23 out of 80 seats, and 9 other
A Brother was elected president of the National Assembly and the
cabinet formed in January 1991 included several MBs. Its
radicalization which calls for more militant support for
Palestine has come into direct conflict with its involvement in the
parliament and overall political process. The Brotherhood claimed its
acceptance of democracy and the democratic process but only within
their own groups. There is a high degree of dissent amongst
Brotherhood leaders who do not share the same values therefore
undermining its acceptance and commitment to democracy.[citation
In 2011, against the backdrop of the Arab Spring, the Jordanian Muslim
Brotherhood "mobilized popular protests on a larger, more regular, and
more oppositional basis than ever before". and had uniquely
positioned themselves as "the only traditional political actor to have
remained prominent during [the] new phase of post-Arab Spring
activism" which led King Abdullah II and then-Prime Minister
Marouf al-Bakhit to invite the
Muslim Brotherhood to join Bakhit's
cabinet, an offer they refused. The
Muslim Brotherhood also
boycotted the 2011 Jordanian municipal elections and led the 2011-12
Jordanian protests demanding a constitutional monarchy and electoral
reforms, which resulted in the firing of Prime Minister Bakhit and the
calling of early general elections in 2013.
As of late 2013, the movement in
Jordan was described as being in
"disarray". The instability and conflict with the monarchy has
led the relationship between the two to crumble. In 2015, some 400
members of the
Muslim Brotherhood defected from the original group
including top leaders and founding members, to establish another
Islamic group, with an allegedly moderate stance. The defectors said
that they didn't like how things were run in the group and due to the
group's relations with Hamas,
Qatar and Turkey, which put suspicion on
the group questioning if they are under the influence and working for
the benefit of these states and organizations on the expense of the
On 13 April 2016, Jordanian police raided and shut the Muslim
Brotherhood headquarters in Amman. This comes despite the fact that
the Jordanian branch cut ties with the mother Egyptian group in
January 2016, a designated terrorist organization, a move that is
considered to be exclusively cosmetic by experts. Jordanian
authorities state that the reason of closure is because that the
Brotherhood is unlicensed and is using the name of the defectors'
licensed group. This comes after the Jordanian senate passed a new
legislation for the regulation of political parties in 2014, the
Muslim Brotherhood did not adhere by the regulations of the new law
and so they did not renew their membership.
"The government of
Qatar continued to back the
Muslim Brotherhood in
Egypt, denouncing what Sheikh Tamim described as a 'military coup'
that had taken place in
Egypt in July 2013." The ambassadors
crisis also seriously threatened the GCC’s activities, adversely
affected its functioning and could arguably even have led to its
Further information: Hadas
Egyptian Brethren came to Kuwait in the 1950s as refugees from Arab
nationalism and integrated into the education ministry and other parts
of the state. The Brotherhood's charity arm in Kuwait is called Al
Eslah (Social Reform Society) and its political arm is called the
Islamic Constitutional Movement (ICM) or "Hadas". Members of
ICM have been elected to parliament and served in the government and
are "widely believed to hold sway with the Ministry of Awqaf" (Islamic
endowment) and Islamic Affairs, but have never reached a majority or
even a plurality — "a fact that has required them to be pragmatic
about working with other political groups". During the Invasion
of Kuwait, the Kuwait MB (along with other MB in the Gulf States)
supported the American-Saudi coalition forces against Iraq and "quit
the brotherhood's international agency in protest" over its pro-Sadam
stand. However following the
Arab Spring and the crackdown on the
Egyptian Brotherhood, the Saudi government has put “pressure on
other states that have
Muslim Brotherhood adherents, asking them to
decree that the group is a terrorist organization”, and the local
Kuwaiti and other Gulf state Brotherhoods have not been spared
pressure from their local governments.
The Kingdom of
Saudi Arabia helped the Brotherhood financially for
"over half a century", but the two became estranged during the
Gulf War, and enemies after the election of Mohamed Morsi. Inside the
kingdom, before the crushing of the Egyptian MB, the Brotherhood was
called a group whose "many quiet supporters" made it "one of the few
potential threats" to the royal family's control.
The Brotherhood first had an impact inside
Saudi Arabia in 1954 when
thousands of Egyptian Brethren sought to escape president Gamal Abdel
Nasser's clampdown, while (the largely illiterate)
Saudi Arabia was
looking for teachers—who were also conservative pious Arab
Muslims—for its newly created public school system. The Muslim
Brotherhood's brand of
Islam and Islamic politics differs from the
strict Salafi creed, Wahhabiyya, officially held by the state of Saudi
Arabia, and MB members "obeyed orders of the ruling family and ulama
to not attempt to proselytize or otherwise get involved in religious
doctrinal matters within the Kingdom. Nonetheless, the group
"methodically ... took control of Saudi Arabia's intellectual life" by
publishing books and participating in discussion circles and salons
held by princes. Although the organization had no "formal
organizational presence" in the Kingdom, (no political groups or
parties are allowed to operate openly) MB members became
"entrenched both in Saudi society and in the Saudi state, taking a
leading role in key governmental ministries". In particular, many
established themselves in Saudi educational system. One expert on
Saudi affairs (Stephane Lacroix) has stated: "The education system is
so controlled by the Muslim Brotherhood, it will take 20 years to
change—if at all. Islamists see education as their base" in Saudi
Relations between the Saudi ruling family and the Brotherhood became
strained with Saudi opposition to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait and the
willingness of Saudi government to allow US troops to be based in the
Kingdom to fight Iraq. The Brotherhood supported the Sahwah
("Awakening") movement that pushed for political change in the
Kingdom. In 2002, the then Saudi Interior Minister Prince Nayef
denounced the Brotherhood, saying it was guilty of "betrayal of
pledges and ingratitude" and was "the source of all problems in the
Islamic world". The ruling family was also alarmed by the Arab
Spring and the example set by the
Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, with
Mohamed Morsi bringing an
Islamist government to power by
means of popular revolution and elections. Sahwa figures
published petitions for reform addressed to the royal government (in
Wahhabi quietist doctrine). After the overthrow of the
Morsi government in Egypt, all the major Sahwa figures signed
petitions and statements denouncing the removal of Morsi and the Saudi
government support for it.
In March 2014, in a "significant departure from its past official
stance" the Saudi government declared the Brotherhood a "terrorist
organization", followed with a royal decree announced that, from now
"belonging to intellectual or religious trends or groups that are
extremist or categorized as terrorist at the local, regional or
international level, as well supporting them, or showing sympathy for
their ideas and methods in whichever way, or expressing support for
them through whichever means, or offering them financial or moral
support, or inciting others to do any of this or promoting any such
actions in word or writing”
will be punished by a prison sentence “of no less than three years
and no more than twenty years".
Further information: Islamic Group (Lebanon)
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March
The Islamic Group was founded in 1964.
Muslim Brotherhood of Syria
Muslim Brotherhood in
Syria was founded in the 1930s (according to
lexicorient.com) or in 1945, a year before independence from France,
(according to journalist Robin Wright). In the first decade or so of
independence it was part of the legal opposition, and in the 1961
parliamentary elections it won ten seats (5.8% of the house). But
after the 1963 coup that brought the secular Ba'ath Party to power it
was banned. It played a major role in the mainly Sunni-based
movement that opposed the secularist, pan-Arabist Ba'ath Party. This
conflict developed into an armed struggle that continued until
culminating in the Hama uprising of 1982, when the rebellion was
crushed by the military.
Membership in the Syrian Brotherhood became a capital offense in Syria
in 1980 (under Emergency Law 49, which was revoked in 2011), but the
headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood-linked Palestinian group,
Hamas, was located in the Syria's capital Damascus, where it was given
Syrian government support. This has been cited as an example of the
lack of international centralization or even coordination of the
The Brotherhood is said to have "resurrected itself" and become the
"dominant group" in the opposition by 2012 during the Syrian Civil War
according to the
Washington Post newspaper. But by 2013 another
source described it as having "virtually no influence on the
conflict". Syrian President
Bashar al-Assad welcomed the fall of
Muslim Brotherhood in
Egypt and remarked that "Arab identity is
back on the right track after the fall from power of Egypt's Muslim
Brotherhood, which had used religion for its own political gain".
United Arab Emirates
Further information: Al Islah (United Arab Emirates)
Since 2014, the
Muslim Brotherhood has been considered as terrorist in
the UAE. "The
UAE considers the
Muslim Brotherhood issue to
be related to its own internal security, especially after the State
Security Court in Abu Dhabi handed down tough penalties to members of
Muslim Brotherhood cell" for attempting to overthrow the state."
The Al Islah was founded in 1974. They belong to the Muslim
Further information: Al-Islah (Yemen)
The Muslim Brothers fought with North Yemen in the NDF rebellion as
Islamic Front. The
Muslim Brotherhood is the political arm of the
Yemeni Congregation for Reform, commonly known as Al-Islah. Former
Ali Abdullah Saleh
Ali Abdullah Saleh made substantial efforts to entrench the
accusations of being in league with Al Qaeda.
The Treasury Department of the US used the label "Bin Laden loyalist"
for Abdul Majeed al-Zindani, the Yemeni Muslim Brotherhood's
Elsewhere in Africa
Further information: Movement of Society for Peace
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Muslim Brotherhood reached Algeria during the later years of the
French colonial presence in the country (1830–1962).[citation
needed] Sheikh Ahmad Sahnoun led the organization in Algeria between
1953 and 1954 during the French colonialism.
Brotherhood members and sympathizers took part in the uprising against
France in 1954–1962, but the movement was marginalized during the
largely secular FLN one-party rule which was installed at independence
in 1962. It remained unofficially active, sometimes protesting the
government and calling for increased
Islamization and Arabization of
the country's politics.
When a multi-party system was introduced in Algeria in the early
Muslim Brotherhood formed the Movement of Society for Peace
(MSP, previously known as Hamas), led by
Mahfoud Nahnah until his
death in 2003 (he was succeeded by present party leader Boudjerra
Muslim Brotherhood in Algeria did not join the Front
islamique du salut (FIS), which emerged as the leading
winning the 1991 elections and which was banned in 1992 following a
military coup d'état, although some Brotherhood sympathizers did. The
Brotherhood subsequently also refused to join the violent post-coup
uprising by FIS sympathizers and the
Armed Islamic Groups
Armed Islamic Groups (GIA)
against the Algerian state and military which followed, and urged a
peaceful resolution to the conflict and a return to democracy. It has
thus remained a legal political organization and enjoyed parliamentary
and government representation. In 1995, Sheikh Nahnah ran for
President of Algeria
President of Algeria finishing second with 25.38% of the popular vote.
During the 2000s (decade), the party—led by Nahnah's successor
Boudjerra Soltani—has been a member of a three-party coalition
backing President Abdelaziz Bouteflika.
Further information: Justice and Construction Party, Party of Reform
and Development, and Homeland Party (Libya)
A group of the
Muslim Brotherhood came to the Libyan kingdom in the
1950s as refugees escaping crackdown by the Egyptian leader Gamal
Abdel Nasser, but it was not able to operate openly until after the
First Libyan Civil War. They were viewed negatively by King Idris of
Libya who had become increasingly wary of their activities. Muammar
Gaddafi forbade all forms of
Islamism in Libya and was an archenemy to
Muslim Brotherhood for long time. The group held its first public
press conference on 17 November 2011, and on 24 December the
Brotherhood announced that it would form the Justice and Construction
Party (JCP) and contest the
General National Congress
General National Congress elections the
following year. The Libyan
Muslim Brotherhood has “little
history of interactions with the masses.”
Despite predictions based on fellow post-
Arab Spring nations Tunisia
Egypt that the Brotherhood's party would easily win the elections,
it instead came a distant second to the National Forces Alliance,
receiving just 10% of the vote and 17 out of 80 party-list seats.
Their candidate for Prime Minister,
Awad al-Baraasi was also defeated
in the first round of voting in September, although he was later made
a Deputy Prime Minister under Ali Zeidan. A JCP Congressman,
Saleh Essaleh is also the vice speaker of the General National
Party of Reform and Development is led by Khaled al-Werchefani, a
former member of the Muslim Brotherhood.
Sallabi, the Head of Homeland Party, has close ties to Yusuf
al-Qaradawi, the spiritual leader of the international Muslim
Muslim Brotherhood in Libya has come under widespread criticism,
particularly for their alleged ties with extremist organizations
operating in Libya. In fact, the text of the U.S. Congress Muslim
Brotherhood Terrorist Designation Act of 2015 directly accuses the
militias of the Libyan
Muslim Brotherhood of “joining forces with
United States designated terrorist organizations, particularly Ansar
al-Sharia” who the United States blames for the attack on its
compound in Benghazi. There have been similar reports that
those tasked with guarding the Benghazi consulate on the night of the
assault were connected to the Muslim Brotherhood.
Muslim Brotherhood has lost much of its popular support
since 2012 as the group was blamed for divisions in the country.
Secular Libyan politicians have continued to voice concerns of the
Brotherhood’s ties to extremist groups. In October 2017, spokesman
of the Libyan National Army (LNA) colonel Ahmed Al Masmary claimed
that “branches of the
Muslim Brotherhood affiliated to al-Qaeda”
had joined forces with ISIS in Libya. In the 2014 parliamentary
Muslim Brotherhood won only 25 of the 200 available
Further information: National Rally for Reform and Development
Changes to the demographic and political makeup of Mauritania in the
1970s heavily contributed to the growth of
Islamism within Mauritanian
society. Periods of severe drought resulted in urbanization, as large
numbers of Mauritanians moved from the countryside to the cities,
particularly Nouakchott, to escape the drought. This sharp increase in
urbanization resulted in new civil associations being formed, and
Islamist organisation, known as Jemaa Islamiyya
(Islamic Association) was formed by Mauritanians sympathetic to the
There was increased activism relating to the
Muslim Brotherhood in the
1980s, partially driven by members of the Egyptian Muslim
In 2007 the National Rally for Reform and Development, better known as
Tewassoul, was legalized as a political party. The party is associated
with the Mauritanian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood.
Further information: Justice and Development Party (Morocco)
The Justice and Development Party was the largest vote-getter in
Morocco's 2011 election, and as of May 2015, held the office of Prime
Minister. It is historically affiliated with the Muslim
Brotherhood, however, despite this, the party has
reportedly "ostentatiously" praised the King of Morocco, while "loudly
insisting that it is in no sense whatsoever a Muslim Brotherhood
party"—a development one source (Hussein Ibish), calls evidence
of how "regionally discredited the movement has become".[citation
Somalia's wing of the
Muslim Brotherhood is known by the name Harakat
Al-Islah or "Reform Movement". Muslim Brotherhood
ideology reached Somalia in the early 1960s, but Al-Islah movement was
formed in 1978 and slowly grew in the 1980s. Al-Islah
has been described as "a generally nonviolent and modernizing Islamic
movement that emphasizes the reformation and revival of
Islam to meet
the challenges of the modern world", whose "goal is the establishment
of an Islamic state" and which "operates primarily in Mogadishu".
The organization structured itself loosely and was not openly visible
on the political scene of Somali society.
National Islamic Front and National Congress
See also: War in Darfur, Second Sudanese Civil War, and Human rights
Until the election of
Hamas in Gaza, Sudan was the one country where
the Brotherhood was most successful in gaining power, its members
making up a large part of the government officialdom following the
1989 coup d'état by General Omar al-Bashir. However,
the Sudanese government dominated by the
Muslim Brotherhood affiliated
National Islamic Front (NIF) has come under considerable criticism for
its human rights policies, links to terrorist groups, and war in
southern Sudan and Darfur.
In 1945, a delegation from the
Muslim Brotherhood in
Sudan and held various meetings inside the country advocating and
explaining their ideology.[need quotation to verify] Sudan has a
long and deep history with the
Muslim Brotherhood compared to many
other countries. By April 1949, the first branch of the Sudanese
Muslim Brotherhood organization emerged.[need quotation to
verify] However, simultaneously, many Sudanese students studying in
Egypt were introduced to the ideology of the Brotherhood. The Muslim
student groups also began organizing in the universities during the
1940s, and the Brotherhood's main support base has remained to be
college educated.[need quotation to verify] In order to unite
them, in 1954, a conference was held, attended by various
representatives from different groups that appeared to have the same
ideology. The conference voted to establish a Unified Sudanese Muslim
Brotherhood Organization based on the teachings of Imam Hassan
Al-banna.[need quotation to verify]
An offshoot of the Sudanese branch of the Muslim Brotherhood, the
Islamic Charter Front grew during the 1960, with Islamic scholar Hasan
al-Turabi becoming its Secretary general in 1964.[need quotation
to verify] The Islamic Charter Front (ICM) was renamed several times
most recently being called the
National Islamic Front (NIF). The
Muslim Brotherhood/NIF's main objective in Sudan was to Islamize the
society "from above" and to institutionalize the Islamic law
throughout the country where they succeeded. To that end the party
infiltrated the top echelons of the government where the education of
party cadre, frequently acquired in the West, made them
"indispensable". This approach was described by Turabi himself as the
`jurisprudence of necessity`.[need quotation to verify]
Meeting resistance from non-Islamists, from already established Muslim
organisations, and from non-Muslims in the south, the Sudanese NIF
government under Turabi and the NIF organized a coup to overthrow a
democratically elected government in 1989, organized the Popular
Defense Force which committed "widespread, deliberate and systematic
atrocities against hundreds of thousands of southern civilians" in the
1990s. The NIF government also employed "widespread arbitrary and
extrajudicial arrest, torture, and execution of labor union officials,
military officers, journalists, political figures and civil society
leaders".[need quotation to verify]
The views of at least some elements of the Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood
were highlighted in a 3 August 2007
Al-Jazeera television interview of
Muslim Brotherhood leader Sheikh Sadeq Abdallah bin Al-Majed.
As translated by the Israeli-based MEMRI, Bin Al-Majed told his
interviewer that "the West, and the Americans in particular ...
are behind all the tragedies that are taking place in Darfur", as they
"realized that it
Darfur is full of treasures"; that "
Islam does not
permit a non-Muslim to rule over Muslims"; and that he had issued a
fatwa prohibiting the vaccination of children, on the grounds that the
vaccinations were "a conspiracy of the
Jews and Freemasons".
Further information: Ennahda Movement
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Like their counterparts elsewhere in the Islamic world in general, the
Muslim Brotherhood has influenced the Tunisian
Islamists. One of the notable organization that was
influenced and inspired by the Brotherhood is Ennahda (The Revival or
Renaissance Party), which is Tunisia's major
grouping. An Islamist[who?] founded the organization in 1981.[citation
needed] While studying in Damascus and Paris, Rashid Ghannouchi
embraced the ideology of the Muslim Brotherhood, which he disseminated
on his return to Tunisia.
Islamic Community of Germany (de: Islamische Gemeinschaft in
Deutschland e.V, IGD) being constituent and founding organisation of
the MB umbrella organisation FIOE, the MB is active in Germany with
the IGD as a proxy. IGD members take care to not publicly declare
their affiliation to the MB.
Muslim Brotherhood is banned in
Russia as a terrorist
As affirmed on 14 February 2003 by the decision of the Supreme Court
of Russia, the
Muslim Brotherhood coordinated the creation of an
Islamic organisation called The Supreme Military Majlis ul-
the United Forces of Caucasian Mujahedeen (Russian: Высший
военный маджлисуль шура объединённых
сил моджахедов Кавказа), led by
Ibn Al-Khattab and
Basaev; an organisation that committed multiple terror-attack acts in
Russia and was allegedly financed by drug trafficking, counterfeiting
of coins and racketeering.
The first MB-affiliated organisations in the UK were founded in the
1960s, which comprised exiles and overseas students. They
promoted the works of Indian theologician Abu A’la Mawdudi and
represented the Jama’at-e-Islami. In their initial phase they were
politically inactive in the UK as they assumed they would return to
their home countries and instead focused on recruiting new members and
to support the MB in the Arab World.
In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the MB and its associated
organisations changed to a new strategy of political activity in
western countries with the purpose to promote the MB overseas but also
preserve the autonomy of Muslim communities in the UK.
In the 1990s, the MB established publicly visible organisations and
ostensibly "national" organisations to further its agenda, but
membership in the MB was and remains a secret. The MB dominated
Islamic Society of Britain (ISB), the Muslim Association of
Britain (MAB) and founded the
Muslim Council of Britain (MCB). MAB
became politically active in foreign policy issues such as Palestine
and Iraq, while MCB established a dialogue with the then
In 1996, the first representative of the
Muslim Brotherhood in the UK,
Kamal el-Helbawy, an Egyptian, was able to say that "there are not
many members here, but many Muslims in the UK intellectually support
the aims of the Muslim Brotherhood".
In September 1999, the
Muslim Brotherhood opened a "global information
centre" in London.
Since 2001, the ISB has distanced itself from Muslim Brotherhood
ideology along with the MCB.
In April 2014, David Cameron, who was the Prime Minister of the United
Kingdom at the time, launched an investigation into the Muslim
Brotherhood's activities in the UK and its alleged extremist
Egypt welcomed the decision. After
Cameron's decision, the
Muslim Brotherhood reportedly moved its
Austria attempting to avoid the
In a 2015 government report, the MB was found to not have been linked
to terrorist related activity against in the UK and MAB has condemned
Al-Qaeda terrorist activity in the UK.
Further information: Prosperous Justice Party
Several parties and organizations in Indonesia are linked or at least
inspired by the Muslim Brotherhood, although none have a formal
relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood. One of the Muslim
Brotherhood-linked parties is the PKS (Prosperous Justice
Party), which gained 6.79% of votes in the 2014
legislative election, down from 7.88% in the 2009 election. The PKS's
relationship with the Egyptian
Muslim Brotherhood was confirmed by
Yusuf al-Qaradawi, a prominent
Muslim Brotherhood leader.[need
quotation to verify] The PKS was a member of President Susilo Bambang
Yudhoyono's government coalition with 3 ministers in the cabinet.
According to The Washington Post, U.S.
Muslim Brotherhood supporters
"make up the U.S. Islamic community's most organized force" by running
hundreds of mosques and business ventures, promoting civic activities,
and setting up American Islamic organizations to defend and promote
Islam. In 1963, the U.S. chapter of
Muslim Brotherhood was
started by activists involved with the Muslim Students Association
(MSA). U.S. supporters of the Brotherhood also started other
North American Islamic Trust in 1971, the
Islamic Society of North America
Islamic Society of North America in 1981, the American Muslim Council
in 1990, the
Muslim American Society
Muslim American Society in 1992 and the International
Institute of Islamic Thought in the 1980s. In addition, according
to An Explanatory Memorandum on the General Strategic Goal for the
Group in North America, the "Understanding of the Role of the Muslim
Brotherhood in North America", and a relatively benign goal of the
Muslim Brotherhood in North America is identified as the following:
Establishing an effective and a stable Islamic movement led by the
Muslim Brotherhood which adopts Muslims' causes domestically and
globally, and which works to expand the observant Muslim base, aims at
unifying and directing Muslims' efforts, presents
Islam as a
civilization alternative, and supports the global Islamic state
wherever it is.
A somewhat less benign-sounding goal from the same document, one that
gives some observers pause and is less often referred to, occurs on
page 7 of 18 (in the translation referred to):
The process of settlement is a ‘Civilization-Jihadist Process’
with all the word means. The Ikhwan [Muslim Brotherhood] must
understand that their work in America is a kind of grand jihad in
eliminating and destroying the Western civilization from within and
‘sabotaging’ its miserable house by their hands and the hands of
the believers so that it is eliminated and God's religion [Islam] is
made victorious over all other religions. 
During the Holy Land Foundation trial in 2007, several documents
pertaining to the Brotherhood were unsuccessful in convincing the
courts that the Brotherhood was involved in subversive activities. In
one, dated 1984 called "Ikhwan in America" (Brotherhood in America),
the author alleges that the activities of the
Muslim Brotherhood in
the US include going to camps to do weapons training (referred to as
special work by the Muslim Brotherhood), as well as engaging in
counter-espionage against U.S. government agencies such as the FBI and
CIA (referred to as Securing the Group). Another (dated 1991)
outlined a strategy for the
Muslim Brotherhood in the United States
that involved “eliminating and destroying the Western civilization
Penned in May of 1991 by a man named Mohamed Akram Adlouni, the
'Explanatory Memorandum on the General Strategic Goal for the Group in
North America' was discovered during an FBI raid of a Virginia home in
2004. The document was admitted as an exhibit to the court during the
2007 Holy Land Foundation trial, in which that group was charged with
laundering money. After the trial, the document became public. But,
according to a 2009 opinion by the presiding judge, the memo was not
considered 'supporting evidence' for that alleged money laundering
scheme, nor any other conspiracy.
Despite the apparent impotence of the documents, they continued to be
widely publicized in American conservative circles.
U.S. Congress attempts to pass legislation criminalizing the group,
put forward by the 114th Congress, were defeated. The Bill, called the
Muslim Brotherhood Terrorist Designation Act of 2015, was introduced
to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations by Senator Ted Cruz
(R-TX). In it the bill states that the Department of State should
Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist organization. If
passed, the bill would have required the State Department to report to
Congress within 60 days whether or not the group fits the criteria,
and if it did not, to state which specific criteria it had not
met. Senator Cruz announced the legislation along with
Mario Díaz-Balart (R-FL) in November 2015. However, it
did not pass.
This bill came after a handful of foreign countries made similar moves
in recent years including Egypt, Russia, Saudi Arabia, and others, and
after, according to Cruz, recent evidence emerged suggesting that the
group supports terrorism. The senator further alleged that the
group’s stated goal is to wage violent jihad against its enemies,
which includes the United States, and the fact that the Obama
administration has listed numerous group members on its terror list.
Cruz further stated that the bill would "reject the fantasy that [the]
parent institution [of the Muslim Brotherhood] is a political entity
that is somehow separate from these violent activities".
The bill identifies three
Muslim Brotherhood entities in the U.S.
including the Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR), a
non-profit group denounced by the
UAE for its MB ties. This group is
regarded by the Egyptian government as a Brotherhood lobby in the
United States. The other two entities are the Islamic
Society of North America (ISNA) and the North American Islamic Trust
Conservatives in the Congress believe that the group is a breeding
ground for radical Islam. Previous attempts were made in the previous
year by Representative
Michele Bachmann (R-MN), but it failed largely
due to her allegation that Huma Abedin, Hillary Clinton's aide, had
links to the organization, a statement which was dismissed by
establishment Democrats and Republicans.
In February 2016, the House Judiciary Committee approved the
legislation in a 17 to 10 vote, which if enacted could increase
grounds for enforcing criminal penalties and give permission to the
Secretary of Treasury to block financial transactions and freeze
assets of anyone who has showed material support for the group.
Scholars against this classification claim that the group simply
promotes Islamism, or the belief that society should be governed
according to Islamic values and
Past U.S. presidential administrations have examined whether to
Muslim Brotherhood as a Foreign Terrorist Organization
and have decided not to do so. During the George W. Bush
administration, the U.S. government investigated the Brotherhood and
Islamist groups, but "after years of investigations, ...
the U.S. and other governments, including Switzerland's, closed
investigations of the Brotherhood leaders and financial group for lack
of evidence, and removed most of the leaders from sanctions
lists." The Obama administration was also pressured to designate
the Brotherhood as a terrorist organization, but did not do
The Brotherhood was criticised by
Ayman al-Zawahiri in 2007 for its
refusal to advocate the violent overthrow of the Mubarak government.
Issam al-Aryan, a top Egyptian
Muslim Brotherhood figure, denounced
the al-Qaeda leader: "Zawahiri's policy and preaching bore dangerous
fruit and had a negative impact on
Islam and Islamic movements across
Dubai police chief, Dhahi Khalfan, accused Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood
of an alleged plot to overthrow the
UAE government. He referred to the
Muslim Brotherhood as "dictators" who want "
Islamist rule in all the
The Sudanese Muzammil Faqiri attacked and slammed the Muslim
Brotherhood for murdering people and said that Takfir wal-Hijra, ISIS,
Al-Qaeda were products of the Muslim Brotherhood.
Dr. Abd Al-Hamid Al-Ansari denounced the
Islamist and leftist excuse
used by people with hidden motives, who say that Muslim Brotherhood
people being tortured is a reason for radical religious
The label of "colonialist movement" was used against the Muslim
Brotherhood, which was accused of anti-Nubian discrimination and
racism by Osama Farouq, a Nubian leader in Egypt.
Muslim Brotherhood has been denounced by Bassem Youssef.
This section is in a list format that may be better presented using
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appropriate. Editing help is available. (August 2017)
Numerous officials and reporters question the sincerity of the Muslim
Brotherhood's pronouncements. These critics include, but are not
Juan Zarate, former U.S.
White House counterterrorism chief (quoted in
the conservative publication, FrontPage Magazine): "The Muslim
Brotherhood is a group that worries us not because it deals with
philosophical or ideological ideas but because it defends the use of
violence against civilians".
Miles Axe Copeland, Jr., a prominent U.S. Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA) operative who was one of the founding members of the Office of
Strategic Services (OSS) under William Donovan, divulged the
confessions of numerous members of the Muslim Brotherhood. These
confessions resulted from the harsh interrogations done against them
by Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser, for their alleged
involvement in the assassination attempt made against Nasser (an
assassination attempt that many believe was staged by Nasser
himself). They revealed that the
Muslim Brotherhood was merely a
"guild" that fulfilled the goals of western interests: "Nor was that
all. Sound beatings of the Moslem Brotherhood organizers who had been
arrested revealed that the organization had been thoroughly
penetrated, at the top, by the British, American, French and Soviet
intelligence services, any one of which could either make active use
of it or blow it up, whichever best suited its purposes. Important
lesson: fanaticism is no insurance against corruption; indeed, the two
are highly compatible".
Former U.S. Middle East peace envoy Dennis Ross, who told Asharq
Alawsat newspaper that the
Muslim Brotherhood is a global, not a local
organization, governed by a
Shura (Consultative) Council, which
rejects cessation of violence in Israel, and supports violence to
achieve its political objectives elsewhere too.
The Interior Minister of Saudi Arabia, Prince Nayef bin Abdul-Aziz Al
Saud has alleged that the
Muslim Brotherhood organization was the
cause of most problems in the Arab world. 'The Brotherhood has done
great damage to Saudi Arabia', he said. Prince Naif accused the
Islamist group in the
Arab world of harming the interests of
Muslims. 'All our problems come from the Muslim Brotherhood. We have
given too much support to this group..." "The
Muslim Brotherhood has
destroyed the Arab world', he said. 'Whenever they got into difficulty
or found their freedom restricted in their own countries, Brotherhood
activists found refuge in the Kingdom which protected their lives...
But they later turned against the Kingdom...' The Muslim Brotherhood
has links to groups across the Arab world, including Jordan's main
parliamentary opposition, the 'Islamic Action Front', and the
'Palestinian resistance movement, Hamas'". The Interior Minister's
outburst against the Brotherhood came amid mounting criticism in the
United States of Saudi Arabia's longstanding support for Islamist
groups around the world..."
Sarah Mousa of
Al Jazeera reported on the Muslim Brotherhood's highly
improbable claim that opposition leader and
Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize laureate
Mohammad ElBaradei (who has had a "rocky" relationship with the US)
was "an American agent", and observed that the since-defunct Muslim
Shura Council's support of the slander
demonstrated a lack of commitment to democracy.
Scholar Carrie Rosefsky Wickham finds official Brotherhood documents
ambiguous on the issue of democracy: "This raises the question of
whether the Brotherhood is supporting a transition to democracy as an
end in itself or as a first step toward the ultimate establishment of
a political system based not on the preferences of the Egyptian people
but the will of God as they understand it".
Status of non-Muslims
Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide
Mustafa Mashhur told
journalist Khalid Daoud that he thought Egypt's Coptic Christians
Jews should pay the long-abandoned jizya poll tax, levied
on non-Muslims in exchange for protection from the state, rationalized
by the fact that non-Muslims are exempt from military service while it
is compulsory for Muslims. He went on to say, "we do not mind having
Christian members in the People's Assembly... [T]he top officials,
especially in the army, should be Muslims since we are a Muslim
country... This is necessary because when a Christian country attacks
the Muslim country and the army has Christian elements, they can
facilitate our defeat by the enemy". According to The Guardian
newspaper, the proposal caused an "uproar" among Egypt's 16 million
Coptic Christians and "the movement later backtracked".
Response to criticisms
According to authors writing in the Council on Foreign Relations
magazine Foreign Affairs: "At various times in its history, the group
has used or supported violence and has been repeatedly banned in Egypt
for attempting to overthrow Cairo's secular government. Since the
1970s, however, the Egyptian Brotherhood has disavowed violence and
sought to participate in Egyptian politics". Jeremy Bowen, the
Middle East editor for the BBC, called it "conservative and
non-violent". The Brotherhood "has condemned" terrorism and the
The Brotherhood itself denounces the "catchy and effective terms and
phrases" like "fundamentalist" and "political Islam" which it claims
are used by "Western media" to pigeonhole the group, and points to its
"15 Principles" for an Egyptian National Charter, including "freedom
of personal conviction ... opinion ... forming political parties ...
public gatherings ... free and fair elections ..."
Similarly, some analysts maintain that whatever the source of modern
Jihadi terrorism and the actions and words of some rogue members, the
Brotherhood now has little in common with radical Islamists and modern
jihadists who often condemn the Brotherhood as too moderate. They also
deny the existence of any centralized and secretive global Muslim
Brotherhood leadership. Some claim that the origins of modern
Muslim terrorism are found in
Wahhabi ideology, not that of the Muslim
According to anthropologist Scott Atran, the influence of the Muslim
Brotherhood even in
Egypt has been overstated by Western commentators.
He estimates that it can count on only 100,000 militants (out of some
600,000 dues paying members) in a population of more than
80 million, and that such support as it does have among
Egyptians—an often cited figure is 20 percent to 30 percent—is
less a matter of true attachment than an accident of circumstance:
secular opposition groups that might have countered it were suppressed
for many decades, but in driving the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, a
more youthful constellation of secular movements has emerged to
threaten the Muslim Brotherhood's dominance of the political
opposition. This has not yet been the case, however, as evidenced
by the Brotherhood's strong showing in national elections. Polls also
indicate that a majority of Egyptians and other Arab nations endorse
laws based on "Sharia".
On 29 June 2011, as the Brotherhood's political power became more
apparent and solidified following the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, the
United States announced that it would reopen formal diplomatic
channels with the group, with whom it had suspended communication as a
result of suspected terrorist activity. The next day, the
Brotherhood's leadership announced that they welcomed the diplomatic
In September 2014, Brotherhood leaders were expelled from Qatar. The
New York Times reported: "Although the Brotherhood’s views are not
nearly as conservative as the puritanical, authoritarian version of
Islamic law enforced in Saudi Arabia, the Saudis and other gulf
monarchies fear the group because of its broad organization, its
mainstream appeal and its calls for elections".
Designation as a terrorist organization
Countries and organizations below have officially listed the Muslim
Brotherhood as a terrorist organization.
12 February 2003
21 October 2013
25 December 2013
7 March 2014
21 March 2014
United Arab Emirates
15 November 2014
Outside the Middle East
In February 2003, the Supreme Court of
Russia banned the Muslim
Brotherhood, labelling it as a terrorist organization, and accusing
the group of supporting
Islamist rebels who want to create an Islamic
state in the North Caucasus.
In January 2017, during his confirmation hearing, the former U.S.
Secretary of State, Rex Tillerson, referred to the Muslim Brotherhood,
along with Al-Qaeda, as an agent of radical Islam—a characterization
Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch member
Sarah Leah Whitson
Sarah Leah Whitson criticized on social
media, disseminating a statement from the HRW Washington director
saying that the conflation of the group with violent extremists was
inaccurate. The following month,
The New York Times
The New York Times reported that
the administration of U.S. President
Donald Trump was considering an
order designating the
Muslim Brotherhood as a foreign terrorist
Muslim Brotherhood was criticized by Secretary Tillerson. The
terrorist designation for the
Muslim Brotherhood is opposed by Human
Rights Watch and The New York Times, both liberal-leaning
institutions. The potential terrorist designation was criticized,
in particular, by
Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch member Laura Pitter. The New
York Times set forth its opposition in an editorial that claimed that
Muslim Brotherhood is a collection of movements, and argued that
the organization as a whole does not merit the terrorist designation:
"While the Brotherhood calls for a society governed by Islamic law, it
renounced violence decades ago, has supported elections and has become
a political and social organization". The designation of the
Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist organization is opposed by the
Brennan Center for Justice, Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch,
Council of American-Islamic Relations and American Civil Liberties
Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch and its director
Kenneth Roth oppose proposals to
Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist organization.
Gehad El-Haddad, a
Muslim Brotherhood member, denied that terrorism
was practiced by the
Muslim Brotherhood in an editorial published by
The New York Times.
In a report by the Carnegie Middle East Center, Nathan Brown and
Michele Dunne argued that "designating the
Muslim Brotherhood a
foreign terrorist organization may actually backfire," writing: "The
sweeping measure to declare the Brotherhood a foreign terrorist
organization now being contemplated not only does not accord with the
facts, but is also more likely to undermine than achieve its
ostensible purpose and could result in collateral damage affecting
other U.S. policy goals. The greatest damage might be in the realm of
public diplomacy, as using a broad brush to paint all Muslim
Brotherhood organizations as terrorists would be understood by many
Muslims around the world as a declaration of war against non-violent
political Islamists—and indeed against
Muslim Brotherhood in
Egypt avoids directly implicating itself
materially in terrorism while it supports terrorism with words and
encourages it, according to
WINEP fellow Eric Trager, who advocated
pushing them into a corner instead of designating them due to issues
with materially connecting them to terrorism other than with their
The editorial boards of
The New York Times
The New York Times and the Washington Post
oppose designation of the group as a terrorist organization.
Civil rights lawyer and adjunct professor of law Arjun Singh Sethi
wrote that the push to designate the
Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist
organization was based on anti-Islamic conspiracy theories, noting
that "Two previous U.S. administrations concluded that it does not
engage in terrorism, as did a recent report by the British
Ishaan Tharoor of the
Washington Post condemned the movement to
designate the Brotherhood as a terrorist group.
Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) intelligence report from January
2017 warned that designation of the Brotherhood as a terrorist
organization "may fuel extremism" and harm relations with U.S. allies.
The report noted that the Brotherhood had "rejected violence as a
matter of official policy and opposed al-Qa'ida and ISIS" and that
while "a minority of MB [Muslim Brotherhood] members have engaged in
violence, most often in response to harsh regime repression, perceived
foreign occupation, or civil conflicts," designation of the
organization as a terrorist group would prompt concern from U.S.
allies in the Middle East "that such a step could destabilize their
internal politics, feed extremist narratives, and anger Muslims
worldwide." The CIA analysis stated: "MB groups enjoy widespread
support across the Near East-North Africa region and many Arabs and
Muslims worldwide would view an MB designation as an affront to their
core religious and societal values. Moreover, a US designation would
probably weaken MB leaders' arguments against violence and provide
ISIS and al-Qa'ida additional grist for propaganda to win followers
and support, particularly for attacks against US interests."
An article in
The Atlantic against designating the Muslim Brotherhood
as a terrorist organization was written by Shadi Hamid.
Relationship to diplomatic crises in Qatar
See also: Foreign relations of Qatar
Qatar's relationship with
Muslim Brotherhood has been a persistent
point of contention between
Qatar and other Arab states, including
Saudi Arabia, the
United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates (UAE), Bahrain, and Egypt,
which view the Brotherhood as a serious threat to social stability in
Following the overthrow of
Mohamed Morsi in July 2013,
some Brotherhood members who fled
Egypt to live in the country. The
Al Jazeera "housed them in a five-star
Doha hotel and
granted them regular airtime for promoting their cause"; the station
also broadcast protests against the post-Brotherhood authorities in
Egypt by the Brotherhood, "and in some cases allegedly paid Muslim
Brothers for the footage." Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and Bahrain
Qatar had violated the
Gulf Cooperation Council
Gulf Cooperation Council rule against
interference in the internal affairs of other members, and in March
2014 all three countries withdrew their ambassadors from Qatar. After
two months the diplomatic tensions, the issue with resolved, with
Brotherhood leaders departing from
Doha later in 2014.
However, "from Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and the UAE’s standpoint,
Qatar never lived up to the 2014 agreement and continued to serve as
the nexus of the Brotherhood's regional networks." This led to
Qatar diplomatic crisis, which is viewed as being
precipitated in large part by a conflict over the Muslim Brotherhood.
Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Bahrain, and
Egypt made 13 demands of the
government of Qatar, six of which reflect the group's opposition to
Qatar's relationship with the
Muslim Brotherhood and demand that the
country cut ties to the Brotherhood.
Middle East portal
Politics of Egypt
List of designated terrorist organizations
Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani
^ What is the Muslim Brotherhood?, Al Jazeera, 18 June 2017
^ Rick Perry and the Muslim Brotherhood: Compare and Contrast - Mona
Eltahawy on social conservatism in
Egypt and the U.S., J.J. GOULD,
June 30, 2013
Muslim Brotherhood and the Future of Political
Islam in Egypt,
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace website,
October 21, 2014
^ Washington’s Secret History with the Muslim Brotherhood, Ian
Johnson, February 5, 2011
^ Terrorism: Muslim Brotherhood, Jewish Virtual Library
^ The Muslim Brotherhood’s ‘right-wing’ politics game, Bassem
Youssef, Al Arabiya English, Wednesday, 1 May 2013
^ What Is the Muslim Brotherhood, and Will It Take Over Egypt?, Robert
Dreyfuss, Mother Jones, February 11, 2011
^ Kevin Borgeson; Robin Valeri (9 July 2009). Terrorism in America.
Jones and Bartlett Learning. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-7637-5524-9.
Retrieved 9 December 2012.
Muslim Brotherhood and the Egyptian State in the Balance of
Democracy". Metransparent. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
^ "Islamic Terrorism's Links To Nazi Fascism". Aina. 5 July 2007.
Retrieved 28 November 2012.
Muslim Brotherhood is not to be trusted". Old Post-gazette.
22 January 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
^ U.S. Department of State. "Chapter 6 -- Terrorist Organizations".
Country Reports on Terrorism. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
^ Ghattas, Kim (9 February 2001). "Profile: Egypt's Muslim
Bahrain News Agency -
Bahrain backs Saudi Arabia, UAE, Foreign
Minister says". Retrieved 3 November 2014.
^ Anadolu Ajansı (c) 2011. "
Bahrain FM reiterates stance on Muslim
Brotherhood". Retrieved 3 November 2014.
Muslim Brotherhood declared 'terrorist group'". Bbc.co.uk.
25 December 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
^ a b "Resolution of the State Duma, 2 December 2003 N 3624-III GD "on
the Application of the State Duma of the Russian Federation" on the
suppression of the activities of terrorist organizations on the
territory of the Russian Federation" (in Russian). Consultant Plus.
Archived from the original on 1 January 2016.
^ a b "Assad says 'factors not in place' for
Syria peace talks".
Hurriyet (AFP). 21 October 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
Saudi Arabia declares
Muslim Brotherhood 'terrorist group'". BBC.
Retrieved 7 March 2014.
^ a b c Alaa Shahine & Glen Carey, Bloomberg News (9 March 2014).
Saudi Arabia Against Qatar-Backed Brotherhood".
Bloomberg News. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
^ Kull, Steven (2011). Feeling Betrayed: The Roots of Muslim Anger at
America. Brookings Institution Press. p. 167. The Muslim
Brotherhood's stated goal has been to instill the
Quran and sunnah as
the `sole reference point for ... ordering the life of the Muslim
family, individual, community ... and state.`
^ a b c d e Mintz, John; Farah, Douglas (10 September 2004). "In
Search of Friends Among The Foes U.S. Hopes to Work With Diverse
Group". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
^ a b c Dreyfuss, Bob (13 July 2012). "
Saudi Arabia and the
Brotherhood: What the 'New York Times' Missed". The Nation. Retrieved
17 April 2014.
^ Bruce Rutherford,
Egypt After Mubarak (Princeton: Princeton UP,
^ Hallett, Robin. Africa Since 1875. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The
University of Michigan Press (1974), p. 138.
Egypt opposition wary after talks". BBC. 9 February 2011.
^ a b "'Shariah in
Egypt is enough for us,'
Muslim Brotherhood leader
says". Hürriyet Daily News. 23 May 2011. Retrieved 28 November
^ Inside Egypt: The Land of the Pharaohs on the Brink of a Revolution
by John R. Bradley, (Palgrave MacMillan, 2008), p.49
Egypt global security.org
^ a b c Ibish, Hussein. "Is this the end of the failed Muslim
Brotherhood project?". 5 October 2013. The National. Retrieved 8
^ Wade, Nicholas (30 August 2013). "Egypt: What poll results reveal
about Brotherhood's popularity". 29 August 2013.
BBC News. Retrieved 8
October 2013. the Brotherhood won Egypt's five democratic votes,
^ "Egypt's new president to pick woman, Christian VPs". CNN. Retrieved
September 7, 2017.
^ "President Morsi Ousted: First Democratically Elected Leader Under
House Arrest". ABC News. Retrieved September 7, 2017.
Muslim Brotherhood Rejects Al-Sisi As True Tyrant; Vows to Continue
Peaceful Protest Action - Ikhwanweb". Retrieved 3 November 2014.
^ "Pro-Democracy National Alliance Vows Escalated Peaceful Protests
Egypt - Ikhwanweb". Retrieved 3 November 2014.
Muslim Brotherhood Leader Badie Reiterates: Group Denounces
Violence - Ikhwanweb". Retrieved 3 November 2014.
^ a b "The Principles of The Muslim Brotherhood".
^ "interview w/Dr. Mohamed El-Sayed Habib". Ikhwan Web. Retrieved 28
^ a b c Ruthven, Malise (1984).
Islam in the World (first ed.).
Penguin. p. 311.
^ Paulo G. Pinto, "
Sufism and the religious debate in Syria." Taken
Islam and the Common Good, pg. 184. Volume 95 of Social,
economic, and political studies of the Middle East and Asia. Eds.
Armando Salvatore and Dale F. Eickelman. Leiden: Brill Publishers,
2004. ISBN 9789004136212
^ Carl W. Ernst, Following Muhammad: Rethinking
Islam in the
Contemporary World, pg. 180. Part of the Islamic Civilization and
Muslim Networks series. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina
Press, 2003. ISBN 9780807875803
^ Elad-Altman, Israel. "The Brotherhood and the Shiite Question".
Hudson Institute. Retrieved 29 December 2016.
^ Ruthven, Malise (1984).
Islam in the World (first ed.). Penguin.
^ Davidson, Lawrence (1998) Islamic Fundamentalism Greenwood Press,
Westport, Conn., ISBN 0-313-29978-1 pp. 97–98;
^ Abdelrahman, Abdelrahman Ahmed (1995). "An Islamic Perspective on
Organizational Motivation". The American Journal of Islamic Social
Sciences. 12: 185–203.
^ Abdelrahman, Abdelrahman Ahmed (Fall 1996). "Administrative
Efficiency and Effectiveness: An Islamic Perspective". The Islamic
Quarterly. 40: 3: 139–154.
^ a b "Toward the Light" in Five Tracts of Hasan Al-Banna, trans. by
Charles Wendell (Berkeley, 1978), ISBN 0-520-09584-7 pp. 126f.
^ The Salafist Movement, Frontline (PBS)
^ *Mura, Andrea (2014). "The Inclusive Dynamics of Islamic
Universalism: From the Vantage Point of Sayyid Qutb's Critical
Philosophy". Comparative Philosophy. 5 (1): 29–54.
Muslim Brotherhood vs Al Qaeda" 19 January 2010
^ ""MB Chief Criticism" 30 December 2007" (PDF). Archived from the
original (PDF) on 7 August 2010.
^ "Profile: Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood". 25 December 2013. BBC.
Retrieved 3 April 2014.
^ Yusuf, Khalil (January 27, 2014). "Does the
Muslim Brotherhood still
have a role to play in Egypt's revolutionary politics?". Middle East
Monitor. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
^ Roy, Olivier (1994). The Failure of Political Islam. Harvard
University Press. p. 129. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
^ a b "The
Muslim Brotherhood "Project"" (PDF).
investigativeproject.org. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
^ Bayerischen Landesamts für Verfassungsschutz (2013).
Verfassungsschutzbericht 2012 (PDF) (in German). Munich, Germany:
Bayerisches Staatsministerium des Innern. p. 34. Archived from
the original (PDF) on 17 February 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
Eines der sichergestellten Dokumente ist ein in arabischer Sprache
abgefasster Vierjahres‑Plan (2008–2011) der MB. Die darin
vorgesehenen Maßnahmen basieren auf einer Doppelstrategie: Nach
außen gibt sich die MB offen, tolerant und dialogbereit und strebt
eine Zusammenarbeit mit politischen Institutionen und
Entscheidungsträgern an, um so Einfluss im öffentlichen Leben zu
gewinnen. Ihr Ziel bleibt aber die Errichtung einer auf der Scharia
basierenden gesellschaftlichen und politischen Ordnung, wobei die MB
für sich die Führungsrolle für alle Muslime beansprucht. Der Plan
zeigt eine deutliche Abgrenzung gegenüber den USA, Israel, dem
jüdischen Volk und Andersgläubigen.
^ The Future of Political Islam, Graham E. Fuller, Palgrave MacMillan,
(2003), p. 138.
^ a b c d e Trager, Eric (September–October 2011). "The Unbreakable
Muslim Brotherhood: Grim Prospects for a Liberal Egypt". Foreign
Affairs. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
^ Rubin, Barry (July 2012). "Understanding the Muslim Brotherhood".
Foreign Policy Research Institute. Archived from the original on
2013-10-08. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
^ Another source divides the structure into nuclei, cells, families,
and phalanxes (source: Jameelah, Maryam (1980). Shaikh Hassan al Banna
and al Ikhwan al Muslimun (2nd ed.). Lahore, Pakistan: Mohammad Ysuf
Khan. pp. 16–17. )
^ a b c Mishal Fahm Sulami (2003). The West and Islam: Western Liberal
Democracy Versus the System of Shura. Psychology Press. p. 68.
ISBN 978-0-415-31634-7. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
^ Roy, Olivier (1994). The Failure of Political Islam. translator
Volk, Carol. Harvard University Press. p. 110.
^ Marshall, Katherine (2013). Global Institutions of Religion: Ancient
Movers, Modern Shakers. Routledge. p. 122. Retrieved 20 April
^ a b c d e Roy, Olivier (1994). The Failure of Political Islam.
translator Volk, Carol. Harvard University Press. p. 111.
^ *Mura, Andrea (2012). "A genealogical inquiry into early Islamism:
the discourse of Hasan al-Banna". Journal of Political Ideologies. 17
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