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65–75% Sunni
Sunni
Islam[22][note 1] 10–13% Shia
Shia
Islam[22] 15–20% Non-denominational Islam[23] ~1% Ahmadiyya[24] ~1% Other Muslim
Muslim
traditions, e.g. Ibadi Islam[23]

Scriptures

Quran[25]

Languages

Predominant spoken languages:[26]

Arabic Bengali Hindi Urdu Punjabi Turkish Javanese Hausa Indonesian Farsi Sundanese other vernacular languages of the Muslim
Muslim
world

Sacred languages:[27]

Classical Arabic

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Islam

Beliefs

Oneness of God

Prophets Revealed books

Angels Predestination

Day of Resurrection

Practices

Profession of faith Prayer

Fasting Alms-giving Pilgrimage

Texts and laws

Quran Tafsir Sunnah
Sunnah
(Hadith, Sirah) Sharia
Sharia
(law) Fiqh
Fiqh
(jurisprudence)

Kalam
Kalam
(dialectic)

History

Timeline Muhammad

Ahl al-Bayt Sahabah Rashidun

Imamate Caliphate Spread of Islam

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Related topics

Criticism of Islam Islam
Islam
and other religions

Islamism Islamophobia

Glossary

Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

A Muslim
Muslim
(Arabic: مُسلِم‎) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God
God
as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad. The majority of Muslims also follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad
Muhammad
(sunnah) as recorded in traditional accounts (hadith).[28] "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "submitter" (to God).[29] The beliefs of Muslims include: that God
God
(Arabic: الله‎ Allāh) is eternal, transcendent and absolutely one (tawhid); that God
God
is incomparable, self-sustaining and neither begets nor was begotten; that Islam
Islam
is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that has been revealed before through many prophets including Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Moses, and Jesus;[30] that these previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time (tahrif)[31] and that the Qur'an is the final unaltered revelation from God
God
(Final Testament).[32]

Contents

1 Qualifier 2 Lexicology 3 Meaning

3.1 Other prophets

4 Demographics 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Qualifier The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith (shahadah), daily prayers (salat), fasting during the month of Ramadan
Ramadan
(sawm), almsgiving (zakat), and the pilgrimage to Mecca
Mecca
(hajj) at least once in a lifetime.[33][34] To become a Muslim
Muslim
and to convert to Islam
Islam
is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God
God
(Allah) and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is God's messenger.[35] It is a set statement normally recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh (لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا الله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ الله) "There is no god but Allah, (and) Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God."[36] In Sunni
Sunni
Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah (there is no god but God), and Muhammadun rasul Allah
Allah
( Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God),[37] which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada.[38] The first statement of the shahada is also known as the tahlīl.[39] In Shia
Shia
Islam, the shahada also has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia
Shia
Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni
Sunni
Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله (wa ʿalīyyun walīyyu-llāh), which translates to " Ali
Ali
is the wali of God.[40] Lexicology See also: Islam
Islam
§ Etymology and meaning The word muslim (Arabic: مسلم‎, IPA: [ˈmʊslɪm]; English: /ˈmʌzlɪm/, /ˈmʊzlɪm/, /ˈmʊslɪm/ or moslem /ˈmɒzləm/, /ˈmɒsləm/[41]) is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M
S-L-M
"to be whole, intact".[42][43] A female adherent is a muslima (Arabic: مسلمة‎) (also transliterated as "Muslimah"[44] ). The plural form in Arabic is muslimūn (مسلمون) or muslimīn (مسلمين), and its feminine equivalent is muslimāt (مسلمات). The Arabic form muslimun is the stem IV participle[note 2] of the triliteral S-L-M. The ordinary word in English is "Muslim". It is sometimes transliterated as "Moslem", which is an older spelling.[citation needed] The word Mosalman (Persian: مسلمان‎, alternatively Mussalman) is a common equivalent for Muslim
Muslim
used in Central and South Asia. Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mohammedans or Mahometans.[45] Although such terms were not necessarily intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they allegedly imply that Muslims worship Muhammad
Muhammad
rather than God.[46] Other obsolete terms include Muslimite[47] and Muslimist.[48] Musulmán/Mosalmán (Persian: مسلمان‎) is a synonym for Muslim and is modified from Arabic. It is the origin of the Spanish word musulmán, the (dated) German Muselmann, the French word musulman, the Polish words muzułmanin and muzułmański, the Portuguese word muçulmano, the Italian word mussulmano or musulmano, the Romanian word musulman and the Greek word μουσουλμάνος (all used for a Muslim).[49] In English it was sometimes spelled Mussulman and has become archaic in usage. Apart from Persian, Spanish, Polish, Portuguese, Italian, and Greek, the term could be found, with obvious local differences, in Armenian, Dari, Pashto, Urdu, Hindi, Bengali, Marathi, Panjabi, Turkish, Kazakh, Uzbek, Kyrgyz, Azeri, Maltese, Hungarian, Czech, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian, Ukrainian, Romanian, Dutch, and Sanskrit. Meaning The Muslim
Muslim
philosopher Ibn Arabi
Ibn Arabi
said:

A Muslim
Muslim
is a person who has dedicated his worship exclusively to God... Islam
Islam
means making one's religion and faith God's alone.[50]

Other prophets The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judaism and Christianity, and their respective followers, as Muslim: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Jacob, Moses, and Jesus
Jesus
and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity, fasting and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God; and you be our witness that we are Muslims (wa-shahad be anna muslimūn)." In Muslim
Muslim
belief, before the Qur'an, God
God
had given the Tawrat
Tawrat
(Torah) to Moses, the Zabur
Zabur
(Psalms) to David and the Injil
Injil
(Gospel) to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim
Muslim
prophets. Demographics

A map of Muslim
Muslim
populations by numbers, (Pew Research Center, 2009)

World Muslim
Muslim
population by percentage (2010 data[update] from Pew Research Center)

Main article: Islam
Islam
§ Demographics See also: List of countries by Muslim
Muslim
population The most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia, home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims,[22] followed by Pakistan
Pakistan
(11.0%), Bangladesh (9.2%), and Egypt
Egypt
(4.9%).[51] About 20% of the world's Muslims lives in the Middle East and North Africa.[22][52] Sizable minorities are also found in India, China, Russia, Ethiopia, the Americas, Australia and parts of Europe. The country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco.[2] Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world. Over 75–90% of Muslims are Sunni.[53][54] The second and third largest sects, Shia
Shia
and Ahmadiyya, make up 10–20%,[55][56] and 1%[24] respectively. With about 1.6 billion followers, almost a quarter of earth's population,[57][22][58] Islam
Islam
is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world.[59] due primarily to the young age and high fertility rate of Muslims,[60] with Muslim
Muslim
having a rate of (3.1) compared to the world average of (2.5). According to the same study, religious switching has no impact on Muslim
Muslim
population, since the number of people who embrace Islam
Islam
and those who leave Islam
Islam
are roughly equal.[60] A Pew Center study in 2016 found that Muslims have the highest number of adherents under the age of 15 (or 34% of the total Muslim population) of any major religion, while only 7% are aged 60+ (the smallest percentage of any major religion). According to the same study, Muslims have the highest fertility rates (3.1) of any major religious group.[61] The study also found that Muslims have the lowest average levels of education after Hindus, with an average of 5.6 years of schooling.[61] About 36% of all Muslims have no formal schooling,[61] and Muslims have the lowest average levels of higher education of any major religious group, with only 8% having graduate and post-graduate degrees.[61] See also

Non-denominational Muslim Islamic schools and branches Muhammadan Lists of Muslims Muslim
Muslim
holidays Muslim
Muslim
world Mu'min

Notes

^ Original source estimated 87–90% of Muslims to adhere to Sunni Islam
Islam
but counted almost all non-denominational Muslims as Sunni. To get a more accurate estimation, percentage of Non-denominational Muslims (15–20%) was subtracted from the original estimation ^ also known as "infinitive"

References

^ Lipka, Michael; Hackett, Conrad (6 April 2017). "Why Muslims are the world's fastest-growing religious group". pewresearch.org. Retrieved 23 August 2017.  ^ a b c d e f "The Future of World Religions: Population Growth Projections, 2010–2050". Pew Research Center. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2017.  ^ " Muslim
Muslim
Population by Country". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011.  ^ cite encyclopediaauthor=Alford T. Welch, Ahmad
Ahmad
S. Moussalli, Gordon D. Newbytitle=Muḥammadencyclopedia=The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic Worldeditor=John L. Espositopublisher=Oxford University Presslocation=Oxfordyear=2009url=http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t236/e0550%7Cquote=The Prophet of Islam
Islam
was a religious, political, and social reformer who gave rise to one of the great civilizations of the world. From a modern, historical perspective, Muḥammad was the founder of Islam. From the perspective of the Islamic faith, he was God's Messenger (rasūl Allāh), called to be a “warner,” first to the Arabs and then to all humankind. ^ " The World Factbook
The World Factbook
— Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-05-24.  ^ " The World Factbook
The World Factbook
— Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-11-05.  ^ " Muslim
Muslim
Population in India
India
- Muslims in Indian States". www.indiaonlinepages.com. Retrieved 2017-10-04.  ^ "The Future of the Global Muslim
Muslim
Population". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 2011-01-15. Retrieved 2017-05-24.  ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 31 December 2017.  ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 31 December 2017.  ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 31 December 2017.  ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 31 December 2017.  ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld - 2010 Report on International Religious Freedom - China
China
(includes Tibet, Hong Kong, Macau)". Refworld. Retrieved 14 February 2015.  ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 14 February 2015.  ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 14 February 2015.  ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 14 February 2015.  ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 14 February 2015.  ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 14 February 2015.  ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 14 February 2015.  ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 14 February 2015.  ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 14 February 2015.  ^ a b c d e "Mapping the Global Muslim
Muslim
Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim
Muslim
Population" (PDF). Pew Research Center. October 2009. Retrieved 22 February 2017. Of the total Muslim
Muslim
population, 10–13% are Shia
Shia
Muslims and 87–90% are Sunni
Sunni
Muslims.  ^ a b "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The World’s Muslims: Unity and Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2013.  ^ a b See:

Breach of Faith. Human Rights Watch. June 2005. p. 8. Retrieved 29 March 2014. Estimates of around 20 million would be appropriate  Larry DeVries; Don Baker & Dan Overmyer. Asian Religions in British Columbia. University of Columbia Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-1662-5. Retrieved 29 March 2014. The community currently numbers around 15 million spread around the world  Juan Eduardo Campo. Encyclopedia of Islam. p. 24. ISBN 0-8160-5454-1. Retrieved 29 March 2014. The total size of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
community in 2001 was estimated to be more than 10 million  " Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslims". pbs.org. Retrieved 6 October 2013.  A figure of 10–20 million represents approximately 1% of the Muslim population. See also Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
by country.

^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2007). "Qurʼān". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 4 November 2007.  ^ Grim, Brian J.; Johnson, Todd M. (2013). Chapter 1: Global Religious Populations, 1910–2010 (PDF) (Report). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. p. 22. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2017.  ^ Al-Jallad, Ahmad. "Polygenesis in the Arabic Dialects".  ^ The Qurʼan and Sayings of Prophet Muhammad: Selections Annotated & Explained. SkyLight Paths Publishing. 2007. pp. 21–. ISBN 978-1-59473-222-5. Retrieved 31 August 2013.  ^ "Muslim". etymonline.com.  ^ "People of the Book". Islam: Empire of Faith. PBS. Retrieved 18 December 2010.  ^ See:

Accad (2003): According to Ibn Taymiyya, although only some Muslims accept the textual veracity of the entire Bible, most Muslims will grant the veracity of most of it. Esposito (1998), pp.6,12 Esposito (2002b), pp.4–5 F. E. Peters (2003), p.9 F. Buhl; A. T. Welch. "Muhammad". Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
Online.  Hava Lazarus-Yafeh. "Tahrif". Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
Online. 

^ Submission.org, Quran: The Final Testament, Authorized English Version with Arabic Text, Revised Edition IV,ISBN 0-9729209-2-7, p. x. ^ Hooker, Richard (14 July 1999). "arkan ad-din the five pillars of religion". United States: Washington State University. Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2010.  ^ "Religions". The World Factbook. United States: Central Intelligence Agency. 2010. Retrieved 25 August 2010.  ^ From the article on the Pillars of Islam
Islam
in Oxford Islamic Studies Online ^ Matthew S. Gordon and Martin Palmer, ''Islam'', Info base Publishing, 2009. Books.Google.fr. p. 87. Retrieved 26 August 2012.  ^ Lindsay, p. 140–141 ^ Cornell, p. 9 ^ Michael Anthony Sells (1999). Approaching the Qur'an: The Early Revelations. White Cloud Press. p. 151.  ^ The Later Mughals by William Irvine p. 130 ^ "Muslim". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary: /ˈmʌzlɪm/, /ˈmʊzlɪm/, /ˈmʊslɪm/; moslem /ˈmɒzləm/, /ˈmɒsləm/ ^ Burns & Ralph, World Civilizations, 5th ed., p. 371. ^ Entry for šlm, p. 2067, Appendix B: Semitic Roots, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed., Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000, ISBN 0-618-08230-1. ^ Muslimah. Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. 2016 ^ See for instance the second edition of A Dictionary of Modern English Usage by H. W. Fowler, revised by Ernest Gowers
Ernest Gowers
(Oxford, 1965). ^ Gibb, Sir Hamilton (1969). Mohammedanism: an historical survey. Oxford University Press. p. 1. Modern Muslims dislike the terms Mohammedan
Mohammedan
and Mohammedanism, which seem to them to carry the implication of worship of Mohammed, as Christian
Christian
and Christianity imply the worship of Christ.  ^ "Muslimite". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ Abbas, Tahir (2005). Muslim
Muslim
Britain: Communities Under Pressure. p. 50.  ^ Musalman Archived 4 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine. – Internet Encyclopedia of Religion ^ Commentary on the Qur'an, Razi, I, p. 432, Cairo, 1318/1900 ^ "Number of Muslim
Muslim
by country". nationmaster.com. Retrieved 30 May 2007.  ^ Esposito, John L. (15 October 2002). What everyone needs to know about Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0.  and Esposito, John (2005). Islam : the straight path (Rev. 3rd ed., updated with new epilogue. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 2, 43. ISBN 978-0-19-518266-8.  ^ See:

Eastern Europe Russia and Central Asia
Central Asia
"some 80% of the world's Muslims are Sunni" Sue Hellett;U.S. should focus on sanctions against Iran
Iran
Archived 17 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. "Sunnis make up over 75 percent of the world's Muslim
Muslim
population" Iran, Israel and the United States "Sunni, accounts for over 75% of the Islamic population" "Sunnite". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 August 2010. They numbered about 900 million in the late 20th century and constituted nine-tenths of all the adherents of Islām.  Islamic Beliefs, Practices, and Cultures. Marshall Cavendish. 2010. p. 352. ISBN 0-7614-7926-0. Retrieved 19 December 2011. A common compromise figure ranks Sunnis at 90 percent.  "Mapping the Global Muslim
Muslim
Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim
Muslim
Population". Pew Research Center. 7 October 2009. Retrieved 24 August 2010. Of the total Muslim population, 10–13% are Shia
Shia
Muslims and 87–90% are Sunni Muslims.  "Quick guide: Sunnis and Shias". BBC News. 6 December 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2011. The great majority of Muslims are Sunnis – estimates suggest the figure is somewhere between 85% and 90%.  " Sunni
Sunni
and Shia
Shia
Islam". Library of Congress Country Studies. Retrieved 17 December 2011. Sunni
Sunni
constitute 85 percent of the world's Muslims.  "Tension between Sunnis, Shiites emerging in USA". USA Today. 24 September 2007. Retrieved 18 December 2011. Among the world's estimated 1.4 billion Muslims, about 85% are Sunni
Sunni
and about 15% are Shiite.  "Religions". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 25 August 2010. Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim
Muslim
population... Shia Islam
Shia Islam
represents 10–20% of Muslims worldwide...  Sunni
Sunni
Islam: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide " Sunni
Sunni
Islam is the dominant division of the global Muslim
Muslim
community, and throughout history it has made up a substantial majority (85 to 90 percent) of that community." Inside Muslim
Muslim
minds "around 80% are Sunni" Who Gets To Narrate the World "The Sunnis (approximately 80%)" A world theology N. Ross Reat "80% being the Sunni" Islam
Islam
and the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
jama'at "The Sunni
Sunni
segment, accounting for at least 80% of the world's Muslim
Muslim
population" A dictionary of modern politics "probably 80% of the world's Muslims are Sunni"

^ From Sunni
Sunni
Islam: See:

Eastern Europe Russia and Central Asia
Central Asia
"some 80% of the world's Muslims are Sunni" "Religions". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA). Retrieved 8 December 2011. Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim
Muslim
population  Sue Hellett;U.S. should focus on sanctions against Iran
Iran
Archived 17 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. "Sunnis make up over 75 percent of the world's Muslim
Muslim
population" Iran, Israel and the United States "Sunni, accounts for over 75% of the Islamic population" A dictionary of modern politics "probably 80% of the world's Muslims are Sunni" "Mapping the Global Muslim
Muslim
Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim
Muslim
Population". Pew Research Center. 7 October 2009. Retrieved 24 August 2010. Of the total Muslim population, 10–13% are Shia
Shia
Muslims and 87–90% are Sunni Muslims.  "Quick guide: Sunnis and Shias". BBC News. 6 December 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2011. The great majority of Muslims are Sunnis – estimates suggest the figure is somewhere between 85% and 90%.  "Tension between Sunnis, Shiites emerging in USA". USA Today. 24 September 2007. Retrieved 18 December 2011. Among the world's estimated 1.4 billion Muslims, about 85% are Sunni
Sunni
and about 15% are Shiite.  Sunni
Sunni
Islam: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide " Sunni
Sunni
Islam is the dominant division of the global Muslim
Muslim
community, and throughout history it has made up a substantial majority (85 to 90 percent) of that community."

^ "Shīʿite". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 9 August 2010. Retrieved 25 August 2010. Shīʿites have come to account for roughly one-tenth of the Muslim
Muslim
population worldwide.  ^ "Religions". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 25 August 2010. Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim
Muslim
population... Shia Islam
Shia Islam
represents 10–20% of Muslims worldwide...  ^ "No God
God
But God". Thomas W. Lippman. 7 April 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2010. Islam
Islam
is the youngest, the fastest growing, and in many ways the least complicated of the world's great monotheistic faiths. It is a unique religion based on its own holy book, but it is also a direct descendant of Judaism and Christianity, incorporating some of the teachings of those religions—modifying some and rejecting others.  ^ "Nearly 1 in 4 people worldwide is Muslim, report says". CNN. 12 October 2009.  ^ Burke, Daniel. "The fastest growing religion in the world is ..." CNN. Retrieved 6 May 2016.  ^ a b The Future of the Global Muslim
Muslim
Population (PDF) (Report). Pew Research Center. 27 January 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2017.  ^ a b c d "Religion and Education
Education
Around the World" (PDF). Pew Research Center. 13 December 2016. Retrieved 19 December 2016. 

External links

Look up مسلمان in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Look up Wikisaurus: Muslim
Muslim
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Muslims.

Ritual Prayer: Its Meaning and Manner – The Islamic Supreme Council of America. Muhammad
Muhammad
and the First Muslim
Muslim
Ummah – University of Chicago Islamophobia
Islamophobia
Today Newspaper – An Islamophobia
Islamophobia
news clearing house Sammy Aziz Rahmatti, Understanding and Countering Islamophobia WikiSaurus:Muslim "Understanding Islam". Susan Headden. 7 April 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2010.  "Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents". Adherents.com. Retrieved 3 July 2007. 

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam
Islam
(Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad
Muhammad
and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat
Salat
(Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

Authority control

GND: 40409

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