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Generic:

Bosovis Kowarzik, 1911[3]

Specific:

Bos
Bos
moschatus Zimmermann, 1780[4] Bosovis moschatus (Zimmermann, 1780) Kowarzik, 1911

The muskox (Ovibos moschatus), also spelled musk ox and musk-ox (in Inuktitut: ᐅᒥᖕᒪᒃ, umingmak), is an Arctic
Arctic
hoofed mammal of the family Bovidae,[6] noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted during the seasonal rut by males, from which its name derives. This musky odor is used to attract females during mating season. Its Inuktitut
Inuktitut
name "umingmak" translates to "the bearded one".[7] Muskoxen primarily live in Greenland
Greenland
and the Canadian Arctic of the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
and Nunavut,[8] with small introduced populations in the American state of Alaska, the Canadian territory
Canadian territory
of Yukon, the Scandinavian Peninsula
Scandinavian Peninsula
and Siberia.

Contents

1 Evolution

1.1 Extant relatives 1.2 Fossil history and extinct relatives

2 Physical characteristics 3 Range

3.1 Prehistory 3.2 Recent native range in North America 3.3 Introductions in Eurasia 3.4 Introductions in eastern Canada

4 Ecology 5 Social behavior and reproduction

5.1 Components of glandular secretions

6 Conservation status 7 References 8 External links

Evolution[edit] Extant relatives[edit] As members of the subfamily Caprinae
Caprinae
of the family Bovidae, muskoxen are more closely related to sheep and goats than to oxen; however, they are placed in their own genus, Ovibos (Latin: "sheep-ox"). The muskox is one of the two largest extant members of Caprinae, along with the similarly sized takin.[9] While takin and muskox were once considered possibly related, the takin lacks common ovibonine features, such as the muskox's specialized horn morphology, and genetic analysis shows that their lineages actually separated early in caprine evolution. Instead, the muskox's closest living relatives appear to be the gorals of the genus Naemorhedus, nowadays common in many countries of central and east Asia. The vague similarity between takin and muskox must therefore be considered an example of convergent evolution.[10] Fossil history and extinct relatives[edit]

Euceratherium
Euceratherium
skeleton

The modern muskox is the last member of a line of ovibovines that first evolved in temperate regions of Asia and adapted to a cold tundra environment late in its evolutionary history. Muskoxen ancestors with sheep-like high-positioned horns (horn cores being mostly over the plane of the frontal bones, rather than below them as in modern muskoxen) first left the temperate forests for the developing grasslands of Central Asia
Central Asia
during the Pliocene, expanding into Siberia
Siberia
and the rest of northern Eurasia. Later migration waves of Asian ungulates that included high-horned muskoxen reached Europe and North America
North America
during the first half of the Pleistocene. The first well known muskox, the "shrub-ox" Euceratherium, crossed to North America over an early version of the Bering Land Bridge
Bering Land Bridge
two million years ago and prospered in the American southwest
American southwest
and Mexico. Euceratherium
Euceratherium
was larger yet more lightly built than modern muskoxen, looking like a giant sheep with massive horns, and preferred hilly grasslands. A genus with intermediate horns, Soergelia, inhabited Eurasia
Eurasia
in the early Pleistocene, from Spain
Spain
to Siberia, and crossed to North America during the Irvingtonian (1.8 million years to 240,000 years ago), soon after Euceratherium. Unlike Euceratherium, which survived in America down to the Pleistocene- Holocene
Holocene
extinction event, Soergelia was a lowland dweller that disappeared fairly early, displaced by more advanced ungulates, such as the "giant muskox" Praeovibos (literally "before Ovibos"). The low-horned Praeovibos was present in Europe
Europe
and the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
1.5 million years ago, colonized Alaska
Alaska
and the Yukon
Yukon
one million years ago and disappeared half a million years ago. Praeovibos was a highly adaptable animal that appears associated with cold tundra (reindeer) and temperate woodland (red deer) faunas alike. During the Mindel glaciation
Mindel glaciation
500,000 years ago, Praeovibos was present in the Kolyma river
Kolyma river
area in eastern Siberia
Siberia
in association with many Ice Age
Ice Age
megafauna that would later coexist with Ovibos, in the Kolyma itself and elsewhere, including wild horses, reindeer, woolly mammoth and stag-moose. It is debated, however, if Praeovibos was directly ancestral to Ovibos, or both genera descended from a common ancestor, since the two occurred together during the middle Pleistocene. Defenders of ancestry from Praeovibos have proposed that Praeovibos evolved into Ovibos in one region during a period of isolation and expanded later, replacing the remaining populations of Praeovibos.[10]

Bootherium
Bootherium
skull

Two more Praeovibos-like genera were named in America in the 19th century, Bootherium
Bootherium
and Symbos, which are now identified as the male and female forms of a single, sexually dimorphic species, the "woodland muskox", Bootherium
Bootherium
bombifrons. Bootherium
Bootherium
inhabited open woodland areas of North America
North America
during the late Pleistocene, from Alaska
Alaska
to Texas
Texas
and maybe even Mexico, but was most common in the Southern United States, while Ovibos replaced it in the tundra-steppe to the north, immediately south of the Laurentian ice sheet.[10][11] Modern Ovibos appeared in Germany
Germany
almost one million years ago and was common in the region through the Pleistocene. By the Mindel, muskoxen had also reached the British Isles. Both Germany
Germany
and Britain were just south of the Barents-Kara Ice Sheet and covered in tundra during cold periods, but Pleistocene
Pleistocene
muskoxen are also rarely recorded in more benign and wooded areas to the south like France
France
and Green Spain, where they coexisted with temperate ungulates like red deer and aurochs. Likewise, the muskox is known to have survived in Britain during warm interglacial periods.[10] Today's muskoxen are descended from others believed to have migrated from Siberia
Siberia
to North America
North America
between 200,000[12] and 90,000 years ago,[13] having previously occupied Alaska
Alaska
(at the time united to Siberia
Siberia
and isolated periodically from the rest of North America
North America
by the union of the Laurentide and Cordilleran Ice Sheets during colder periods) between 250,000 and 150,000 years ago. After migrating south during one of the warmer periods of the Illinoian glaciation, non-Alaskan American muskoxen would be isolated from the rest in the colder periods. The muskox was already present in its current stronghold of Banks Island
Banks Island
34,000 years ago, but the existence of other ice-free areas in the Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago at the time is disputed.[10] Along with the bison and the pronghorn,[14] the muskox was one of a few species of Pleistocene
Pleistocene
megafauna in North America
North America
to survive the Pleistocene/ Holocene
Holocene
extinction event and live to the present day.[15] The muskox is thought to have been able to survive the Last glacial period by finding ice-free areas (refugia) away from prehistoric peoples.[13] Fossil DNA evidence suggests that muskoxen were not only more geographically widespread during the Pleistocene, but also more genetically diverse.[16] During that time, other populations of muskoxen lived across the Arctic, from the Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
to Greenland. By contrast, the current genetic makeup of the species is more homogenous. Climate fluctuation may have affected this shift in genetic diversity: research indicates colder periods in Earth's history are correlated with more diversity, and warmer periods with more homogeneity.[15] Physical characteristics[edit]

This skull, in the collection of The Children's Museum of Indianapolis, displays the muskox's large horns.

Both male and female muskoxen have long, curved horns. Muskoxen stand 1.1 to 1.5 m (4 to 5 ft) high at the shoulder, with females measuring 135 to 200 cm (4.4 to 6.6 ft) in length, and the larger males 200 to 250 cm (6.6 to 8.2 ft). The small tail, often concealed under a layer of fur, measures only 10 cm (3.9 in) long. Adults, on average, weigh 285 kg (630 lb) and range from 180 to 410 kg (400 to 900 lb).[9][17] The thick coat and large head suggests a larger animal than the muskox truly is; the bison, to which the muskox is often compared, can weigh up to twice as much.[18] However, heavy zoo-kept specimens have weighed up to 650 kg (1,400 lb).[5] Their coat, a mix of black, gray, and brown, includes long guard hairs that almost reach the ground. Rare "white muskoxen" have been spotted in the Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary.[19] Muskoxen are occasionally domesticated for wool, meat, and milk.[20][21] The wool, qiviut, is highly prized for its softness, length, and insulation value. Prices for yarn range between $40 and $80 per ounce (28 g).[22][23][24] A muskox can reach speeds of up to 60 km/h (37 mph).[25] Their life expectancy is 12–20 years. Range[edit]

Fossil Ovibos moschatus skull from prehistoric Siberia

Prehistory[edit] During the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
period, muskoxen were much more widespread. Fossil evidence shows that they lived across the Siberian and North American Arctic, from the Urals
Urals
to Greenland.[15] The ancestors of today's muskoxen came across the Bering Land Bridge
Bering Land Bridge
to North America between 200,000[12] and 90,000 years ago.[13] During the Wisconsinan, modern muskox thrived in the tundra south of the Laurentide ice sheet, in what is now the Midwest, the Appalachians
Appalachians
and Virginia, while distant relatives Bootherium
Bootherium
and Euceratherium
Euceratherium
lived in the forests of the Southern United States
Southern United States
and the western shrubland, respectively.[11] Though they were always less common than other Ice Age megafauna, muskox abundance peaked during the Würm
Würm
II glaciation 20,000 years ago and declined afterwards, especially during the Pleistocene/ Holocene
Holocene
extinction event, where its range was greatly reduced and only the populations in North America
North America
survived. The last known muskox population in Europe
Europe
died out in Sweden
Sweden
9,000 years ago,[10] and the last one in Asia, which lived on Siberia's Taymyr Peninsula, about 2,000 years ago.[16] After the disappearance of the Laurentide ice sheet, the muskox gradually moved north across the Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago, arriving in Greenland
Greenland
from Ellesmere Island
Ellesmere Island
at about 350 AD, during the late Holocene. Their arrival in northwestern Greenland
Greenland
probably occurred within a few hundred years of the arrival of the Dorset and Thule cultures in the present-day Qaanaaq
Qaanaaq
area. Human predation around Qaanaaq
Qaanaaq
may have restricted muskoxen from moving down the west coast, and instead kept them confined to the northeastern fringes of the island.[26] Recent native range in North America[edit]

Muskox
Muskox
family in east Greenland

In modern times, muskoxen were restricted to the Arctic
Arctic
areas of Northern Canada, Greenland, and Alaska. The Alaskan population was wiped out in the late 19th or early 20th century. Their depletion has been attributed to excessive hunting, but an adverse change in climate may have contributed.[27][28] However, muskoxen have since been reintroduced to Alaska. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service introduced the muskox onto Nunivak Island
Nunivak Island
in 1935 as a means for subsistence living.[29] Other reintroduced populations are in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge,[30] Bering Land Bridge
Bering Land Bridge
National Preserve, Yukon's Ivvavik National Park, a wildlife conservation center in Anchorage,[31] Aulavik National Park
Aulavik National Park
in Northwest Territories, Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge, Gates of the Arctic
Arctic
National Park, and Whitehorse, Yukon's wildlife preserve[32] as well as a local farm in Palmer, Alaska, which has been successful since the mid-1950s.[33] Introductions in Eurasia[edit]

This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Norwegian. (August 2017) Click [show] for important translation instructions.

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The species was introduced from Banks Island
Banks Island
to the Dovre mountain range of Norway
Norway
in 1932 before they were hunted to extinction during the Second World War. The animal was reintroduced to Norway
Norway
in 1947; this population expanded into Härjedalen, Sweden
Sweden
in 1971. An introduction attempt in Svalbard
Svalbard
was carried out in 1925-26 and 1929; however, this population died out in the 1970s.[34] They were also introduced in Iceland
Iceland
around 1930 but did not survive.[35] In Russia, animals from Banks and Nunivak alike were imported and released in the Taymyr Peninsula
Taymyr Peninsula
between 1974 and 1975, and from Nunivak to Wrangel Island
Wrangel Island
in 1975. Both locations are north of the Arctic
Arctic
Circle. Once established, these populations have been, in turn, used as sources for further introductions in Siberia
Siberia
between 1996 and 2010.[36] One of the last of such actions was the release of six animals within the " Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Park" project area in the Kolyma River in 2010, where a team of Russian scientists led by Sergey Zimov
Sergey Zimov
aims to prove that muskoxen, along with other Pleistocene
Pleistocene
megafauna that survived into the early Holocene
Holocene
in northern Siberia,[37] did not disappear from the region due to climate change, but because of human hunting.[38] Introductions in eastern Canada[edit] Ancient muskox remains have never been found in eastern Canada, despite the ecological conditions in the northern Labrador
Labrador
Peninsula being suitable for them. In 1967, 14 animals were captured near Eureka, Ellesmere Island, and placed in a wool farm in Kuujjuaq, northern Quebec. Although the animals acclimatized and reproduced with no problem, the farm failed to make a profit. Subsequently, 54 animals from the farm were released in three locations of northern Quebec between 1973 and 1983, while the remaining were ceded to local zoos. Between 1983 and 1986, the released animals increased from 148 to 290, at a rate of 1.25 per year, and by 2003, an estimated 1400 muskoxen were in Quebec. Additionally, 112 adults and 25 calves were counted in the nearby Diana Island in 2005, having arrived there by their own means from the continent. Vagrant adults are sometimes spotted in Labrador, though no herds have been observed in the region.[39] Ecology[edit] During the summer, muskoxen live in wet areas, such as river valleys, moving to higher elevations in the winter to avoid deep snow. Muskoxen will eat grasses, Arctic
Arctic
willows, woody plants, lichens, and mosses. When food is abundant, they prefer succulent and nutritious grasses in an area. Willows are the most commonly eaten plants in the winter. Muskoxen require a high threshold of fat reserves in order to conceive, which reflects their conservative breeding strategy. Winter ranges typically have shallow snow to reduce the energy costs of digging through snow to reach forage.[1] The primary predators of muskoxen are Arctic
Arctic
wolves, which may account for up to half of all mortality for the species. Other occasional predators, likely mainly predators of calves or infirm adults, can include grizzly bears and polar bears.[5] Social behavior and reproduction[edit]

Nunivak Island, Alaskan muskoxen in the 1930s, shown here in defensive formation

Muskoxen live in herds of 12–24 in the winter and 8–20 in the summer.[40] They do not hold territories, but they do mark their trails with preorbital glands.[41] Male and female muskoxen both have separate age-based hierarchies, with mature oxen being dominant over juveniles.[40] Dominant oxen tend to get access to the best resources[5] and will displace subordinates from patches of grass during the winter.[40] Muskoxen bulls assert their dominance in many different ways. One is a "rush and butt", in which a dominant bull rushes a subordinate from the side with its horns, and will warn the subordinate so it can have a chance to get away.[42] Bulls will also roar, swing their heads, and paw the ground.[5] Dominant bulls sometimes treat subordinate bulls like cows. A dominant bull will casually kick a subordinate with its foreleg, something they do to cows during mating.[43] Dominant bulls will also mock copulate subordinates and sniff their genitals.[43] A subordinate bull can change his status by charging a dominant bull.[44]

Muskox
Muskox
in Dovrefjell
Dovrefjell
National Park, Norway

The mating (or "rutting") season of the muskoxen begins in late June or early July. During this time, dominant bulls will fight others out of the herds and establish harems of usually six or seven cows and their offspring. Fighting bulls will first rub their preorbital glands against their legs while bellowing loudly, and then display their horns.[44] The bulls then back up 20 meters, lower their heads, and charge into each other, and will keep doing so until one bull gives up.[42] Subordinate and elderly bulls will leave the herds to form bachelor groups or become solitary.[5] However, when danger is present, the outside bulls can return to the herd for protection.[45] Dominant bulls will prevent cows from leaving their harems.[5] During mating, a bull will casually kick an estrous cow with his foreleg to calm her down and make her more receptive to his advances.[43] The herds reassemble when summer ends.[45] While the bulls are more aggressive during the rutting season and make the decisions in the groups, the females take charge during gestation.[5] Pregnant females are aggressive and decide what distance the herd travels in a day and where they will bed for the night.[46] The herds move more frequently when cows are lactating, to allow them to get enough food to nurse their offspring.[46] Cows have an eight- to nine-month gestation period, with calving occurring from April to June. Cows do not calve every year. When winters are severe, cows will not go into estrus and thus not calve the next year. When calving, cows stay in the herd for protection. Calves are able to keep up with the herd within just a few hours after birth. The calves are welcomed into the herd and nursed for the first two months.[5] After that, a calf then begins eating vegetation and nurses only occasionally. Cows communicate with their calves through braying. The calf's bond with its mother weakens after two years. Muskoxen have a distinctive defensive behavior: when the herd is threatened, the bulls and cows will face outward to form a stationary ring or semicircle around the calves.[47] The bulls are usually the front line for defense against predators with the cows and juveniles gathering close to them.[5] Bulls determine the defensive formation during rutting, while the cows decide the rest of the year.[45] Components of glandular secretions[edit] The preorbital gland secretion of muskoxen has a "light, sweetish, ethereal" odor.[7] Analysis of preorbital gland secretion extract showed the presence of cholesterol (which is nonvolatile), benzaldehyde, a series of straight-chain saturated gamma-lactones ranging from C8H14O2 to C12H22O2 (with C10H18O2 being most abundant), and probably the monounsaturated gamma lactone C12H20O2.[7] The saturated gamma-lactone series has an odor similar to that of the secretion.[7] The odor of dominant rutting males is "strong" and "rank".[7] It derives from the preputial gland and is distributed over the fur of the abdomen via urine. Analysis of extract of washes of the prepuce revealed the presence of benzoic acid and p-cresol, along with a series of straight-chain saturated hydrocarbons from C22H46 to C32H66 (with C24H50 being most abundant).[7] Conservation status[edit] Historically, this species declined because of overhunting, but population recovery has taken place following enforcement of hunting regulations.[1] Management in the late 1900s was mostly conservative hunting quotas to foster recovery and recolonization from the historic declines.[1] The current world population of muskoxen is estimated at between 80,000[48] and 125,000,[29] with an estimated 47,000 living on Banks Island.[49] In Greenland
Greenland
there are no major threats, although populations are often small in size and scattered, which makes them vulnerable to local fluctuations in climate. Most populations are within national parks, where they are protected from hunting.[1] Muskoxen occur in four of Greenland's protected areas, with indigenous populations in Northeast Greenland
Greenland
National Park, and three introduced populations in Arnangarnup Qoorua Nature Reserve, and Kangerlussuaq
Kangerlussuaq
and Maniitsoq Caribou Reserves. Within these areas, muskoxen receive full protection.[1] References[edit]

^ a b c d e f Gunn, A.; Forchhammer, M. (2008). "Ovibos moschatus". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008 (errata version published in 2016): e.T29684A86066477. Retrieved 24 June 2017. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ de Blainville, M. H. (1816). "Sur plusieurs espèces d'animaux mammifères, de l'ordre des ruminans". Bulletin des sciences par la Société philomathique de Paris: 76. g. XI. Ovibos  ^ Kowarzik, K. (1911). "Das Tränenbein von Ovibos moschatus Blainv". Zoologischer anzeiger. 37: 106–107.  ^ Zimmermann, E.A.W. (1780). "Der Muskusochse". Enthält ein vollständiges Verzeichnis aller bekannten Quadrupeden. Geographische Geschichte des Menschen, und der allgemein verbreiteten vierfüssigen Thiere. 2. Leipzig: Weygandschen Buchhandlung. pp. 86–88.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Lent, Peter C (1988). "Ovibos moschatus" (PDF). Mammalian Species. 302 (1–9). doi:10.2307/3504280. JSTOR 3504280. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-20.  ^ Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
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Mammalian Faunas". ku.edu.  ^ a b Wildlife Management Advisory Council (North Slope) fact sheet. taiga.net. ^ a b c Hinterland Who's Who Archived 2013-04-25 at the Wayback Machine. ISBN 0-660-13637-6 ^ Smithsonian Institution. North American Mammals: Pronghorn Antilocapra americana ^ a b c Switek, Brian. "Prehistoric DNA Reveals the Story of a Pleistocene
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videos, photos and facts – Ovibos moschatus. ARKive. Retrieved on 2012-08-23. ^ "Search for the Legendary White Musk-ox". Thelon.com. 2010-08-06. Archived from the original on 2011-07-17. Retrieved 2011-03-03.  ^ " Muskox
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Department of Fish and Game. Archived from the original on 2009-10-01. Retrieved 2017-02-01.  ^ "The Incredible Journey". Nps.gov. 2010-12-28. Retrieved 2011-03-03.  ^ a b "Muskox, (Ovibos moschatus) US Fish & Wildlife Service". Fws.gov. Retrieved 2011-03-03.  ^ https://www.fws.org/refuge/arctic/muskox.html[permanent dead link] ^ " Musk
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External links[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Muskox

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Muskox.

Robert G. White Large Animal
Animal
Research Station at the University of Alaska
Alaska
Fairbanks Alex Trebek and John Teal's Reintroduction
Reintroduction
of Muskox
Muskox
to Alaska Jork Meyer, "Sex ratio in muskox skulls (Ovibos moschatus) found at East Greenland" (Geschlechterverhältnis bei Schädeln des Moschusochsen (Ovibos moschatus) in Ostgrönland) Beiträge zur Jagd- und Wildtierforschung 29 (2004): 187–192.  "Musk-Ox". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.   " Musk
Musk
Ox". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 

v t e

Extant Artiodactyla species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Ruminantia

Antilocapridae

Antilocapra

Pronghorn
Pronghorn
(A. americana)

Giraffidae

Okapia

Okapi
Okapi
(O. johnstoni)

Giraffa

Northern giraffe
Northern giraffe
(G. camelopardalis) Southern giraffe
Southern giraffe
(G. giraffa) Reticulated giraffe
Reticulated giraffe
(G. reticulata) Masai giraffe
Masai giraffe
(G. tippelskirchi)

Moschidae

Moschus

Anhui musk deer
Anhui musk deer
(M. anhuiensis) Dwarf musk deer
Dwarf musk deer
(M. berezovskii) Alpine musk deer
Alpine musk deer
(M. chrysogaster) Kashmir musk deer
Kashmir musk deer
(M. cupreus) Black musk deer
Black musk deer
(M. fuscus) Himalayan musk deer (M. leucogaster) Siberian musk deer
Siberian musk deer
(M. moschiferus)

Tragulidae

Hyemoschus

Water chevrotain
Water chevrotain
(H. aquaticus)

Moschiola

Indian spotted chevrotain
Indian spotted chevrotain
(M. indica) Yellow-striped chevrotain
Yellow-striped chevrotain
(M. kathygre) Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
(M. meminna)

Tragulus

Java mouse-deer
Java mouse-deer
(T. javanicus) Lesser mouse-deer
Lesser mouse-deer
(T. kanchil) Greater mouse-deer
Greater mouse-deer
(T. napu) Philippine mouse-deer
Philippine mouse-deer
(T. nigricans) Vietnam mouse-deer
Vietnam mouse-deer
(T. versicolor) Williamson's mouse-deer
Williamson's mouse-deer
(T. williamsoni)

Cervidae

Large family listed below

Bovidae

Large family listed below

Family Cervidae

Cervinae

Muntiacus

Indian muntjac
Indian muntjac
(M. muntjak) Reeves's muntjac
Reeves's muntjac
(M. reevesi) Hairy-fronted muntjac
Hairy-fronted muntjac
(M. crinifrons) Fea's muntjac
Fea's muntjac
(M. feae) Bornean yellow muntjac
Bornean yellow muntjac
(M. atherodes) Roosevelt's muntjac
Roosevelt's muntjac
(M. rooseveltorum) Gongshan muntjac
Gongshan muntjac
(M. gongshanensis) Giant muntjac
Giant muntjac
(M. vuquangensis) Truong Son muntjac
Truong Son muntjac
(M. truongsonensis) Leaf muntjac
Leaf muntjac
(M. putaoensis) Sumatran muntjac
Sumatran muntjac
(M. montanus) Pu Hoat muntjac
Pu Hoat muntjac
(M. puhoatensis)

Elaphodus

Tufted deer
Tufted deer
(E. cephalophus)

Dama

Fallow deer
Fallow deer
(D. dama) Persian fallow deer
Persian fallow deer
(D. mesopotamica)

Axis

Chital
Chital
(A. axis)

Rucervus

Barasingha
Barasingha
(R. duvaucelii)

Panolia

Eld's deer
Eld's deer
(P. eldii)

Elaphurus

Père David's deer
Père David's deer
(E. davidianus)

Hyelaphus

Hog deer (H. porcinus) Calamian deer
Calamian deer
(H. calamianensis) Bawean deer
Bawean deer
(H. kuhlii)

Rusa

Sambar deer
Sambar deer
(R. unicolor) Rusa deer (R. timorensis) Philippine sambar (R. mariannus) Philippine spotted deer (R. alfredi)

Cervus

Red deer
Red deer
(C. elaphus) Elk
Elk
(C. canadensis) Thorold's deer
Thorold's deer
(C. albirostris) Sika deer
Sika deer
(C. nippon)

Capreolinae

Alces

Moose
Moose
(A. alces)

Hydropotes

Water deer
Water deer
(H. inermis)

Capreolus

Roe deer
Roe deer
(C. capreolus) Siberian roe deer
Siberian roe deer
(C. pygargus)

Rangifer

Reindeer
Reindeer
(R. tarandus)

Hippocamelus

Taruca
Taruca
(H. antisensis) South Andean deer
South Andean deer
(H. bisulcus)

Mazama

Red brocket
Red brocket
(M. americana) Small red brocket
Small red brocket
(M. bororo) Merida brocket
Merida brocket
(M. bricenii) Dwarf brocket
Dwarf brocket
(M. chunyi) Gray brocket
Gray brocket
(M. gouazoubira) Pygmy brocket
Pygmy brocket
(M. nana) Amazonian brown brocket
Amazonian brown brocket
(M. nemorivaga) Yucatan brown brocket
Yucatan brown brocket
(M. pandora) Little red brocket
Little red brocket
(M. rufina) Central American red brocket
Central American red brocket
(M. temama)

Ozotoceros

Pampas deer
Pampas deer
(O. bezoarticus)

Blastocerus

Marsh deer
Marsh deer
(B. dichotomus)

Pudu

Northern pudú (P. mephistophiles) Southern pudú (P. pudu)

Odocoileus

White-tailed deer
White-tailed deer
(O. virginianus) Mule deer
Mule deer
(O. hemionus)

Family Bovidae

Cephalophinae

Cephalophus

Abbott's duiker
Abbott's duiker
(C. spadix) Aders's duiker
Aders's duiker
(C. adersi) Bay duiker
Bay duiker
(C. dorsalis) Black duiker
Black duiker
(C. niger) Black-fronted duiker
Black-fronted duiker
(C. nigrifrons) Brooke's duiker (C. brookei) Harvey's duiker
Harvey's duiker
(C. harveyi) Jentink's duiker
Jentink's duiker
(C. jentinki) Ogilby's duiker
Ogilby's duiker
(C. ogilbyi) Peters's duiker (C. callipygus) Red-flanked duiker
Red-flanked duiker
(C. rufilatus) Red forest duiker
Red forest duiker
(C. natalensis) Ruwenzori duiker
Ruwenzori duiker
(C. rubidis) Weyns's duiker
Weyns's duiker
(C. weynsi) White-bellied duiker
White-bellied duiker
(C. leucogaster) White-legged duiker
White-legged duiker
(C. crusalbum) Yellow-backed duiker
Yellow-backed duiker
(C. Sylvicultor) Zebra duiker
Zebra duiker
(C. zebra)

Philantomba

Blue duiker
Blue duiker
(P. monticola) Maxwell's duiker
Maxwell's duiker
(P. maxwellii) Walter's duiker
Walter's duiker
(P. walteri)

Sylvicapra

Common duiker
Common duiker
(S. grimmia)

Hippotraginae

Hippotragus

Roan antelope
Roan antelope
(H. equinus) Sable antelope
Sable antelope
(H. niger)

Oryx

East African oryx
East African oryx
(O. beisa) Scimitar oryx
Scimitar oryx
(O. dammah) Gemsbok
Gemsbok
(O. gazella) Arabian oryx
Arabian oryx
(O. leucoryx)

Addax

Addax
Addax
(A. nasomaculatus)

Reduncinae

Kobus

Upemba lechwe
Upemba lechwe
(K. anselli) Waterbuck
Waterbuck
(K. ellipsiprymnus) Kob
Kob
(K. kob) Lechwe
Lechwe
(K. leche) Nile lechwe
Nile lechwe
(K. megaceros) Puku
Puku
(K. vardonii)

Redunca

Southern reedbuck
Southern reedbuck
(R. arundinum) Mountain reedbuck
Mountain reedbuck
(R. fulvorufula) Bohor reedbuck
Bohor reedbuck
(R. redunca)

Aepycerotinae

Aepyceros

Impala
Impala
(A. melampus)

Peleinae

Pelea

Grey rhebok
Grey rhebok
(P. capreolus)

Alcelaphinae

Beatragus

Hirola
Hirola
(B. hunteri)

Damaliscus

Topi
Topi
(D. korrigum) Common tsessebe
Common tsessebe
(D. lunatus) Bontebok
Bontebok
(D. pygargus) Bangweulu tsessebe
Bangweulu tsessebe
(D. superstes)

Alcelaphus

Hartebeest
Hartebeest
(A. buselaphus) Red hartebeest
Red hartebeest
(A. caama) Lichtenstein's hartebeest
Lichtenstein's hartebeest
(A. lichtensteinii)

Connochaetes

Black wildebeest
Black wildebeest
(C. gnou) Blue wildebeest
Blue wildebeest
(C. taurinus)

Pantholopinae

Pantholops

Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

Caprinae

Large subfamily listed below

Bovinae

Large subfamily listed below

Antilopinae

Large subfamily listed below

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Caprinae)

Ammotragus

Barbary sheep
Barbary sheep
(A. lervia)

Budorcas

Takin
Takin
(B. taxicolor)

Capra

Wild goat
Wild goat
(C. aegagrus) Domestic goat (C. aegagrus hircus) West Caucasian tur
West Caucasian tur
(C. caucasia) East Caucasian tur
East Caucasian tur
(C. cylindricornis) Markhor
Markhor
(C. falconeri) Alpine ibex
Alpine ibex
(C. ibex) Nubian ibex
Nubian ibex
(C. nubiana) Spanish ibex
Spanish ibex
(C. pyrenaica) Siberian ibex
Siberian ibex
(C. sibirica) Walia ibex
Walia ibex
(C. walie)

Capricornis

Japanese serow
Japanese serow
(C. crispus) Taiwan serow
Taiwan serow
(C. swinhoei) Sumatran serow
Sumatran serow
(C. sumatraensis) Mainland serow
Mainland serow
(C. milneedwardsii) Red serow
Red serow
(C. rubidusi) Himalayan serow
Himalayan serow
(C. thar)

Hemitragus

Nilgiri tahr
Nilgiri tahr
(H. hylocrius) Arabian tahr
Arabian tahr
(H. jayakari) Himalayan tahr
Himalayan tahr
(H. jemlahicus)

Naemorhedus

Red goral
Red goral
(N. baileyi) Long-tailed goral
Long-tailed goral
(N. caudatus) Himalayan goral
Himalayan goral
(N. goral) Chinese goral
Chinese goral
(N. griseus)

Oreamnos

Mountain goat
Mountain goat
(O. americanus)

Ovibos

Muskox
Muskox
(O. moschatus)

Ovis

Argali
Argali
(O. ammon) Domestic sheep
Domestic sheep
(O. aries) Bighorn sheep
Bighorn sheep
(O. canadensis) Dall sheep
Dall sheep
(O. dalli) Mouflon
Mouflon
(O. musimon) Snow sheep
Snow sheep
(O. nivicola) Urial
Urial
(O. orientalis)

Pseudois

Bharal
Bharal
(P. nayaur) Dwarf blue sheep
Dwarf blue sheep
(P. schaeferi)

Rupicapra

Pyrenean chamois
Pyrenean chamois
(R. pyrenaica) Chamois
Chamois
(R. rupicapra)

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Bovinae)

Boselaphini

Tetracerus

Four-horned antelope
Four-horned antelope
(T. quadricornis)

Boselaphus

Nilgai
Nilgai
(B. tragocamelus)

Bovini

Bubalus

Water buffalo
Water buffalo
(B. bubalis) Wild Water Buffalo (B. arnee) Lowland anoa (B. depressicornis) Mountain anoa (B. quarlesi) Tamaraw
Tamaraw
(B. mindorensis)

Bos

Banteng
Banteng
(B. javanicus) Gaur
Gaur
(B. gaurus) Gayal
Gayal
(B. frontalis) Domestic yak
Domestic yak
(B. grunniens) Wild yak
Wild yak
(B. mutus) Cattle
Cattle
(B. taurus) Kouprey
Kouprey
(B. sauveli)

Pseudonovibos

Kting voar (P. spiralis)

Pseudoryx

Saola
Saola
(P. nghetinhensis)

Syncerus

African buffalo
African buffalo
(S. caffer)

Bison

American bison
American bison
(B. bison) European bison
European bison
(B. bonasus)

Tragelaphini

Tragelaphus (including kudus)

Sitatunga
Sitatunga
(T. spekeii) Nyala
Nyala
(T. angasii) Kéwel
Kéwel
(T. scriptus) Cape bushbuck
Cape bushbuck
(T. sylvaticus) Mountain nyala
Mountain nyala
(T. buxtoni) Lesser kudu
Lesser kudu
(T. imberbis) Greater kudu
Greater kudu
(T. strepsiceros) Bongo (T. eurycerus)

Taurotragus

Common eland
Common eland
(T. oryx) Giant eland
Giant eland
(T. derbianus)

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Antilopinae)

Antilopini

Ammodorcas

Dibatag
Dibatag
(A. clarkei)

Antidorcas

Springbok
Springbok
(A. marsupialis)

Antilope

Blackbuck
Blackbuck
(A. cervicapra)

Eudorcas

Mongalla gazelle
Mongalla gazelle
(E. albonotata) Red-fronted gazelle
Red-fronted gazelle
(E. rufifrons) Thomson's gazelle
Thomson's gazelle
(E. thomsonii) Heuglin's gazelle
Heuglin's gazelle
(E. tilonura)

Gazella

Mountain gazelle
Mountain gazelle
(G. gazella) Neumann's gazelle (G. erlangeri) Speke's gazelle
Speke's gazelle
(G. spekei) Dorcas gazelle
Dorcas gazelle
(G. dorcas) Chinkara
Chinkara
(G. bennettii) Cuvier's gazelle
Cuvier's gazelle
(G. cuvieri) Rhim gazelle
Rhim gazelle
(G. leptoceros) Goitered gazelle
Goitered gazelle
(G. subgutturosa)

Litocranius

Gerenuk
Gerenuk
(L. walleri)

Nanger

Dama gazelle
Dama gazelle
(N. dama) Grant's gazelle
Grant's gazelle
(N. granti) Soemmerring's gazelle
Soemmerring's gazelle
(N. soemmerringii)

Procapra

Mongolian gazelle
Mongolian gazelle
(P. gutturosa) Goa (P. picticaudata) Przewalski's gazelle
Przewalski's gazelle
(P. przewalskii)

Saigini

Pantholops

Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

Saiga

Saiga antelope
Saiga antelope
(S. tatarica)

Neotragini

Dorcatragus

Beira (D. megalotis)

Madoqua

Günther's dik-dik
Günther's dik-dik
(M. guentheri) Kirk's dik-dik
Kirk's dik-dik
(M. kirkii) Silver dik-dik
Silver dik-dik
(M. piacentinii) Salt's dik-dik
Salt's dik-dik
(M. saltiana)

Neotragus

Bates's pygmy antelope
Bates's pygmy antelope
(N. batesi) Suni
Suni
(N. moschatus) Royal antelope
Royal antelope
(N. pygmaeus)

Oreotragus

Klipspringer
Klipspringer
(O. oreotragus)

Ourebia

Oribi
Oribi
(O. ourebi)

Raphicerus

Steenbok
Steenbok
(R. campestris) Cape grysbok
Cape grysbok
(R. melanotis) Sharpe's grysbok
Sharpe's grysbok
(R. sharpei)

Suborder Suina

Suidae

Babyrousa

Buru babirusa
Buru babirusa
(B. babyrussa) North Sulawesi babirusa
North Sulawesi babirusa
(B. celebensis) Togian babirusa
Togian babirusa
(B. togeanensis)

Hylochoerus

Giant forest hog
Giant forest hog
(H. meinertzhageni)

Phacochoerus

Desert warthog
Desert warthog
(P. aethiopicus) Common warthog
Common warthog
(P. africanus)

Porcula

Pygmy hog
Pygmy hog
(P. salvania)

Potamochoerus

Bushpig
Bushpig
(P. larvatus) Red river hog
Red river hog
(P. porcus)

Sus (Pigs)

Palawan bearded pig
Palawan bearded pig
(S. ahoenobarbus) Bornean bearded pig
Bornean bearded pig
(S. barbatus) Indo-chinese warty pig (S. bucculentus) Visayan warty pig
Visayan warty pig
(S. cebifrons) Celebes warty pig
Celebes warty pig
(S. celebensis) Flores warty pig (S. heureni) Oliver's warty pig
Oliver's warty pig
(S. oliveri) Philippine warty pig
Philippine warty pig
(S. philippensis) Wild boar
Wild boar
(S. scrofa) Timor warty pig (S. timoriensis) Javan warty pig
Javan warty pig
(S. verrucosus)

Tayassuidae

Tayassu

White-lipped peccary
White-lipped peccary
(T. pecari)

Catagonus

Chacoan peccary
Chacoan peccary
(C. wagneri)

Pecari

Collared peccary
Collared peccary
(P. tajacu) Giant peccary (P. maximus)

Suborder Tylopoda

Camelidae

Lama

Llama
Llama
(L. glama) Guanaco
Guanaco
(L. guanicoe)

Vicugna

Vicuña
Vicuña
(V. vicugna) Alpaca
Alpaca
(V. pacos)

Camelus

Dromedary
Dromedary
(C. dromedarius) Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. bactrianus) Wild Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. ferus)

Whippomorpha
Whippomorpha
(unranked clade)

Hippopotamidae

Hippopotamus

Hippopotamus
Hippopotamus
(H. amphibius)

Choeropsis

Pygmy hippopotamus
Pygmy hippopotamus
(C. liberiensis)

v t e

Game animals and shooting in North America

Game birds

Bobwhite quail Chukar Hungarian partridge Prairie chicken Mourning dove Ring-necked pheasant Ptarmigan Ruffed grouse Sharp-tailed grouse Snipe (common snipe) Spruce grouse Turkey Woodcock

Waterfowl

Black duck Canada goose Canvasback Gadwall Greater scaup Lesser scaup Mallard Northern pintail Redhead Ross's goose Snow goose Wood duck

Big game

Bighorn sheep Black bear Razorback Brown bear Bison
Bison
(buffalo) Caribou Cougar
Cougar
(mountain lion) Elk Moose White-tailed deer Gray wolf Mountain goat Mule deer Pronghorn Muskox Dall sheep Polar bear

Other quarry

American alligator Bobcat Coyote Fox squirrel Gray fox Gray squirrel Opossum Rabbit Red fox Snowshoe hare

See also

Bear hunting Big game hunting Bison
Bison
hunting Deer
Deer
hunting Waterfowl hunting Whaling Fishing Wolf hunting Upland hunting

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q184004 ADW: Ovibos ARKive: ovibos-moschatus BioLib: 20926 EoL: 328656 EPPO: OVIBMO Fauna Europaea: 305235 Fossilworks: 49513 GBIF: 2441108 iNaturalist: 42412 ITIS: 180708 IUCN: 29684 MSW: 14200813 NCBI: 37176

Authority control

LCCN: sh85089052 GND: 4170573-7 BNF:

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