Musikhochschule L��beck
   HOME

TheInfoList




A music school is an educational
institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington Samuel Phillips Huntington (April 18, 1927 – December 24, 2008) was an American political scientist, adviser and academic. He spent more than half a century at Harvard University Ha ...
specialized in the study, training, and research of
music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and its associated concepts , , and ...

music
. Such an institution can also be known as a school of music, music academy, music faculty, college of music, music department (of a larger institution), conservatory, conservatorium or conservatoire. Instruction consists of training in the performance of
musical instruments A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument. A person who play ...

musical instruments
, singing,
musical composition Musical composition can refer to an Originality, original piece or work of music, either Human voice, vocal or Musical instrument, instrumental, the musical form, structure of a musical piece or to the process of creating or writing a new pie ...
, conducting,
musicianship A musician is a person who composes, conducts, or performs music. According to the United States Employment Service The United States Employment Service (USES) is an agency of the federal government of the United States The federal go ...
, as well as academic and research fields such as
musicology Musicology (from Greek 'μουσική' (mousikē) for 'music' and 'λογος' (logos) for 'domain of study') is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony ...
,
music history Music history, sometimes called historical musicology, is a highly diverse subfield of the broader discipline of musicology Musicology (from Greek 'μουσική' (mousikē) for 'music' and 'λογος' (logos) for 'domain of study') is the ...
and
music theory Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elem ...
.
Music instruction Music education is a field of practice in which educators are trained for careers as elementary In computational complexity theory, the complexity class ELEMENTARY of elementary recursive functions is the union of the classes : \begin \maths ...
can be provided within the compulsory general education system, or within specialized children's music schools such as the
Purcell School The Purcell School for Young Musicians is a specialist music school A music school is an educational institution specialized in the study, training, and research of music. Such an institution can also be known as a school of music, music acad ...
. Elementary-school children can access music instruction also in after-school institutions such as music academies or music schools. In Venezuela
El Sistema El Sistema (which translates to The System) is a publicly financed, voluntary sector, music-education program, founded in Venezuela in 1975 by Venezuelan educator, musician, and activist José Antonio Abreu.Lesniak It later adopted the motto "Mu ...
of youth orchestras provides free after-school instrumental instruction through music schools called ''núcleos''. The term "music school" can also be applied to institutions of higher education under names such as ''school of music'', such as the
Eastman School of Music The Eastman School of Music is the music school of the University of Rochester in Rochester, New York. It was established in 1921 by industrialist and philanthropist George Eastman. It offers Bachelor of Music (B.M.) degrees, Master of Arts (M.A ...
of the
University of Rochester The University of Rochester (U of R, UR, or U of Rochester) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Sp ...
; ''music academy'', like the
Sibelius Academy The Sibelius Academy ( fi, Taideyliopiston Sibelius-Akatemia, sv, Konstuniversitetets Sibelius-Akademi) is part of the University of the Arts Helsinki The University of the Arts Helsinki ( fi, Taideyliopisto, sv, Konstuniversitetet), also know ...
or the Royal Academy of Music, London; ''music faculty'' as the Don Wright Faculty of Music of the University of Western Ontario; ''college of music'', characterized by the Royal College of Music and the Berklee College of Music; ''music department'', like the Department of Music at the University of California, Santa Cruz; or the term ''conservatory'', exemplified by the Conservatoire de Paris and the New England Conservatory. In other parts of Europe, the equivalents of ''higher school of music'' or ''university of music'' may be used, such as the Hochschule für Musik und Tanz Köln (Cologne University of Music).


History

Although music in general and music education may have been in existence for thousands of years, the earliest history is speculative. Even when history starts to be recorded, music is mentioned more frequently than music education. Within the biblical tradition, Hebrew litany was accompanied with rich music, but the Torah or Pentateuch was silent on the practice and instruction of music in the early life of Israel. However, by Books of Samuel, I Samuel 10, Alfred Sendrey suggests that we find "a sudden and unexplained upsurge of large choirs and orchestras, consisting of thoroughly organized and trained musical groups, which would be virtually inconceivable without lengthy, methodical preparation". This has led some scholars to believe that the prophet Samuel was the patriarch of a school which taught not only prophets and holy men, but also sacred-rite musicians. The schola cantorum (papal choir) in Rome may be the first recorded music school in history, when Gregory the Great (540–604) made permanent an existing guild dating from the 4th century (''schola'' originally referred more to a guild rather than school). The school consisted of monks, secular clergy, and boys. Wells Cathedral School, England founded as a Cathedral School in 909 a.d. to educate choristers, continues today to educate choristers and teaches instrumentalists. Saint Martial school, 10th to 12th century, was an important school of composition at the Abbey of Saint Martial, Limoges. It is known for the composition of trope (music), tropes, sequence (poetry), sequences, and early organum. In this respect, it was an important precursor to the Notre Dame School. It was the Notre Dame school (late 12th and early 13th century) which was the earliest repertory of polyphonic (multipart) music to gain international prestige and circulation. The school was a group of composers and singers working under the patronage of the great Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris, Notre-Dame in Paris. First records on Escolania de Montserrat, boys' choir linked to a music school, back to 1307 and still continues the musical education.


Renaissance

The Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia (National Academy of St Cecilia) is one of the oldest musical institutions in the world, based in Italy. It is based at the Auditorium Parco della Musica in Rome, and was founded by the papal bull, Ratione congruit, issued by Sixtus V in 1585, which invoked two saints prominent in Western musical history: Gregory the Great, for whom the Gregorian chant is named, and Saint Cecilia, the patron saint of music. It was founded as a "congregation" or "confraternity" – a religious guild, so to speak – and over the centuries, has grown from a forum for local musicians and composers to an internationally acclaimed academy active in music scholarship (with 100 prominent music scholars forming the body of the Accademia) to music education (in its role as a conservatory) to performance (with an active choir and symphony orchestra). The term ''conservatory'' has its origin in 16th-century Renaissance Italy, where orphanages (''wikt:conservatorio, conservatori'') were attached to hospitals. The orphans (''conservati'' 'saved') were given a musical education there, and the term gradually applied to music schools. These hospitals-conservatories were among the first secular institutions equipped for practical training in music. By the 18th century, Italian conservatories were already playing a major role in the training of artists and composers.''The Great Soviet Encyclopedia'' (1979)


16th-18th centuries

In the city of Naples, a ''conservatorio'' was strictly a secular place for teaching and learning specializing in music education. There were already four conservatories in Naples active in the 16th and 18th century: * ''I poveri di Gesù Cristo'' ('The Paupers of Jesus Christ'), founded in 1599 by Marcello Fossataro, already included in their official record a ''magister musicæ'' and ''magister lyre, lyræ'' in 1633; * ''Santa Maria di Loreto'' was founded in 1535, where the composer Giovan Battista Pergolesi (1710–1736) studied; * ''La pietà dei turchini'' was founded in 1583 and the earliest findings suggest musical activity around the year 1615; * ''Sant'Onofrio a porta Capuana'' was founded in 1578, was the first conservatory in the world. Here the composer Giovanni Paisiello (1740–1816) studied and then taught, started teaching music in the mid-1600 and in the following decades will give more priority to the opera buffa; * plus one only for girls called ''dell'Annunziata''. It is in these very institutions that the so-called Neapolitan School, ''Scuola Musicale Napoletana'' was developed, thanks to the work of musicians and educators like Alessandro Scarlatti (1660–1725) and Francesco Durante (1684–1755), who was also Pergolesi's and Paisiello's teacher.


18th-19th centuries

It was the example set in Naples, where admission was by competitive examination and tuition was free, that was then copied, with modifications, in many European cities, including Conservatoire de Paris, Paris (1795), Bologna Conservatory, Bologna (1804), Milan Conservatory, Milan (1807), Chopin University of Music, Warsaw (1810), Florence Conservatory, Florence and Prague Conservatory, Prague (1811), University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna, Vienna (1821), London (1822), the Hague (1826), Liege (1827); a bit later two conservatories was founded in Russia by Rubinstein brothers – Anton in Saint Petersburg Conservatory, Saint Petersburg (1862) and Nikolai in Moscow Conservatory, Moscow (1866). The second half of the 19th century saw the network expanding to the Americas, Rio de Janeiro (1847), Boston (1853), Baltimore and Chicago (1868), Havana (1885), and Buenos Aires (1893). Establishments for advanced training in music were organized in the 1940s in several Asian and African countries, including Iraq, Lebanon, and Kenya. To this extent, projects like
El Sistema El Sistema (which translates to The System) is a publicly financed, voluntary sector, music-education program, founded in Venezuela in 1975 by Venezuelan educator, musician, and activist José Antonio Abreu.Lesniak It later adopted the motto "Mu ...
are more in line with the tradition set in Italy (where tuition at conservatories remains still free) than in an English-speaking country, where students have a very selective access to bursaries (see the Royal Academy of Music or the Royal College of Music in the UK).


Primary and secondary education


Specialist music schools

Specialist music schools exist in many countries and whose purpose is to identify, and assist, children with exceptional potential, to benefit from world-class specialist training as part of a broad and balanced education, which will enable them, if they choose, to proceed towards self-sustaining careers in music. These schools may be formally or informally attached to a conservatory. Entry is typically between the ages of ages 8 and 18 and admission is through competitive audition. Schools may be public or independent; where schools are independent, pupils may be in receipt of governmental or private scholarships. Typically as students progress through the school the time spent on music increases and on academic subjects decrease. These schools usually teach only instrumentalists but may also include choristers. Some schools (like conservatories) are broader and may cover the performing arts: music, drama, dance.


Music schools within schools

Many music schools are located within existing schools. The pattern is quite diverse and may include: Specialist music units in Scotland, where students are drawn from an area wider than the host schools catchment. Students will receive specialist music tuition within the music school but are fully integrated within the host school for other lessons. Entry to the specialist music unit or school is by competitive audition, which also effectively gives entry to the host school. Many public or independent schools contain ''music departments'', some of which achieve high standards. These are sometimes referred to as Music schools. ''Music Colleges'' in England are schools that get additional private and governmental money to specialise in music. Entry is to the host school and musical ability is not an admission requirement. Schools which perform highly may specialise in an additional area for example sports or technology. Music schools also frequently operate from church facilities.


Pre-college divisions

Many conservatories or other tertiary-level institutions have pre-college divisions or junior departments for children of school age. Typically the curriculum includes individual lesson(s), orchestra, chamber music, music theory, theory,
musicianship A musician is a person who composes, conducts, or performs music. According to the United States Employment Service The United States Employment Service (USES) is an agency of the federal government of the United States The federal go ...
, Musical composition, composition and music technology. Classes are usually held on a Saturday and children attend normal schools during the week.


Music schools outside the general education system

Non-governmental or private schools of music offer music education outside the general education system for students aged 4 to 20+ years. In general, students attend these schools weekend or evening. These schools are typically provided by individuals, charitable or commercial organizations.


Tertiary education


Conservatory

A conservatory of music may also be known in English as ''conservatoire'' (chiefly in the UK), ''conservatorium'' (in Australia), ''academy'' or ''college''. Some schools or conservatories are exclusively focused on music. Others have a wider focus, for example covering music, drama and dance. Conservatories are suitable for students who wish to develop their performance, conducting, or composition to a professional standard. Typically, they offer a high percentage of practical training combined with academic study and professional development for those considering a career in the creative arts. Individual teaching is the strength of most components. Students have the opportunity to perform, conduct or have their music played on a regular basis, both informally and in public. This may be solo or as part of an orchestra, ensemble or band. Typically, conservatories focus on Western classical music. However, some schools focus on traditional instruments, such as Chinese instruments. Others may have departments for traditional music which includes both traditional and classical instruments, for example bagpipes alongside the fiddle. Alternatively, students can focus on jazz, world music or pop music. The time required to complete music degrees is generally not much different from degrees in other fields, i.e. 3–4 years for a Bachelor of Music degree, 1–2 years for a Master of Music degree, and 3–5 years for a Doctor of Musical Arts or Doctor of Music Degree. A PhD degree can be gained for areas such as
musicology Musicology (from Greek 'μουσική' (mousikē) for 'music' and 'λογος' (logos) for 'domain of study') is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony ...
,
music theory Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elem ...
, music composition, music education, or music therapy. Some schools may offer a non-academic degree that is solely performance based, such as the (United States) A.D. or Artist Diploma; this may be offered at the undergraduate and/or graduate level.


University schools of music

University music departments originally placed more emphasis on academic study of music, rather than performance. However, today, the division may not be so rigid, with many often placing greater emphasis on performance now than they did in the past. The specific balance of vocational training and academic study varies from one institution to another, and from one country to another. Some countries separately define their institutions between university status and vocational university status, whilst other countries do not define such a rigid division. In addition to offering degrees similar to those offered at conservatories, some universities offer non-professional music-related degrees such as a Bachelor of Arts in Music or a Bachelor of Arts in Music Education. A number of previously independent conservatories have become affiliated to universities Peabody Institute
Retrieved 15 November 2010


See also

''Country-specific pages'': *Music schools in Scotland *List of music schools in the United Kingdom, Music schools in the United Kingdom *Music schools in the United States *:Music schools by country ''Lists'': *List of colleges and university schools of music *List of pre-college music schools ''National and international organisations'': *Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music *Conservatoires UK *European Association of Conservatoires *National Association of Schools of Music, (United States) National Association of Schools of Music


Diplomas

* First Prize (music diploma), First Prize * Bachelor of Music * Master of Music * Doctor of Musical Arts


References


External links

{{Authority control Music education, School Vocational education, Music schools Music schools, Types of university or college, Music school