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Music
Music
psychology, or the psychology of music, may be regarded as a branch of both psychology and musicology. It aims to explain and understand musical behavior and experience, including the processes through which music is perceived, created, responded to, and incorporated into everyday life.[1][2] Modern music psychology is primarily empirical; its knowledge tends to advance on the basis of interpretations of data collected by systematic observation of and interaction with human participants. Music
Music
psychology is a field of research with practical relevance for many areas, including music performance, composition, education, criticism, and therapy, as well as investigations of human attitude, skill, performance, intelligence, creativity, and social behavior. Music
Music
psychology can shed light on non-psychological aspects of musicology and musical practice. For example, it contributes to music theory through investigations of the perception and computational modelling of musical structures such as melody, harmony, tonality, rhythm, meter, and form. Research in music history can benefit from systematic study of the history of musical syntax, or from psychological analyses of composers and compositions in relation to perceptual, affective, and social responses to their music. Ethnomusicology
Ethnomusicology
can benefit from psychological approaches to the study of music cognition in different cultures.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history (pre-1860) 1.2 Rise of empirical (1860–1960) 1.3 Modern (1960–present)

2 Research areas

2.1 Perception
Perception
and cognition

2.1.1 Affective response

2.2 Neuropsychology

2.2.1 Processing pitch

2.2.1.1 Absolute pitch

2.2.2 Processing rhythm 2.2.3 Neural correlates of musical training 2.2.4 Motor imagery

2.3 Psychoacoustics 2.4 Cognitive musicology 2.5 Evolutionary musicology 2.6 Cultural differences

3 Applied research areas

3.1 Music
Music
in society

3.1.1 Musical preference 3.1.2 Background music 3.1.3 Music
Music
in marketing

3.2 Music
Music
education

3.2.1 Musical aptitude

3.3 Music
Music
performance 3.4 Music
Music
and health 3.5 Music
Music
and audio engineering

4 Journals 5 Societies 6 Centers of research and teaching 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading

9.1 Encyclopedia entries 9.2 Introductory reading 9.3 Advanced reading

10 External links

History[edit] Early history (pre-1860)[edit] The study of sound and musical phenomenon prior to the 19th century was focused primarily on the mathematical modelling of pitch and tone.[3] The earliest recorded experiments date from the 6th century BCE, most notably in the work of Pythagoras
Pythagoras
and his establishment of the simple string length ratios that formed the consonances of the octave. This view that sound and music could be understood from a purely physical standpoint was echoed by such theorists as Anaxagoras and Boethius. An important early dissenter was Aristoxenus, who foreshadowed modern music psychology in his view that music could only be understood through human perception and its relation to human memory. Despite his views, the majority of musical education through the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Renaissance
Renaissance
remained rooted in the Pythagorean tradition, particularly through the quadrivium of astronomy, geometry, arithmetic, and music.[3] Research by Vincenzo Galilei
Vincenzo Galilei
(father of Galileo) demonstrated that, when string length was held constant, varying its tension, thickness, or composition could alter perceived pitch. From this he argued that simple ratios were not enough to account for musical phenomenon and that a perceptual approach was necessary. He also claimed that the differences between various tuning systems were not perceivable, thus the disputes were unnecessary. Study of topics including vibration, consonance, the harmonic series, and resonance were furthered through the scientific revolution, including work by Galileo, Kepler, Mersenne, and Descartes. This included further speculation concerning the nature of the sense organs and higher-order processes, particularly by Savart, Helmholtz, and Koenig.[3] Rise of empirical (1860–1960)[edit]

A brass, spherical Helmholtz
Helmholtz
resonator based on his original design, circa 1890-1900.

The latter 19th century saw the development of modern music psychology alongside the emergence of a general empirical psychology, one which passed through similar stages of development. The first was structuralist psychology, led by Wilhelm Wundt, which sought to break down experience into its smallest definable parts. This expanded upon previous centuries of acoustic study, and included Helmholtz developing the resonator to isolate and understand pure and complex tones and their perception, the philosopher Carl Stumpf
Carl Stumpf
using church organs and his own musical experience to explore timbre and absolute pitch, and Wundt himself associating the experience of rhythm with kinesthetic tension and relaxation.[4] As structuralism gave way to Gestalt psychology
Gestalt psychology
and behaviorism at the turn of the century, music psychology moved beyond the study of isolated tones and elements to the perception of their inter-relationships and human reactions to them, though work languished behind that of visual perception.[4] In Europe Géza Révész and Albert Wellek developed a more complex understanding of musical pitch, and in the US the focus shifted to that of music education and the training and development of musical skill. Carl Seashore led this work, producing his The Measurement of Musical Talents and The Psychology
Psychology
of Musical Talent. Seashore used bespoke equipment and standardized tests to measure how performance deviated from indicated markings and how musical aptitude differed between students. Modern (1960–present)[edit] Music
Music
psychology in the second half of the 20th century has expanded to cover a wide array of theoretical and applied areas. From the 1960s the field grew along with cognitive science, including such research areas as music perception (particularly of pitch, rhythm, harmony, and melody), musical development and aptitude, music performance, and affective responses to music.[5] This period has also seen the founding of music psychology-specific journals, societies, conferences, research groups, centers, and degrees, a trend that has brought research toward specific applications for music education, performance, and therapy.[6] While the techniques of cognitive psychology allowed for more objective examinations of musical behavior and experience, the theoretical and technological advancements of neuroscience have greatly shaped the direction of music psychology into the 21st century.[7] While the majority of music psychology research has focused on music in a Western context, the field has expanded along with ethnomusicology to examine how the perception and practice of music differs between cultures.[8][9] It has also emerged into the public sphere. In recent years several bestselling popular science books have helped bring the field into public discussion, notably Daniel Levitin's This Is Your Brain On Music
Music
(2006) and The World in Six Songs (2008), Oliver Sacks' Musicophilia (2007), and Gary Marcus' Guitar Zero
Guitar Zero
(2012). In addition, the controversial "Mozart effect" sparked lengthy debate among researchers, educators, politicians, and the public regarding the relationship between classical music listening, education, and intelligence.[10] Research areas[edit] Perception
Perception
and cognition[edit] Much work within music psychology seeks to understand the cognitive processes that support musical behaviors, including perception, comprehension, memory, attention, and performance. Originally arising in fields of psychoacoustics and sensation, cognitive theories of how people understand music more recently encompass neuroscience, cognitive science, music theory, music therapy, computer science, psychology, philosophy, and linguistics.[11][12] Affective response[edit] Main article: Music
Music
and emotion Music
Music
has been shown to consistently elicit emotional responses in its listeners, and this relationship between human affect and music has been studied in depth.[13] This includes isolating which specific features of a musical work or performance convey or elicit certain reactions, the nature of the reactions themselves, and how characteristics of the listener may determine which emotions are felt. The field draws upon and has significant implications for such areas as philosophy, musicology, and aesthetics, as well the acts of musical composition and performance. The implications for casual listeners are also great; research has shown that the pleasurable feelings associated with emotional music are the result of dopamine release in the striatum—the same anatomical areas that underpin the anticipatory and rewarding aspects of drug addiction.[14] Neuropsychology[edit] Main article: Cognitive neuroscience
Cognitive neuroscience
of music A significant amount of research concerns brain-based mechanisms involved in the cognitive processes underlying music perception and performance. These behaviours include music listening, performing, composing, reading, writing, and ancillary activities. It also is increasingly concerned with the brain basis for musical aesthetics and musical emotion. Scientists working in this field may have training in cognitive neuroscience, neurology, neuroanatomy, psychology, music theory, computer science, and other allied fields, and use such techniques as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), magnetoencephalography (MEG), electroencephalography (EEG), and positron emission tomography (PET). The cognitive process of performing music requires the interaction of neural mechanisms in both motor and auditory systems. Since every action expressed in a performance produces a sound that influences subsequent expression, this leads to impressive sensorimotor interplay.[15] Processing pitch[edit]

The primary auditory cortex is one of the main areas associated with superior pitch resolution.

Perceived pitch typically depends on the fundamental frequency, though the dependence could be mediated solely by the presence of harmonics corresponding to that fundamental frequency. The perception of a pitch without the corresponding fundamental frequency in the physical stimulus is called the pitch of the missing fundamental.[16] Neurons lateral to A1 in marmoset monkeys were found to be sensitive specifically to the fundamental frequency of a complex tone,[17] suggesting that pitch constancy may be enabled by such a neural mechanism. Pitch constancy refers to the ability to perceive pitch identity across changes in acoustical properties, such as loudness, temporal envelope, or timbre.[16] The importance of cortical regions lateral to A1 for pitch coding is also supported by studies of human cortical lesions and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain.[18][19][20] These data suggest a hierarchical system for pitch processing, with more abstract properties of sound stimulus processed further along the processing pathways. Absolute pitch[edit] Main article: Absolute pitch Absolute pitch (AP) is defined as the ability to identify the pitch of a musical tone or to produce a musical tone at a given pitch without the use of an external reference pitch.[21] Researchers estimate the occurrence of AP to be 1 in 10,000 people.[22] The extent to which this ability is innate or learned is debated, with evidence for both a genetic basis and for a "critical period" in which the ability can be learned, especially in conjunction with early musical training.[23][24] Processing rhythm[edit] Behavioural studies demonstrate that rhythm and pitch can be perceived separately,[25] but that they also interact[26] in creating a musical perception. Studies of auditory rhythm discrimination and reproduction in patients with brain injury have linked these functions to the auditory regions of the temporal lobe, but have shown no consistent localization or lateralization.[27][28][29] Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have shown that the motor regions of the brain contribute to both perception and production of rhythms.[30] Even in studies where subjects only listen to rhythms, the basal ganglia, cerebellum, dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC) and supplementary motor area (SMA) are often implicated.[31][32][33] The analysis of rhythm may depend on interactions between the auditory and motor systems. Neural correlates of musical training[edit] Although auditory–motor interactions can be observed in people without formal musical training, musicians are an excellent population to study because of their long-established and rich associations between auditory and motor systems. Musicians have been shown to have anatomical adaptations that correlate with their training.[16] Some neuroimaging studies have observed that musicians show lower levels of activity in motor regions than non-musicians during the performance of simple motor tasks, which may suggest a more efficient pattern of neural recruitment.[34][35][36][37] Motor imagery[edit] Previous neuroimaging studies have consistently reported activity in the SMA and premotor areas, as well as in auditory cortices, when non-musicians imagine hearing musical excerpts.[16] Recruitment of the SMA and premotor areas is also reported when musicians are asked to imagine performing[37][38]

Deutsch's scale illusion: an auditory illusion in which two scales are presented with successive tones alternating between each ear but are perceived as simultaneous, unbroken scales.[39]

Psychoacoustics[edit] Main article: Psychoacoustics Further information: Hearing (sense)
Hearing (sense)
and Auditory illusion Psychoacoustics
Psychoacoustics
is the scientific study of sound perception. More specifically, it is the branch of science studying the psychological and physiological responses associated with sound (including speech and music). Topics of study include perception of the pitch, timbre, loudness and duration of musical sounds and the relevance of such studies for music cognition or the perceived structure of music; and auditory illusions and how humans localize sound, which can have relevance for musical composition and the design of venues for music performance. Psychoacoustics
Psychoacoustics
is a branch of psychophysics. Cognitive musicology[edit] Main article: Cognitive musicology Cognitive musicology is a branch of cognitive science concerned with computationally modeling musical knowledge with the goal of understanding both music and cognition.[40] Cognitive musicology can be differentiated from the fields of music cognition and cognitive neuroscience of music by a difference in methodological emphasis. Cognitive musicology uses computer modeling to study music-related knowledge representation and has roots in artificial intelligence and cognitive science. The use of computer models provides an exacting, interactive medium in which to formulate and test theories.[41] This interdisciplinary field investigates topics such as the parallels between language and music in the brain. Biologically inspired models of computation are often included in research, such as neural networks and evolutionary programs.[42] This field seeks to model how musical knowledge is represented, stored, perceived, performed, and generated. By using a well-structured computer environment, the systematic structures of these cognitive phenomena can be investigated.[43] Evolutionary musicology[edit] Main article: Evolutionary musicology Evolutionary musicology concerns the "origins of music, the question of animal song, selection pressures underlying music evolution", and "music evolution and human evolution".[44] It seeks to understand music perception and activity in the context of evolutionary theory. Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
speculated that music may have held an adaptive advantage and functioned as a protolanguage,[45] a view which has spawned several competing theories of music evolution.[46][47][48] An alternate view sees music as a by-product of linguistic evolution; a type of "auditory cheesecake" that pleases the senses without providing any adaptive function.[49] This view has been directly countered by numerous music researchers.[50][51][52] Cultural differences[edit] Main article: Culture
Culture
in music cognition See also: Ethnomusicology An individual's culture or ethnicity plays a role in their music cognition, including their preferences, emotional reaction, and musical memory. Musical preferences are biased toward culturally familiar musical traditions beginning in infancy, and adults' classification of the emotion of a musical piece depends on both culturally specific and universal structural features.[53][54] Additionally, individuals' musical memory abilities are greater for culturally familiar music than for culturally unfamiliar music.[55][56] Applied research areas[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2014)

Many areas of music psychology research focus on the application of music in everyday life as well as the practices and experiences of the amateur and professional musician. Each topic may utilize knowledge and techniques derived from one or more of the areas described above. Such areas include: Music
Music
in society[edit] Including:

everyday music listening musical rituals and gatherings (e.g. religious, festive, sporting, political, etc.) the role of music in forming personal and group identities the relation between music and dancing social influences on musical preference (peers, family, experts, social background, etc.)

Musical preference[edit] Main article: Psychology
Psychology
of music preference Consumers' choices in music have been studied as they relate to the Big Five personality traits: openness to experience, agreeableness, extraversion, neuroticism, and conscientiousness. In general, the plasticity traits (openness to experience and extraversion) affect music preference more than the stability traits (agreeableness, neuroticism, and conscientiousness).[57] Gender has been shown to influence preference, with men choosing music for primarily cognitive reasons and women for emotional reasons.[58] Relationships with music preference have also been found with mood[59] and nostalgic association.[60] Background music[edit] Main article: Background music The study of background music focuses on the impact of music with non-musical tasks, including changes in behavior in the presence of different types, settings, or styles of music.[61] In laboratory settings, music can affect performance on cognitive tasks (memory, attention, and comprehension), both positively and negatively. Used extensively as an advertising aid, music may also affect marketing strategies, ad comprehension, and consumer choices. Background music can influence learning,[62][63] working memory and recall,[64][65] performance while working on tests,[66][67] and attention in cognitive monitoring tasks.[68][69] Background music can also be used as a way to relieve boredom, create positive moods, and maintain a private space.[70] Background music has been shown to put a restless mind at ease by presenting the listener with various melodies and tones.[70] Music
Music
in marketing[edit] Main article: Background music §  Music
Music
in marketing In both radio and television advertisements, music plays an integral role in content recall,[71][72][73] intentions to buy the product, and attitudes toward the advertisement and brand itself.[74][75][76] Music's effect on marketing has been studied in radio ads,[73][75][76] TV ads,[71][72][74] and physical retail settings.[77][78] One of the most important aspects of an advertisement's music is the "musical fit", or the degree of congruity between cues in the ad and song content.[79] Advertisements and music can be congruous or incongruous for both lyrical and instrumental music. The timbre, tempo, lyrics, genre, mood, as well as any positive or negative associations elicited by certain music should fit the nature of the advertisement and product.[79] Music
Music
education[edit]

A primary focus of music psychology research concerns how best to teach music and the effects this has on childhood development.

Including:

optimizing music education development of musical behaviors and abilities throughout the lifespan the specific skills and processes involved in learning a musical instrument or singing activities and practices within a music school individual versus group learning of a musical instrument the effects of musical education on intelligence optimizing practice

Musical aptitude[edit] Musical aptitude refers to a person's innate ability to acquire skills and knowledge required for musical activity, and may influence the speed at which learning can take place and the level that may be achieved. Study in this area focuses on whether aptitude can be broken into subsets or represented as a single construct, whether aptitude can be measured prior to significant achievement, whether high aptitude can predict achievement, to what extent aptitude is inherited, and what implications questions of aptitude have on educational principles.[80] It is an issue closely related to that of intelligence and IQ, and was pioneered by the work of Carl Seashore. While early tests of aptitude, such as Seashore's The Measurement of Musical Talent, sought to measure innate musical talent through discrimination tests of pitch, interval, rhythm, consonance, memory, etc., later research found these approaches to have little predictive power and to be influenced greatly by the test-taker's mood, motivation, confidence, fatigue, and boredom when taking the test.[80] Music
Music
performance[edit] See also: Performance
Performance
science Including:

the physiology of performance music reading and sight-reading, including eye movement performing from memory and music-related memory acts of improvisation and composition flow experiences the interpersonal/social aspects of group performance music performance quality evaluation by an audience or evaluator(s) (e.g. audition or competition), including:

influence of musical and non-musical factors the audience's positive evaluation shift as a result of an audio-visual presentation mode[81]

Music
Music
and health[edit] See also: Music
Music
therapy Including:

the effectiveness of music in healthcare and therapeutic settings music-specific disorders musicians' physical and mental health and well-being music performance anxiety (MPA, or stage fright) motivation, burnout, and depression among musicians noise-induced hearing loss among musicians

Music
Music
and audio engineering[edit] Gestalt theory is also used as a perceptual model to discuss the psychophysical impressions established by those who mix audio (i.e., mix engineers). As with other design-based activities, such as user-interface design, Gestalt constructions provide a useful guide for creative technologists.[82] Journals[edit] Music
Music
psychology journals include:

Music
Music
Perception Musicae Scientiae Psychology
Psychology
of Music Psychomusicology: Music, Mind and Brain Music
Music
and Science Jahrbuch Musikpsychologie[83]

Music
Music
psychologists also publish in a wide range of mainstream musicology, music theory/analysis, psychology, music education, music therapy, music medicine, and systematic musicology journals. The latter include for example:

Computer Music
Music
Journal Frontiers in Psychology Journal of New Music
Music
Research Empirical Musicology
Musicology
Review Journal of Mathematics and Music[84] Journal of the Acoustical Society of America Research Studies in Music
Music
Education

Societies[edit]

Asia-Pacific Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music
Music
(APSCOM) Australian Music
Music
& Psychology
Psychology
Society (AMPS) Deutsche Gesellschaft für Musikpsychologie (DGM) European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music
Music
(ESCOM) Japanese Society for Music
Music
Perception
Perception
and Cognition
Cognition
(JSMPC) Society for Education, Music
Music
and Psychology
Psychology
Research (SEMPRE, Britain) Society for Music
Music
Perception
Perception
and Cognition
Cognition
(SMPC)

Centers of research and teaching[edit] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Argentina:

National University of La Plata

Australia:

Music, Sound
Sound
and Performance
Performance
Lab, Macquarie University[85] Music, Mind and Wellbeing Initiative, Melbourne University[86] Empirical Musicology
Musicology
Group, University of New South Wales[87] ARC Centre of Excellence for the History of Emotion, University of Western Australia[88] The MARCS Institute, University of Western Sydney[89]

Austria:

Centre for Systematic Musicology, University of Graz[90] Cognitive Psychology
Psychology
Unit, University of Klagenfurt[91]

Belgium:

Institute for Psychoacoustics
Psychoacoustics
and Electronic Music, Ghent University[92]

Canada:

Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Music
Music
and Media and Technology, McGill University[93] Music
Music
and Health Research Collaboratory, University of Toronto[94] Music
Music
Cognition
Cognition
Lab, Queen's University[95] Auditory Perception
Perception
and Music
Music
Cognition
Cognition
Research and Training Laboratory, University of Prince Edward Island[96] SMART Lab, Ryerson University[97] The Music, Acoustics, Perception, and LEarning (MAPLE) Lab, McMaster University[98] McMaster Institute for Music
Music
and the Mind, McMaster University[99] BRAMS - International Laboratory for Brain, Music, and Sound
Sound
Research, University of Montreal
University of Montreal
and McGill University[100] Centre for Research on Brain, Language and Music, University of Montreal[101] Music
Music
and Neuroscience
Neuroscience
Lab, University of Western Ontario[102]

Denmark:

Center for Music
Music
in the Brain, Aarhus University[103]

Finland:

Finnish Centre of Excellence in Interdisciplinary Music
Music
Research, University of Jyväskylä[104]

France:

Auditory Cognition
Cognition
and Psychoacoustics
Psychoacoustics
team, Claude Bernard University Lyon 1[105] University of Burgundy IRCAM, Centre Pompidou[106]

Germany:

University of Halle-Wittenberg Institute for Systematic Musicology, Universität Hamburg[107] Institute of Music
Music
Physiology
Physiology
and Musicians' Medicine, Hochschule für Musik, Theater und Medien Hannover[108] Hanover Music
Music
Lab, Hochschule für Musik, Theater und Medien Hannover[109] University of Cologne University of Oldenburg Hochschule für Musik Würzburg Technische Universität Chemnitz

Iceland:

Centre for Music
Music
Research, University of Iceland[110]

Ireland:

University of Limerick

Japan:

Kyushu University

Korea:

Seoul National University

Netherlands:

Music
Music
Cognition
Cognition
Group, University of Amsterdam[111]

Norway:

Centre for Music
Music
and Health, Norwegian Academy of Music[112]

Poland:

Unit of Psychology
Psychology
of Music, Fryderyk Chopin University of Music[113] Music
Music
Performance
Performance
and Brain Lab, University of Finance and Management in Warsaw[114]

Spain:

Music
Music
Technology Group, Pompeu Fabra University[115]

Sweden:

Speech, Music
Music
and Hearing, Royal Institute of Technology[116] Music
Music
Psychology
Psychology
Group, Uppsala University[117]

United Kingdom:

Centre for Music
Music
and Science, Cambridge University[118] Music
Music
and the Human Sciences Group, University of Edinburgh[119] Centre for Psychological
Psychological
Research, Keele University[120] Music
Music
and Science Lab, Durham University[121] Interdisciplinary Centre for Scientific Research in Music, University of Leeds[122] Social
Social
and Applied Psychology
Psychology
Group, University of Leicester[123] Music, Mind and Brain Group, Goldsmiths, University College London[124] International Music
Music
Education Research Centre, UCL Institute of Education, University College London[125] Music
Music
Cognition
Cognition
Lab, Queen Mary University of London[126] Faculty of Music, University of Oxford[127] Applied Music
Music
Research Centre, University of Roehampton[128] Centre for Performance
Performance
Science, Royal College of Music[129] Centre for Music
Music
Performance
Performance
Research, Royal Northern College of Music[130] Department of Music, Sheffield University[131]

United States:

Music
Music
Cognition
Cognition
Lab, University of Arkansas[132] Music
Music
and Neuroimaging
Neuroimaging
Laboratory, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School[133] Auditory Perception
Perception
& Action Lab, University at Buffalo[134] Janata Lab, University of California, Davis[135] Systematic Musicology
Musicology
Lab, University of California, Los Angeles[136] Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego[137] Music
Music
Dynamics Lab, University of Connecticut[138] The Music
Music
Cognition
Cognition
Laboratory, Cornell University[139] Music
Music
Cognition
Cognition
at Eastman School of Music, University of Rochester[140] Center for Music
Music
Research, Florida State University[141] Music
Music
Cognition
Cognition
and Computation Lab, Louisiana State University[142] Language and Music
Music
Cognition
Cognition
Lab, University of Maryland[143] Auditory Cognition
Cognition
and Development Lab, University of Nevada, Las Vegas[144] Auditory Neuroscience
Neuroscience
Laboratory, Northwestern University[145] Music
Music
Theory and Cognition
Cognition
Program, Northwestern University[146] Cognitive and Systematic Musicology
Musicology
Laboratory, Ohio State University[147] Music
Music
Learning, Perception, and Cognition
Cognition
Focus Group, University of Oregon[148] Center for Computer Research in Music
Music
and Acoustics, Stanford University[149] Dowling Laboratory, University of Texas at Dallas[150] Institute for Music
Music
Research, University of Texas at San Antonio[151] Laboratory for Music
Music
Cognition, Culture
Culture
& Learning, University of Washington[152] Music, Imaging, and Neural Dynamics (MIND) Laboratory, Wesleyan University[153] Brain Research and Interdisciplinary Neurosciences Lab, Western Michigan University[154]

See also[edit]

Music
Music
portal

Cognitive musicology Cognitive neuroscience
Cognitive neuroscience
of music Performance
Performance
science Psychoacoustics Psychoanalysis and music Music
Music
and emotion Music-specific disorders Music
Music
therapy

References[edit]

^ Tan, Siu-Lan; Pfordresher, Peter; Harré, Rom (2010). Psychology
Psychology
of Music: From Sound
Sound
to Significance. New York: Psychology
Psychology
Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-84169-868-7.  ^ Thompson, William Forde. Music, Thought, and Feeling: Understanding the Psychology
Psychology
of Music, 2nd Edition. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 320. ISBN 0195377079.  ^ a b c Deutsch, Diana. " Psychology
Psychology
of Music, History, Antiquity to the 19th century". Grove Music
Music
Online, Oxford Music
Music
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Psychology
of Music, History, 1860-1960". Grove Music
Music
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Music
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Psychology
of Music, History, The late 20th century". Grove Music
Music
Online, Oxford Music
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Music
Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 539. ISBN 978-0-19-929845-7.  ^ Thaut, Micahel (2009). "History and research". In Hallam, Susan; Cross, Ian; Thaut, Michael. The Oxford Handbook of Music
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Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 559. ISBN 978-0-19-929845-7.  ^ Thompson, William Forde; Balkwill, Laura-Lee (2010). "Cross-cultural similarities and differences". In Juslin, Patrik; Sloboda, John. Handbook of Music
Music
and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications (ch. 27). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 755–788. ISBN 9780199604968.  ^ Abbott, Alison. "Mozart doesn't make you clever". Nature.com. Retrieved 2014-04-22.  ^ Deutsch, Diana (Editor) (2013). The Psychology
Psychology
of Music, 3rd Edition. San Diego, California: Academic Press. ISBN 012381460X. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Thompson, William Forde (Editor) (2014). Encyclopedia of Music
Music
in the Social
Social
and Behavioral Sciences. New York, New York: Sage Press. ISBN 9781452283036. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Sloboda, John. " Psychology
Psychology
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Further reading[edit] Encyclopedia entries[edit]

Palmer, Caroline & Melissa K. Jungers (2003): Music
Music
Cognition. In: Lynn Nadel: Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science, Vol. 3, London: Nature Publishing Group, pp. 155–158. Deutsch, Diana (2013): Music. In Oxford Bibliographies in Music. Edited by Dunn, D.S. New York: Oxford University Press. 2013, Web Link Thompson, William Forde (2014): " Music
Music
in the Social
Social
and Behavioral Sciences, An Encyclopedia". Sage Publications Inc., New York. ISBN 9781452283036 Web Link

Introductory reading[edit]

Day, Kingsley (October 21, 2004). " Music
Music
and the Mind: Turning the Cognition
Cognition
Key". Observer online. Jourdain, Robert (1997). Music, the Brain, and Ecstasy: How Music Captures Our Imagination. New York: William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0-688-14236-2. Honing, Henkjan (2013). "Musical Cognition. A Science of Listening (2nd edition)." New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1412852920. Levitin, D. J. (2006). "This Is Your Brain on Music: The Science of a Human Obsession." New York: Dutton. ISBN 0-525-94969-0 Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth. (2013). ''On Repeat: How Music
Music
Plays the Mind. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199990825. Purwins; Hardoon (2009). "Trends and Perspectives in Music
Music
Cognition Research and Technology" (PDF). Connection Science. 21 (2–3): 85–88. doi:10.1080/09540090902734549.  Snyder, Bob (2000). " Music
Music
and Memory: an introduction" The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-69237-6. J.P.E. Harper-Scott and Jim Samson 'An Introduction to Music
Music
Studies', Chapter 4: John Rink,The Psychology
Psychology
of Music, (Cambridge University Press, 2009), pp. 60.

Advanced reading[edit]

Deutsch, D. (Ed.) (1982). The Psychology
Psychology
of Music, 1st Edition. New York: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-213562-8. Deutsch, D. (Ed.) (1999). The Psychology
Psychology
of Music, 2nd Edition. San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-213565-2. Deutsch, D. (Ed.) (2013). The Psychology
Psychology
of Music, 3rd Edition. San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-381460-X. Dowling, W. Jay and Harwood, Dane L. (1986). Music
Music
Cognition. San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-221430-7. Hallam, Cross, & Thaut, (eds.) (2008). The Oxford Handbook of Music
Music
Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Krumhansl, Carol L. (2001). Cognitive Foundations of Musical Pitch. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514836-3. Patel, Anirrudh D. (2010). Music, language, and the brain. New York: Oxford University Press. Parncutt, R. (1989). Harmony: A Psychoacoustical Approach. Berlin: Springer. Sloboda, John A. (1985). The Musical Mind: The Cognitive Psychology
Psychology
of Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-852128-6. Lerdahl, F. and Jackendoff, R. (21996) A Generative Theory of Tonal Music. The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-62107-6. Jackendoff, Ray (1987): Consciousness and the Computational Mind. Cambridge: MIT Press. Chapter 11: Levels of Musical Structure, section 11.1: What is Musical Cognition? Temperley, D. (2004). The Cognition
Cognition
of Basic Musical Structures. The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-70105-1. Thompson, W. F. (2009). Music, Thought, and Feeling: Understanding the Psychology
Psychology
of Music
Music
New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537707-1. Zbikowski, Lawrence M. (2004). Conceptualizing Music: Cognitive Structure, Theory, and Analysis. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-514023-1. North, A.C. & Hargreaves, D.J. (2008). The Social
Social
and Applied Psychology
Psychology
of Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-856742-4.

External links[edit]

MusicCognition.info - A Resource and Information Center

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Medieval Renaissance Baroque Classical period Romantic Impressionist 20th century Contemporary 21st century

Vernacular music

Blues Circus music Country music Jazz Folk music Popular music Hip hop music Pop music Progressive music Psychedelic music Rock music

Heavy metal Punk rock Alternative

Soul music

Performance Ensembles

Band (rock and pop)

Backup band All-female band Rhythm
Rhythm
section

Big band Choir Concert band Conducting Disc jockey Musician Orchestra Singing

Lead vocalist Backing vocalist

Theory Composition

Form Genre Notation Composer Improvisation Songwriter Lyrics Song

Education and study

Bachelor of Music Master of Music Doctor of Musical Arts PhD Music
Music
education Music
Music
history Music
Music
psychology

Cultural aspects

Musicology Ethnomusicology Music
Music
archaeology Ecomusicology

Production

Single

A-side and B-side Extended play

Album

Compilation Live Remix

Audio engineer Record label Record producer Sampling Music
Music
technology (electric) Music
Music
technology (electronic and digital) Sound
Sound
recording and reproduction Cover Remix

Cultural and regional genres

African

Central East North Southern West

Asian

Central East Middle-Eastern South Southeast

European

Central Eastern Northern Southeastern Southern Western

Latin American

Central American South American

North American

Caribbean

Oceanian

Melanesian Micronesian Polynesian

By sovereign state

 

Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Costa Rica Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Democratic Republic of the Congo Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic East Timor Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Finland France Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Ivory Coast Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Kosovo Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria North Korea Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar Republic of Macedonia Republic of the Congo Romania Russia Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Korea Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria São Tomé and Príncipe Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Vatican City Venezuela Vietnam Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe

Lists

Index Outline Terminology Instruments Musical forms by era Cultural and regional genres Popular music
Popular music
genres Albums Songs Jazz
Jazz
and popular music glossary Audio

Related articles

Music
Music
and politics Music
Music
festival Music
Music
therapy Musical instrument Women in music

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Psychology

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Basic psychology

Abnormal Affective science Affective neuroscience Behavioral genetics Behavioral neuroscience Behaviorism Cognitive/Cognitivism Cognitive neuroscience Comparative Cross-cultural Cultural Developmental Differential Ecological Evolutionary Experimental Gestalt Intelligence Mathematical Neuropsychology Personality Positive Psycholinguistics Psychophysics Psychophysiology Quantitative Social Theoretical

Applied psychology

Anomalistic Applied behavior analysis Assessment Clinical Community Consumer Counseling Critical Educational Ergonomics Feminist Forensic Health Industrial and organizational Legal Media Military Music Occupational health Pastoral Political Psychometrics Psychotherapy Religion School Sport
Sport
and exercise Suicidology Systems Traffic

Methodologies

Animal testing Archival research Behavior
Behavior
epigenetics Case study Content analysis Experiments Human subject research Interviews Neuroimaging Observation Qualitative research Quantitative research Self-report inventory Statistical surveys

Psychologists

William James (1842–1910) Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936) Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) Edward Thorndike (1874–1949) Carl Jung (1875–1961) John B. Watson (1878–1958) Clark L. Hull (1884–1952) Kurt Lewin (1890–1947) Jean Piaget (1896–1980) Gordon Allport (1897–1967) J. P. Guilford (1897–1987) Carl Rogers (1902–1987) Erik Erikson (1902–1994) B. F. Skinner (1904–1990) Donald O. Hebb (1904–1985) Ernest Hilgard (1904–2001) Harry Harlow (1905–1981) Raymond Cattell (1905–1998) Abraham Maslow (1908–1970) Neal E. Miller (1909–2002) Jerome Bruner (1915–2016) Donald T. Campbell (1916–1996) Hans Eysenck (1916–1997) Herbert A. Simon (1916–2001) David McClelland (1917–1998) Leon Festinger (1919–1989) George Armitage Miller (1920–2012) Richard Lazarus (1922–2002) Stanley Schachter (1922–1997) Robert Zajonc (1923–2008) Albert Bandura (b. 1925) Roger Brown (1925–1997) Endel Tulving (b. 1927) Lawrence Kohlberg (1927–1987) Noam Chomsky (b. 1928) Ulric Neisser (1928–2012) Jerome Kagan (b. 1929) Walter Mischel (b. 1930) Elliot Aronson (b. 1932) Daniel Kahneman (b. 1934) Paul Ekman (b. 1934) Michael Posner (b. 1936) Amos Tversky (1937–1996) Bruce McEwen (b. 1938) Larry Squire (b. 1941) Richard E. Nisbett (b. 1941) Martin Seligman (b. 1942) Ed Diener (b. 1946) Shelley E. Taylor (b. 1946) John Anderson (b. 1947) Ronald C. Kessler (b. 1947) Joseph E. LeDoux (b. 1949) Richard Davidson (b. 1951) Susan Fiske (b. 1952) Roy Baumeister (b. 1953)

Lists

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Wiktionary definition Wiktionary category Wikisource Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote Wikinews Wikibooks

Authority control

GND: 4127817-3 N

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