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The Muscogee, also known as the Creek and the Creek Confederacy, are a closely related group of native North American tribes or Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.[2] Mvskoke (English: /məˈskoʊdʒi/; Mvskoke [maskóːkî]) is their autonym. They are originally from a single confederated native land that now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida,[3] Most of the original population of the Muscogee people
Muscogee people
were forcibly relocated from their native lands in the 1830s during the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory
Indian Territory
(now Oklahoma). Some Muscogee
Muscogee
fled European encroachment in 1797 and 1804 to establish two small tribal territories that continue to exist today in Louisiana
Louisiana
and Texas. Another small branch of the Creek Confederacy managed to remain in Alabama
Alabama
and is now known as the Poarch Band of Creek Indians. A much larger population of Creeks moved into Florida
Florida
between roughly 1767 and 1821[4] and these people organized into a new confederacy called the Seminole
Seminole
Indian Nation, thereby establishing a separate identity from the Creek Confederacy. Muskogean
Muskogean
(Creek) people in these waves of migration into Florida
Florida
were fleeing conflict in Creek Confederacy lands, as well as encroachment by European settlers. The great majority of Seminoles
Seminoles
were also later forcibly relocated to Oklahoma, where they reside today, although small branches of the nation remain in Florida. The respective languages of all of these modern day branches, bands and tribes are all closely related variants called Muscogee, Mvskoke and Hitchiti-Mikasuki, all of which belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family. All of these languages are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. The Muscogee
Muscogee
are descendants of the Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
peoples, who between 800 AD and 1600 AD built complex cities and surrounding networks of satellite towns (suburbs) centered around massive earthwork mounds, some of which had physical footprints larger than the Egyptian pyramids. Some Mississippian city populations may have been larger than later colonial European-American
European-American
cities. If the highest population estimates are correct, the largest Mississippian city, Cahokia, was larger than any subsequent city in the United States until the 1780s, when Philadelphia's population grew beyond 40,000.[5] These cities and towns were governed by regional chiefdoms located throughout the enormous Mississippi River
Mississippi River
valley region and its far-flung tributaries. This society was based on organized agriculture, transcontinental trade, copper metalwork, artisanship, hunting, and religion. The later descended Muscogee
Muscogee
or Creek Confederacy also included networks of complex town-centered societies also based on systems of agriculture, trade, metalwork, fine artisanship, and hunting. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee
Muscogee
when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century.[6] The Muscogee
Muscogee
were the first Native Americans officially considered by the early United States
United States
government to be "civilized" under George Washington's civilization plan. In the 19th century, the Muscogee
Muscogee
were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were said to have integrated numerous cultural and technological practices of their more recent European American
European American
neighbors. In fact Muscogee
Muscogee
confederated town networks were already based on an (at minimum) 900-year-old tradition of complex and well-organized farming and town layouts; artisan metal, artisan clothing, artisan implement and religious art production; hunting, fur and hide processing; and long distance trading. Influenced by their prophetic interpretations of the 1811 comet and earthquake, the Upper Towns of the Muscogee, supported by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, began to resist European-American
European-American
encroachment. Internal divisions with the Lower Towns led to the Red Stick War (Creek War, 1813–1814); begun as a civil war within the Muscogee Nation, it enmeshed the Northern Creek Bands in the War of 1812 against the United States
United States
while the Southern Creeks remained US allies. General Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
then seized the opportunity to use the rebellion as an excuse to make war against all Creeks once the northern Creek rebellion had been put down with the aid of southern Creeks. The result was a weakening of the Creek Nation and the forced ceding of Creek lands to the US. During the Indian Removal
Indian Removal
of the 1830s, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory. The Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, and Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, all based in Oklahoma, are federally recognized tribes, as are the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, and the Alabama- Coushatta Tribe of Texas. Most of the Seminole
Seminole
people are also organized into now federally recognized tribes.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Precontact 1.2 Spanish expedition (1540–1543) 1.3 Rise of the Muscogee
Muscogee
Confederacy 1.4 British, French and Spanish Expansion 1.5 American Revolutionary War 1.6 Muscogee
Muscogee
and Choctaw
Choctaw
land dispute (1790) 1.7 State of Muskogee
State of Muskogee
and William Bowles 1.8 Pre-removal (late 18th–early 19th centuries) 1.9 A comet, earthquakes, and Tecumseh
Tecumseh
(1811) 1.10 Red Stick rebellion 1.11 Muscogee
Muscogee
diaspora (1814) 1.12 Seminole
Seminole
War 1.13 Treaties of Indian Springs 1.14 Removal (1834) 1.15 American Civil War
American Civil War
(1861)

2 Culture

2.1 Clans 2.2 Clothing 2.3 Language

3 Treaties

3.1 Indian Appropriations Act of 1871

4 Muscogee
Muscogee
tribes today

4.1 Federally recognized tribes in Oklahoma 4.2 Federally recognized tribes in Alabama 4.3 State-recognized tribes

5 Notable Muscogee 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

History[edit] Precontact[edit]

Etowah Mound C, was a part of a precontact Mississippian and ancestral Muscogee
Muscogee
site occupied by ancestors of the Muscogee people
Muscogee people
from c. 1000–1550 CE, in Cartersville, Georgia

At least 12,000 years ago, Native Americans or Paleo-Indians lived in what is today the Southern United States.[7] Paleo-Indians in the Southeast were hunter-gatherers who pursued a wide range of animals, including the megafauna, which became extinct following the end of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
age.[7] During the time known as the Woodland period, from 1000 BC to 1000 AD, locals developed pottery and small-scale horticulture of the Eastern Agricultural Complex. The Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
arose as the cultivation of maize from Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
led to population growth. Increased population density gave rise to urban centers and regional chiefdoms. Stratified societies developed, with hereditary religious and political elites, and flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States
United States
from 800 to 1500 AD. The early historic Muscogee
Muscogee
were descendants of the mound builders of the Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
along the Tennessee
Tennessee
River in modern Tennessee,[8] Georgia, and Alabama. They may have been related to the Tama of central Georgia. Oral traditions passed down by the ancestors of the Creeks have alleged that their nation migrated eastward from places West of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River, eventually settling on the east bank of the Ocmulgee River.[9] It was here that they waged war with other bands of Native American Indians, as the Savannas, Ogeeches, Wapoos, Santees, Yamafees, Utinas, Icofans, Paticans and others, until at length they had extirpated them.[10] At the time the Spanish made their first forays inland from the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, many political centers of the Mississippians were already in decline, or abandoned.[11] The region is best described as a collection of moderately sized native chiefdoms (such as the Coosa chiefdom
Coosa chiefdom
on the Coosa River) interspersed with completely autonomous villages and tribal groups. The late Mississippian culture is what the earliest Spanish explorers encountered, beginning on April 2, 1513, with Juan Ponce de León's Florida
Florida
landing and the 1526 Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón expedition in South Carolina. Precontact Muscogees did not have the concept of private property; everything was shared. Similarly, they did not have a structured government; decisions were made by consensus. Both of these gradually vanished, the first because the Native Americans wished items the Europeans had to sell, such as muskets, or alcohol. They got money because Europeans would buy deer hides.[12] The second disappeared partly because the Spanish pressed them to say whom they could negotiate with; government by consensus was unknown in Europe at that time.[13]:19–37. Spanish expedition (1540–1543)[edit]

Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto
and his men burn Mabila, after a surprise attack by Chief Tuskaloosa and his people; 1540, painting by Herb Roe, 2008.

After Cabeza de Vaca, a castaway who survived the ill-fated Narváez expedition, returned to Spain
Spain
in 1537, he told the Court of Hernando de Soto that America was the "richest country in the world". Hernando de Soto was a Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the first expedition into the interior of the North American continent. De Soto, convinced of the "riches", wanted Cabeza de Vaca to go on the expedition, but de Vaca declined his offer because of a payment dispute.[14] From 1540 to 1543, de Soto explored through present-day Florida
Florida
and Georgia, and then westward into the Alabama
Alabama
and Mississippi
Mississippi
area. The areas were inhabited by historic Muscogee
Muscogee
Native Americans. De Soto brought with him a well-equipped army. He attracted many recruits from a variety of backgrounds who joined his quest for riches in the Americas. As the de Soto expedition's brutalities became known to the indigenous peoples, they decided to defend their territory. The Battle of Mabila was a turning point for the de Soto venture; the battle "broke the back" of the Spanish campaign, and the expedition never fully recovered. Rise of the Muscogee
Muscogee
Confederacy[edit] De Soto's expedition, especially the new infectious diseases carried by the Europeans, caused a high rate of fatalities among the indigenous peoples. These losses were exacerbated by the Indian slave trade that flourished in the Southeast during the 17th and 18th centuries. As the survivors and descendants regrouped, the Muscogee
Muscogee
or Creek Confederacy arose, which was a loose alliance of Muskogee-speaking peoples. The Muscogee
Muscogee
lived in autonomous villages in river valleys throughout present-day Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama, speaking several related Muskogean
Muskogean
languages. Hitchiti was the most widely spoken in present-day Georgia; Hitchiti speakers were the first to be displaced by white settlers, and the language died out. Muskogee was spoken from the Chattahoochee to the Alabama
Alabama
River. Koasati (Coushatta) and Alibamu
Alibamu
were spoken in the upper Alabama
Alabama
River basin and along parts of the Tennessee
Tennessee
River. The Muscogee
Muscogee
were a confederacy of tribes consisting of Yuchi, Koasati, Alabama, Coosa, Tuskeegee, Coweta, Cusseta, Chehaw (Chiaha), Hitchiti, Tuckabatchee, Oakfuskee, and many others.[15] The basic social unit was the town (idalwa). Abihka, Coosa, Tuckabutche, and Coweta
Coweta
are the four "mother towns" of the Muscogee Confederacy.[16] Traditionally, the Cusseta and Coweta
Coweta
bands are considered the earliest members of the Muscogee
Muscogee
Nation.[2] The Lower Towns, along the Chattahoochee, Flint, and Apalachicola rivers, and further east along the Ocmulgee and Oconee rivers, were Coweta, Cusseta (Kasihta, Cofitachiqui), Upper Chehaw (Chiaha), Hitchiti, Oconee, Ocmulgee, Okawaigi, Apalachee, Yamasee (Altamaha), Ocfuskee, Sawokli, and Tamali. The Upper Towns, located on the Coosa, Tallapoosa and Alabama
Alabama
rivers, were Tuckabatchee, Abhika, Coosa (Kusa; the dominant people of East Tennessee
Tennessee
and North Georgia
North Georgia
during the Spanish explorations), Itawa (original inhabitants of the Etowah Indian Mounds), Hothliwahi (Ullibahali), Hilibi, Eufaula, Wakokai, Atasi, Alibamu, Coushatta (Koasati; they had absorbed the Kaski/Casqui and the Tali), and Tuskegee ("Napochi" in the de Luna chronicles).[17] The most important leader in Muscogee
Muscogee
society was the mico or village chief. Micos led warriors in battle and represented their villages, but held authority only insofar as they could persuade others to agree with their decisions. Micos ruled with the assistance of micalgi or lesser chiefs, and various advisers, including a second-in-charge called the heniha, respected village elders, medicine men, and a tustunnuggee or ranking warrior, the principal military adviser. The yahola or medicine man officiated at various rituals, including providing black drink, used in purification ceremonies. The most important social unit was the clan. Clans organized hunts, distributed lands, arranged marriages, and punished lawbreakers. The authority of the micos was complemented by the clan mothers, mostly women elders. The Muscogee
Muscogee
had a matrilineal kinship system, with children considered born into their mother's clan, and inheritance was through the maternal line. The Wind Clan is the first of the clans. The majority of micos have belonged to this clan.[18] British, French and Spanish Expansion[edit] Further information: Yamasee War

A raiding party against Spanish missions in Florida
Florida
passes the Ocmulgee trading post.

Britain, France, and Spain
Spain
all established colonies in the present-day Southeastern woodlands. Spain
Spain
established Jesuit missions and related settlements to influence Native Americans. The British and the French opted for trade over conversion. In the 17th century, Franciscan friars in Spanish Florida
Florida
built missions along Apalachee
Apalachee
Bay. In 1670 English settlers from Barbados
Barbados
founded Charles Town (Charleston), capital of the new Province of Carolina. Traders from Carolina went to Muscogee
Muscogee
settlements to exchange flintlocks, gunpowder, axes, glass beads, cloth and West Indian rum for white-tailed deer pelts for the English leather industry, and Indian slaves for Caribbean sugar plantations. The Spanish and their "mission Indians" burned most of the towns along the Chattahoochee after they welcomed Scottish explorer Henry Woodward in 1685. In 1690, the English built a trading post on the Ocmulgee River, known as Ochese-hatchee (creek), where a dozen towns relocated to escape the Spanish and acquire English trade-goods. The name "Creek" most likely derived from Ocheese Creek and broadly applies to all of the Muscogee
Muscogee
Confederacy, including the Yuchi
Yuchi
and Natchez.[19] In 1704–06, Carolina Governor Col. James Moore led colonial militia and Ochese Creek and Yamasee warriors in raids that destroyed the Spanish missions of the Florida
Florida
interior. They captured some 10,000 unarmed "mission Indians", the Timucua
Timucua
and Apalachee, and sold them into slavery.[citation needed] With Florida
Florida
depopulated, English traders paid other tribes to attack and enslave the Yamasee, leading to the Yamassee War
Yamassee War
of 1715–17.

Yamacraw leader Tomochichi
Tomochichi
and nephew in 1733

The Ochese Creeks joined the Yamasee, burning trading posts, and raiding back-country settlers, but the revolt ran low on gunpowder and was put down by Carolinian militia and their Cherokee
Cherokee
allies. The Yamasee took refuge in Spanish Florida, the Ochese Creeks fled west to the Chattahoochee. French Canadian
French Canadian
explorers founded Mobile as the first capital of Louisiana
Louisiana
in 1702, and took advantage of the war to build Fort Toulouse
Fort Toulouse
at the confluence of the Tallapoosa and Coosa in 1717, trading with the Alabama
Alabama
and Coushatta. Fearing they would come under French influence, the British reopened the deerskin trade with the Lower Creeks, antagonizing the Yamasee, now allies of Spain. The French instigated the Upper Creeks to raid the Lower Creeks. In May 1718, the shrewd Emperor Brim, mico of the powerful Coweta
Coweta
band, invited representatives of Britain, France, and Spain
Spain
to his village and, in council with Upper and Lower Creek leaders, declared a policy of Muscogee
Muscogee
neutrality in their colonial rivalry. That year, the Spaniards built the presidio of San Marcos de Apalache
San Marcos de Apalache
on Apalachee Bay. In 1721 the British built Fort King George
Fort King George
at the mouth of the Altamaha River. As the three European imperial powers established themselves along the borders of Muscogee
Muscogee
lands, the latter's strategy of neutrality allowed them to hold the balance of power.

Yamacraw Creek Native Americans meet with the trustee of the colony of Georgia in England, July 1734. Notice the Native American boy (in a blue coat) and woman (in a red dress) in European clothing.

The colony of Georgia was created in 1732; its first settlement, Savannah, was founded the following year, on a river bluff where the Yamacraw, a Yamasee band that remained allies of England, allowed John Musgrove to establish a fur-trading post. His wife Mary Musgrove
Mary Musgrove
was the daughter of an English trader and a Muscogee
Muscogee
woman from the powerful Wind Clan, half-sister of 'Emperor' Brim. She was the principal interpreter for Georgia's founder and first Governor Gen. James Oglethorpe, using her connections to foster peace between the Creek Indians and the new colony.[20] The deerskin trade grew, and by the 1750s, Savannah exported up to 50,000 deerskins a year.[21] In 1736, Spanish and British officials established a neutral zone from the Altamaha to the St. Johns River
St. Johns River
in present-day Florida, guaranteeing Native hunting grounds for the deerskin trade and protecting Spanish Florida
Florida
from further British encroachment.[22] Ca.1750 a group of Ochese moved to the neutral zone, after clashing with the Muskogee-speaking towns of the Chattahoochee, where they had fled after the Yamasee War. Led by Chief Secoffee (Cowkeeper), they became the center of a new tribal confederacy, the Seminole, which grew to include earlier refugees from the Yamasee War, remnants of the 'mission Indians,' and escaped African slaves.[23] Their name comes from the Spanish word cimarrones, which originally referred to a domestic animal that had reverted to the wild. Cimarrones was used by the Spanish and Portuguese to refer to fugitive slaves—"maroon" emerges linguistically from this root as well—and American Indians who fled European invaders. In the Hitchiti language, which lacked an 'r' sound, it became simanoli, and eventually Seminole. American Revolutionary War[edit] With the end of the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
(also known as the Seven Years' War) in 1763, France
France
lost its North American empire, and British-American settlers moved inland. Indian discontent led to raids against back-country settlers, and the perception that the royal government favored the Indians and the deerskin trade led many back-country white settlers to join the Sons of Liberty. Fears of land-hungry settlers and need for European manufactured goods led the Muscogee
Muscogee
to side with the British, but like many tribes, they were divided by factionalism, and, in general, avoided sustained fighting, preferring to protect their sovereignty through cautious participation. During the American Revolution, the Upper Creeks sided with the British, fighting alongside the Chickamauga (Lower Cherokee) warriors of Dragging Canoe, in the Cherokee–American wars, against white settlers in present-day Tennessee. This alliance was orchestrated by the Coushatta chief Alexander McGillivray, son of Lachlan McGillivray, a wealthy Scottish Loyalist fur-trader and planter, whose properties were confiscated by Georgia. His ex-partner, Scots-Irish Patriot George Galphin, initially persuaded the Lower Creeks to remain neutral, but Loyalist Capt. William McIntosh
William McIntosh
led a group of pro-British Hitchiti, and most of the Lower Creeks nominally allied with Britain after the 1779 Capture of Savannah. Muscogee
Muscogee
warriors fought on behalf of Britain during the Mobile and Pensacola
Pensacola
campaigns of 1780–81, where Spain
Spain
re-conquered British West Florida. Loyalist leader Thomas Brown raised a division of King's Rangers to contest Patriot control over the Georgia and Carolina interior and instigated Cherokee
Cherokee
raids against the North Carolina
North Carolina
back-country after the Battle of King's Mountain. He seized Augusta in March 1780, with the aid of an Upper Creek war-party, but reinforcements from the Lower Creeks and local white Loyalists never came, and Georgia militia led by Elijah Clarke
Elijah Clarke
retook Augusta in 1781.[24] The next year an Upper Creek war-party trying to relieve the British garrison at Savannah was routed by Continental Army
Continental Army
troops under Gen. 'Mad' Anthony Wayne. After the war ended in 1783, the Muscogee
Muscogee
learned that Britain had ceded their lands to the now independent United States. That year, two Lower Creek chiefs, Hopoithle Miko (Tame King) and Eneah Miko (Fat King), ceded 800 square miles (2,100 km2) of land to the state of Georgia. Alexander McGillivray
Alexander McGillivray
led pan-Indian resistance to white encroachment, receiving arms from the Spanish in Florida
Florida
to fight trespassers. The bilingual and bicultural McGillivray worked to create a sense of Muscogee
Muscogee
nationalism and centralize political authority, struggling against village leaders who individually sold land to the United States. He also became a wealthy landowner and merchant, owning as many as sixty black slaves. In 1784, he negotiated the Treaty of Pensacola
Pensacola
with Spain, recognizing Muscogee
Muscogee
control over 3,000,000 acres (12,000 km2) of land claimed by Georgia, and guaranteeing access to the British firm Panton, Leslie & Co. which controlled the deerskin trade, while making himself an official representative of Spain.[25] In 1786, a council in Tuckabatchee decided to wage war against white settlers on Muscogee
Muscogee
lands. War parties attacked settlers along the Oconee River, and Georgia mobilized its militia. McGillivray refused to negotiate with the state that had confiscated his father's plantations, but President George Washington
George Washington
sent a special emissary, Col. Marinus Willet, who persuaded him to travel to New York City, then the capital of the U.S., and deal directly with the federal government. In the summer of 1790, McGillivray and 29 other Muscogee
Muscogee
chiefs signed the Treaty of New York, on behalf of the 'Upper, Middle and Lower Creek and Seminole
Seminole
composing the Creek nation of Indians,' ceding a large portion of their lands to the federal government and promising to return fugitive slaves, in return for federal recognition of Muscogee sovereignty and promises to evict white settlers. McGillivray died in 1793, and with the invention of the cotton gin white settlers on the Southwestern frontier who hoped to become cotton-planters clamored for Indian lands. In 1795, Elijah Clarke
Elijah Clarke
and several hundred followers defied the Treaty of New York and established the short-lived Trans-Oconee Republic. Muscogee
Muscogee
and Choctaw
Choctaw
land dispute (1790)[edit] In 1790, the Muscogee
Muscogee
and Choctaw
Choctaw
were in conflict over land near the Noxubee River. The two nations agreed to settle the dispute by ball-play. With nearly 10,000 players and bystanders, the two nations prepared for nearly three months. After a long daylong struggle, the Muscogee
Muscogee
won the game. A fight broke out and the two nations fought until sundown with nearly 500 dead and many more wounded.[citation needed] State of Muskogee
State of Muskogee
and William Bowles[edit] Further information: State of Muskogee

William Augustus Bowles
William Augustus Bowles
(1763–1805) was also known as Estajoca, his Muscogee
Muscogee
name.

William Augustus Bowles
William Augustus Bowles
was born into a wealthy Maryland
Maryland
Tory family, enlisting with the Maryland
Maryland
Loyalists Battalion at age 14 and becoming an ensign in Royal Navy
Royal Navy
by age 15. Cashiered for dereliction of duty after returning too late to his ship at Pensacola, Bowles escaped north and found refuge among the Lower Creek towns of the Chattahoochee basin. He married two wives, one Cherokee
Cherokee
and the other a daughter of the Hitchiti Muscogee
Muscogee
chieftain, William Perryman, and later used this union as the basis for his claim to exert political influence among the Creeks.[26] In 1781, a 17-year-old Bowles led Muscogee
Muscogee
forces at the Battle of Pensacola. After seeking refuge in the Bahamas, he travelled to London. He was received by King George III as 'Chief of the Embassy for Creek and Cherokee
Cherokee
Nations'; it was with British backing that he returned to train the Muscogee
Muscogee
as pirates to attack Spanish ships. In 1799, Bowles formed the State of Muskogee, with the support of the Chattahoochee Creeks and the Seminoles. He established his capital at Miccosuki, a village on the shores of Lake Miccosukee
Miccosukee
near present-day Tallahassee. It was ruled by Mico Kanache, his father-in-law and strongest ally. Bowles envisioned the State of Muskogee, with its capital at Miccosuki, encompassing large portions of present-day Florida, Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, and Tennessee, and incorporating the Cherokee, Upper and Lower Creeks, Chickasaw
Chickasaw
and Choctaw. Bowles' first act was declaring the 1796 Second Treaty of San Ildefonso which drew the boundary between the U.S. and West Florida null-and-void, because the Indians were not consulted. He denounced the treaties Alexander McGillivray
Alexander McGillivray
had negotiated with Spain
Spain
and the U.S., threatening to declare war on the United States unless it returned Muscogee
Muscogee
lands, and issuing a death sentence against George Washington's Indian agent Benjamin Hawkins, who won the loyalty of the Lower Creeks. He built a tiny navy, and raided Spanish ships in the Gulf of Mexico, and, in 1800, declared war on Spain, briefly capturing the presidio and trading post of San Marcos de Apalache before being forced to retreat. Although a Spanish force that set out to destroy Mikosuki got lost in the swamps, a second attempt to take San Marcos ended in disaster. After a European armistice led to the loss of British support, Bowles was discredited. The Seminole signed a peace treaty with Spain. The following year, he was betrayed by Lower Creek supporters of Hawkins at a tribal council. They turned Bowles over to the Spanish, and he died in prison in Havana, Cuba
Havana, Cuba
two years later.[27] Pre-removal (late 18th–early 19th centuries)[edit] Further information: Five Civilized Tribes

Painting (1805) of Benjamin Hawkins
Benjamin Hawkins
on his plantation, instructing Muscogee
Muscogee
Creek in European technology

George Washington, the first U.S. President, and Henry Knox, the first U.S. Secretary of War, proposed a cultural transformation of the Native Americans.[28] Washington believed that Native Americans were equals as individuals but that their society was inferior. He formulated a policy to encourage the "civilizing" process, and it was continued under President Thomas Jefferson.[29] Noted historian Robert Remini wrote, "[T]hey presumed that once the Indians adopted the practice of private property, built homes, farmed, educated their children, and embraced Christianity, these Native Americans would win acceptance from white Americans."[30] Washington's six-point plan included impartial justice toward Indians; regulated buying of Indian lands; promotion of commerce; promotion of experiments to civilize or improve Indian society; presidential authority to give presents; and punishing those who violated Indian rights.[31] The Muscogee
Muscogee
would be the first Native Americans to be "civilized" under Washington's six-point plan. The Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Seminole
Seminole
would follow the Muscogee
Muscogee
efforts to implement Washington's new policy of civilization. In 1796, Washington appointed Benjamin Hawkins
Benjamin Hawkins
as General Superintendent of Indian Affairs dealing with all tribes south of the Ohio River. He personally assumed the role of principal agent to the Muscogee. He moved to the area that is now Crawford County in Georgia. He began to teach agricultural practices to the tribe, starting a farm at his home on the Flint River. In time, he brought in slaves and workers, cleared several hundred acres, and established mills and a trading post as well as his farm. For years, Hawkins met with chiefs on his porch to discuss matters. He was responsible for the longest period of peace between the settlers and the tribe, overseeing 19 years of peace. In 1805, the Lower Creeks ceded their lands east of the Ocmulgee to Georgia, with the exception of the sacred burial mounds of the Ocmulgee Old Fields. They allowed a Federal Road linking New Orleans
New Orleans
to Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
to be built through their territory. A number of Muscogee
Muscogee
chiefs acquired slaves and created cotton plantations, grist mills and businesses along the Federal Road. In 1806, Fort Benjamin Hawkins
Benjamin Hawkins
was built on a hill overlooking the Ocmulgee Old Fields, to protect expanding settlements and serve as a reminder of U.S. rule. Hawkins was disheartened and shocked by the outbreak of the Creek War, which destroyed his life work of improving the Muscogee
Muscogee
quality of life. Hawkins saw much of his work toward building a peace destroyed in 1812. A faction of Muscogee
Muscogee
joined the Pan-American Indian movement of Tenskwatawa
Tenskwatawa
and Tecumseh, rejecting accommodation with white settlers and adaptation of European-American
European-American
culture. Although Hawkins personally was never attacked, he was forced to watch an internal civil war among the Muscogee
Muscogee
develop into a war with the United States. A comet, earthquakes, and Tecumseh
Tecumseh
(1811)[edit] Further information: Great Comet of 1811 Further information: 1812 New Madrid earthquake

The Great Comet of 1811, as drawn by William Henry Smyth

A comet appeared in March 1811. The Shawnee
Shawnee
leader Tecumseh, whose name meant "shooting star",[32] traveled to Tuckabatchee, where he told the Muscogee
Muscogee
that the comet signaled his coming. McKenney reported that Tecumseh
Tecumseh
would prove that the Great Spirit
Great Spirit
had sent him by giving the Muscogee
Muscogee
a sign. Shortly after Tecumseh
Tecumseh
left the Southeast, the sign arrived as promised in the form of an earthquake. On December 16, 1811, the New Madrid earthquake
New Madrid earthquake
shook the Muscogee lands and the Midwest. While the interpretation of this event varied from tribe to tribe, one consensus was universally accepted: the powerful earthquake had to have meant something. The earthquake and its aftershocks helped the Tecumseh
Tecumseh
resistance movement by convincing, not only the Muscogee, but other Native American tribes as well, that the Shawnee
Shawnee
must be supported.

The New Madrid earthquake
New Madrid earthquake
was interpreted by the Muscogee
Muscogee
to support the Shawnees' resistance.

“ The Indians were filled with great terror ... the trees and wigwams shook exceedingly; the ice which skirted the margin of the Arkansas river was broken into pieces; and most of the Indians thought that the Great Spirit, angry with the human race, was about to destroy the world. ”

— - Roger L. Nichols, The American Indian

The Muscogee
Muscogee
who joined Tecumseh's confederation were known as the Red Sticks. Stories of the origin of the Red Stick name varies, but one is that they were named for the Muscogee
Muscogee
tradition of carrying a bundle of sticks that mark the days until an event occurs. Sticks painted red symbolize war.[33] Red Stick rebellion[edit] Further information: Creek War, Red Sticks, and Fort Mims
Fort Mims
massacre

Menawa
Menawa
was one of the principal leaders of the Red Sticks. After the war, he continued to oppose white encroachment on Muscogee
Muscogee
lands, visiting Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
in 1826 to protest the treaty of Indian Springs. Painted by Charles Bird King, 1837.

The Creek War
Creek War
of 1813–1814, also known as the Red Stick War, began as a civil war within the Muscogee
Muscogee
Nation, only to become enmeshed within the War of 1812. Inspired by the fiery eloquence of the Shawnee leader Tecumseh
Tecumseh
and their own religious leaders, and encouraged by British traders, Red Stick leaders such as William Weatherford
William Weatherford
(Red Eagle), Peter McQueen, and Menawa
Menawa
won the support of the Upper Creek towns. Allied with the British, they opposed white encroachment on Muscogee
Muscogee
lands and the 'civilizing programs' administered by Benjamin Hawkins, and clashed with many of the leading chiefs of the Muscogee Nation, most notably the Lower Creek Mico William McIntosh, Hawkins' most powerful ally. Their opponents, who sought peaceful relations with white settlers, were known as the White Sticks. Before the Muscogee
Muscogee
Civil War began, the Red Sticks attempted to keep their activities secret from the old chiefs. They were emboldened when Tecumseh
Tecumseh
rallied his followers and joined with a British invasion to capture Fort Detroit in August 1812. In February 1813, a small party of Red Sticks, led by Little Warrior, was returning from Detroit when they killed two families of settlers along the Duck River, near Nashville. Hawkins demanded that the Muscogees turn over Little Warrior and his six companions. Instead of handing the marauders over to the federal agents, Big Warrior and the old chiefs decided to execute the war party. This decision was the spark which ignited the civil war among the Muscogee.[34] The first clashes between Red Sticks and the American whites took place on July 21, 1813, when a group of American soldiers from Fort Mims (north of Mobile, Alabama) stopped a party of Red Sticks who were returning from West Florida, where they had bought munitions from the Spanish governor at Pensacola. The Red Sticks fled the scene, and the U.S. soldiers looted what they found, allowing the Red Sticks to regroup and retaliate with a surprise attack that forced the Americans to retreat. The Battle of Burnt Corn, as the exchange became known, broadened the Creek Civil War to include American forces. On August 30, 1813, Red Sticks led by Red Eagle William Weatherford attacked Fort Mims, where white settlers and their Indian allies had gathered. The Red Sticks captured the fort by surprise, and carried out a massacre, killing men, women and children. They spared only the black slaves whom they took as captured booty. After the Indians killed nearly 250–500 at the fort, settlers across the American southwestern frontier were in a panic.

“ On the morning of August 30, 1813, few of Fort Mims’ defenders stirred in the steaming heat. In the forested shade, the Creeks watched and waited. The fort’s main gate, located on the east side of the stockade, had not been closed by the garrison troops ... No sentries occupied the blockhouse. ”

— A Short History of the Ft. Mims Massacre of 1813 during the Creek Indian War[35]

The Red Stick victory spread panic throughout the Southeastern United States, and the cry "Remember Fort Mims!" was popular among the public wanting revenge. With Federal troops tied up on the northern front against the British in Canada, the Tennessee, Georgia, and the Mississippi
Mississippi
Territory militias were commissioned and invaded the Upper Creek towns. They were joined by Indian allies, the Lower Creek under William McIntosh
William McIntosh
and the Cherokee
Cherokee
under Major Ridge. Outnumbered and poorly armed, being too far removed from Canada
Canada
to receive British aid, the Red Sticks put up a desperate fight. On March 27, 1814, General Andrew Jackson's Tennessee
Tennessee
militia, aided by the 39th U. S. Infantry
Infantry
Regiment and Cherokee
Cherokee
and Lower Creek warriors, crushed the Red Sticks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend on the Tallapoosa River. Though the Red Sticks had been soundly defeated and about 3,000 Upper Muscogee
Muscogee
died in the war, the remnants held out several months longer. Muscogee
Muscogee
diaspora (1814)[edit]

Depiction of Red Eagle's surrender to Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
after the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. Jackson was so impressed with Weatherford's boldness that he let him go.

In August 1814, the Red Sticks surrendered to Jackson at Wetumpka (near the present city of Montgomery, Alabama). On August 9, 1814, the Muscogee
Muscogee
nation was forced to sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson. It ended the war and required the tribe to cede some 20 million acres (81,000 km2) of land— more than half of their ancestral territorial holdings— to the United States. Even those who had fought alongside Jackson were compelled to cede land, since Jackson held them responsible for allowing the Red Sticks to revolt. The state of Alabama
Alabama
was created largely from the Red Sticks' domain and was admitted to the United States
United States
in 1819.

“ WHEREAS an unprovoked, inhuman, and sanguinary war, waged by the hostile Creeks against the United States, hath been repelled, prosecuted and determined, successfully, on the part of the said States, in conformity with principles of national justice and honorable warfare-- And whereas consideration is due to the rectitude of proceeding dictated by instructions relating to the re-establishment of peace: Be it remembered, that prior to the conquest of that part of the Creek nation hostile to the United States, numberless aggressions had been committed against the peace, the property, and the lives of citizens of the United States
United States
... ”

— Treaty of Fort Jackson, 1814[36]

Many Muscogee
Muscogee
refused to surrender and escaped to Florida. They allied with other remnant tribes, becoming the Seminole. Muscogee
Muscogee
were later involved on both sides of the Seminole
Seminole
Wars in Florida. Seminole
Seminole
War[edit] The Red Stick refugees who arrived in Florida
Florida
after the Creek War tripled the Seminole
Seminole
population, and strengthened the tribe's Muscogee characteristics.[37] In 1814, British forces landed in West Florida and began arming the Seminole. The British had built a fort on the Apalachicola at Prospect Bluff, and after the end of the War of 1812, offered it to the Seminole. The Seminole
Seminole
were returning to their villages, so the British offered the fort to fugitive slaves. It came to be called 'Negro Fort' by Southern planters, who felt its existence inspired escape or rebellion by their slaves and complained to the US government. After notifying the Spanish governor, who said he had insufficient forces to take the fort, the US sent in soldiers in 1816 on a pretext and destroyed the fort. It blew up as a result of heated cannon shot from a gunboat hitting the powder magazine, killing all its inhabitants. The Seminole
Seminole
continued to welcome fugitive black slaves and raid American settlers, leading the U.S. to declare war in 1817. The following year, General Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
invaded Florida
Florida
with an army that included more than 1,000 Lower Creek warriors; they destroyed Seminole
Seminole
towns and captured Pensacola. Jackson's victory forced Spain to sign the Adams–Onís Treaty
Adams–Onís Treaty
in 1819, ceding Florida
Florida
to the U.S. In 1823, a delegation of Seminole
Seminole
chiefs met with the new U.S. governor of Florida, expressing their opposition to proposals that would reunite them with the Upper and Lower Creek, partly because the latter tribes intended to enslave the Black Seminole. Instead, the Seminole
Seminole
agreed to move onto a reservation in inland central Florida. Treaties of Indian Springs[edit]

Charles Bird King's portrait of William McIntosh.

Mico William McIntosh
William McIntosh
led the Lower Creek warriors who fought alongside the U.S. in the Creek War
Creek War
and the First Seminole
Seminole
War. The son of the Loyalist officer of the same name who had recruited a band of Hitchiti to the British cause, McIntosh never knew his white father. He had family ties to some of Georgia's planter elite, and after the wars became a wealthy cotton-planter. Through his mother, he was born into the prominent Wind Clan of the Creek; as the Creek had a matrilineal system of descent and inheritance, he achieved his chieftainship because of her. He was also related to Alexander McGillivray and William Weatherford, both mixed-race Creek. In the late 1810s and early 1820s, McIntosh helped create a centralized police force called 'Law Menders,' establish written laws, and form a National Creek Council. Later in the decade, he came to view relocation as inevitable. In 1821, McIntosh and several other chiefs signed away Lower Creek lands east of the Flint River at the first Treaty of Indian Springs. As a reward, McIntosh was granted 1,000 acres (4 km2) at the treaty site, where he built a hotel to attract tourists to local hot springs. The Creek National Council responded by prescribing the death penalty for tribesmen who surrendered additional land. Georgian settlers continued to pour into Indian lands, particularly after the discovery of gold in northern Georgia. in 1825 McIntosh and his first cousin, Georgia Governor George Troup, a leading advocate of Indian removal, signed the second Treaty of Indian Springs at his hotel. Signed by six other Lower Creek chiefs, the treaty ceded the last Lower Creek lands to Georgia, and allocated substantial sums to relocate the Muscogee
Muscogee
to the Arkansas River. It provided for an equally large payment directly to McIntosh. In April, the old Red Stick Menawa
Menawa
led about 200 Law Menders to assassinate McIntosh according to their law. They burned his upper Chattahoochee plantation. A delegation of the Creek National Council, led by the speaker Opothleyahola, traveled to Washington D.C.
Washington D.C.
to protest the 1825 treaty. They convinced President John Quincy Adams that the treaty was invalid, and negotiated the more favorable Treaty of Washington (1826). The tribe ceded their lands to Georgia in return for $200,000, although they were not required to move west. Troup ignored the new treaty and ordered the eviction of the Muscogee
Muscogee
from their remaining lands in Georgia without compensation, mobilizing state militia when Adams threatened federal intervention. Removal (1834)[edit] In the aftermath of the Treaty of Fort Jackson
Treaty of Fort Jackson
and the Treaty of Washington (1826), the Muscogee
Muscogee
were confined to a small strip of land in present-day east central Alabama. Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
was elected president of the United States
United States
in 1829, and with his inauguration the government stance toward Indians turned harsher.[38] Jackson abandoned the policy of his predecessors of treating different Indian groups as separate nations.[38] Instead, he aggressively pursued plans to move all Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
to Oklahoma.[38]

“ Friends and Brothers – By permission of the Great Spirit
Great Spirit
above, and the voice of the people, I have been made President of the United States, and now speak to you as your Father and friend, and request you to listen. Your warriors have known me long You know I love my white and red children, and always speak with a straight, and not with a forked tongue; that I have always told you the truth ... Where you now are, you and my white children are too near to each other to live in harmony and peace. Your game is destroyed, and many of your people will not work and till the earth. Beyond the great River Mississippi, where a part of your nation has gone, your Father has provided a country large enough for all of you, and he advises you to remove to it. There your white brothers will not trouble you; they will have no claim to the land, and you can live upon it you and all your children, as long as the grass grows or the water runs, in peace and plenty. It will be yours forever. For the improvements in the country where you now live, and for all the stock which you cannot take with you, your Father will pay you a fair price ... ”

— President Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
addressing the Creeks, 1829[38]

At Jackson's request, the United States
United States
Congress opened a fierce debate on an Indian Removal
Indian Removal
Bill.[38] In the end, the bill passed, but the vote was close. The Senate passed the measure 28 to 19, while in the House it squeaked by, 102 to 97. Jackson signed the legislation into law June 30, 1830.[38] Following the Indian Removal
Indian Removal
Act, in 1832 the Creek National Council signed the Treaty of Cusseta, ceding their remaining lands east of the Mississippi
Mississippi
to the U.S., and accepting relocation to the Indian Territory. Most Muscogee
Muscogee
were removed to Indian Territory
Indian Territory
during the Trail of Tears
Trail of Tears
in 1834, although some remained behind. Some Muscogee
Muscogee
in Alabama
Alabama
live near the federally recognized Poarch Creek Reservation in Atmore (northeast of Mobile), and Muscogee
Muscogee
live in essentially undocumented ethnic towns in Florida. The Alabama reservation includes a casino and 16-story hotel. The Creek tribe holds an annual powwow on Thanksgiving. Additionally, Muscogee descendants of varying degrees of acculturation live throughout the southeastern United States.

“ By 1836, when extensive Creek removal was underway, Eneah Emathala emerged as leader of the Lower Creeks ... their desire was only to be left alone in their homeland ... Gen. Winfield Scott was ordered to capture Eneah Emathala ... Captured with Emathala were some one thousand other person ... their [racial] colors were black, red, and white ... ”

— Burt & Ferguson- Indians of the Southeast: Then and Now

American Civil War
American Civil War
(1861)[edit] See also: Indian Territory
Indian Territory
in the American Civil War

Members of the Creek Nation in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
around 1877. They included men of mixed Creek, European and African ancestry.

At the outbreak of the American Civil War, Opothleyahola
Opothleyahola
refused to form an alliance with the Confederacy, unlike many other tribes, including many of the Lower Creeks. Runaway slaves, free blacks, Chickasaw
Chickasaw
and Seminole
Seminole
Indians began gathering at Opothleyahola's plantation, where they hoped to remain neutral in the conflict between the North and South. On August 15, 1861, Opothleyahola
Opothleyahola
and tribal chief Micco Hutko contacted President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
to request help for the Union loyalists. On September 10, they received a positive response, stating the United States
United States
government would assist them. The letter directed Opothleyahola
Opothleyahola
to move his people to Fort Row in Wilson County, Kansas, where they would receive asylum and aid.[39] They became known as Loyalists, and many were members of the traditional Snake band in the latter part of the century. Because many Muscogee
Muscogee
Creek people did support the Confederacy during the Civil War, the US government required a new treaty with the nation in 1866 to define peace after the war. It required the Creek to emancipate their slaves and to admit them as full members and citizens of the Creek Nation, equal to the Creek in receiving annuities and land benefits. They were then known as Creek Freedmen. The US government required setting aside part of the Creek reservation land to be assigned to the freedmen. Many of the tribe resisted these changes. The loss of lands contributed to problems for the nation in the late 19th century. The Loyalists among the Creek tended to be traditionalists. They formed the core of a band that became known as the Snakes, which also included many Creek Freedmen. At the end of the century, they resisted the extinguishing of tribal government and break-up of communal tribal lands enacted by the US Congress with the Dawes Commission
Dawes Commission
of 1892. These efforts were part of the US government's attempt to impose assimilation on the tribes, to introduce household ownership of land, and to remove legal barriers to the Indian Territory's achieving statehood. Members of the Creek Nation were registered as individuals on the Dawes Rolls; the Commission separately registered intermarried whites and Creek Freedmen, whether or not they had any Creek ancestry. This ruined their claims to Creek membership later, even for people who had parents or other relative who were Creek. The Dawes Rolls have been used as the basis for many tribes to establish membership descent. European-American
European-American
settlers had moved into the area and pressed for statehood and access to some of the tribal lands for settlement. Culture[edit]

Selocta (or Shelocta) was a Muscogee
Muscogee
chief.

Muscogee
Muscogee
culture has greatly evolved over the centuries, combining mostly European-American
European-American
influences; however, interaction with Spain, France, and England
England
greatly shaped it as well. They were known for their rapid incorporation of modernity, developing a written language, transitioning to yeoman farming methods, and accepting European-Americans and African-Americans into their society. Muscogee people continue to preserve chaya and share a vibrant tribal identity through events such as annual festivals, stick ball games, and language classes. The Stomp Dance
Stomp Dance
and Green Corn Ceremony
Green Corn Ceremony
are revered gatherings and rituals. Clans[edit] While families include people who are directly related to each other, clans are composed of all people who are descendants of the same ancestral clan grouping. Like many Native American nations, the Muscogee
Muscogee
Creek are matrilineal; each person belongs to the clan of his or her mother, who belongs to the clan of her mother. Inheritance and property are passed through the maternal line. Hereditary
Hereditary
chiefs were born into certain clans. Biological fathers are important within the family system but must come from another clan than the mother. But, within the clan, it is the mother’s brother (the mother’s nearest blood relation) who functions as the primary teacher, protector, disciplinarian and role model for children, especially for boys. Clan members do not claim "blood relation" but consider each other as family due to their membership in the same clan. This is expressed by their using the same kinship titles for both family and clan relations. For example, clan members of approximately the same age consider each other "brother" and "sister", even if they have never met before. Muscogee
Muscogee
clans are as follows:[40] Because of this system, the Creek absorbed children born of European fathers, as part of their mother's clans, and reared them as Creek. They sometimes saw advantages to alliances between high-ranking daughters of chiefs and European traders, who could provide them with goods. They believed young men who became educated in European ways could help them manage under the new conditions related to colonialism, while preserving important Creek traditions.[28]

Bear Clan (Muklasalgi, Nokosalgi), Beaver Clan (Itamalgi, Isfanalgi, Itchhasuaigi), Bird Clan (Fusualgi), Bog Potato Clan (Ahalakalgi), Cane Clan (Kohasalki), Deer Clan (Itchualgi), Fish Clan (Hlahloalgi), Fox Clan (Tsulalgi), Hickory-Nut Clan (Odshisalgi), Maize
Maize
Clan (Aktayatsalgi, Atchialgi), Mole Clan (Takusalgi), Otter Clan (Osanalgi), Panther Clan (Chukotalgi, Katsalg), Raccoon Clan (Wahlakalgi, Wotkalgi), Salt Clan (Okilisa, Oktchunualgi), Skunk Clan (Kunipalgi), Toad Clan (Pahosalgi, Sopaktalgi), Turtle Clan (Locvlke) – related to Wind Clan Wild-Cat Clan (Koakotsalgi), Wind Clan (Hutalgalgi), Wolf Clan (Yahalgi)[40] – related to Bear Clan.

Clothing[edit] Ancestral Muscogee
Muscogee
peoples wore clothing made of woven plant materials or animal hides, depending upon the climate. During the summer, they preferred lightweight fabrics woven from tree bark, grasses, or reeds. During the harsh winters, they used animal skins and fur for warmth. During the 17th century, the Muscogee
Muscogee
adopted some elements of European fashion and materials. Cloth was lighter and more colorful than deer hide, it quickly became a popular trade item throughout the region. Trade cloth in a variety of patterns and textures enabled Muscogee
Muscogee
women to develop new styles of clothing, which they made for both men, women, and children. They incorporated European trade items such as bells, silk ribbons, glass beads, and pieces of mirror into the clothing. Language[edit] Main article: Creek Language The Muscogee language
Muscogee language
is a member of the Muskogean
Muskogean
family and was well known among the frontiersmen, such as Gideon Lincecum, of the early 19th century. The language is related to the Choctaw
Choctaw
language, with some words being identical in pronunciation. The following table is an example of Muscogee
Muscogee
text and its translation:

Mvskoke: Fayet aresasvtēs. Mont fayēpat vrēpēt omvtēs, hopvyēn. Momēt vrēpēt omvtētan, nake punvttv tat pvsvtēpet, momet hvtvm efvn sulkēn omvtēs. Momet mv efv tat efv fayvlket omekv, nak punvttuce tayen pvsvtēpēt omvtēs. Mont aret omvtētan, efv tat estvn nak wohēcēto vtēkat, nake punvttvn oken mv efv-pucase enkerrēt omvtēs.[41][dead link]

English: Someone was hunting. He went hunting in far away places. He went continually, killing small game, and he had many dogs. And the dogs were hunting dogs, so he had killed many animals. When hunting, he always knew his dogs had an animal trapped by the sound of their barking.[41]

Treaties[edit]

Muscogee
Muscogee
(Creek) land cessions 1733–1832

Ceded area as deemed by the Treaty of Fort Jackson
Treaty of Fort Jackson
in 1814.

Land was the most valuable asset, which the Native Americans held in collective stewardship. The southern English colonies, US government and settlers systematically obtained Muscogee
Muscogee
land through treaties, legislation, and warfare. Some treaties, such as the Treaty of San Lorenzo, indirectly affected the Muscogee. The treaties were:

Treaty Year Signed with Where Purpose Ceded Land

Treaty of Savannah 1733 Colony of Georgia ? ? ?

Treaty of Coweta
Coweta
Town 1739 Colony of Georgia ? ? ?

Treaty of Savannah 1757 Colony of Georgia ? ? ?

Treaty of Shoulder-bone Creek[42] 1786 State of Georgia Sparta, Georgia Land cession All lands east of the Oconee River

Treaty of New York 1790 United States New York City Boundaries defined, Civilization of Creek, Animosities to cease ?

Treaty of Colerain 1796 United States Colerain (Camden County, Georgia) Boundary lines, Animosities to cease ?

Treaty of Fort Wilkinson 1802 United States Fort Wilkinson Land cession ?

Treaty of Washington 1805 ? ? ? ?

Treaty of Fort Jackson 1814 United States Fort Jackson near Wetumpka, Alabama Land cession 23 million acres (93,000 km2)

Treaty of the Creek Agency 1818 ? ? ? ?

Treaty of the Indian Spring 1821 ? ? ? ?

Treaty of Indian Springs 1825 ? ? ? ?

Treaty of Washington 1826 ? ? ? ?

Treaty of the Creek Indian Agency 1827 ? ? ? ?

Treaty of Cusseta 1832 United States Washington City create allotments

Treaty With The Creeks 1833 ? ? ? ?

Treaty With The Creeks 1838 ? ? ? ?

Treaty With The Creeks And Seminole 1845 ? ? ? ?

Treaty With The Creeks 1854 ? ? ? ?

Treaty With The Creeks, Etc., 1856 ? ? ? ?

Treaty With The Creeks 1866 ? ? ? ?

Indian Appropriations Act of 1871[edit] In 1871 Congress added a rider to the Indian Appropriations Act to end the United States' recognizing additional Indian tribes or nations, and prohibiting additional treaties.

“ That hereafter no Indian nation or tribe within the territory of the United States
United States
shall be acknowledged or recognized as an independent nation, tribe, or power with whom the United States
United States
may contract by treaty: Provided, further, that nothing herein contained shall be construed to invalidate or impair the obligation of any treaty heretofore lawfully made and ratified with any such Indian nation or tribe. ”

— -Indian Appropriations Act of 1871[43]

Muscogee
Muscogee
tribes today[edit] The Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana
Louisiana
are a tribe of Muscogee
Muscogee
people, descended from the Koasati, as are the Alabama- Coushatta Tribes of Texas. Federally recognized tribes in Oklahoma[edit]

Muscogee
Muscogee
Creek bike messenger, originally from Okmulgee, Oklahoma

The Muscogee (Creek) Nation
Muscogee (Creek) Nation
is a federally recognized Indian Nation. Their headquarters is in Okmulgee, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and their current Principal Chief is James Floyd.[44] Three Muscogee
Muscogee
tribal towns are federally recognized tribes: Alabama-Quassarte, Kialegee, and Thlopthlocco. Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town is headquartered is Wetumka, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and its chief is Tarpie Yargee.[45] Kialegee Tribal Town
Kialegee Tribal Town
is headquartered in Wetumka, and Jeremiah Hoia is the current mekko or chief.[46] The Thlopthlocco Tribal Town is headquartered in Okemah, Oklahoma. George Scott is the mekko.[46]

Micah Wesley, Muscogee
Muscogee
Creek- Kiowa
Kiowa
artist and DJ[47][48]

Federally recognized tribes in Alabama[edit] Eddie L. Tullis led the Poarch Band of Creek Indians in their petitioning the United States
United States
government to recognize a government-to-government relationship. On August 11, 1984, these efforts culminated in the United States
United States
Government, Department of Interior, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs acknowledging that the Poarch Band of Creek Indians existed as an "Indian Tribe". The tribe is the only federally recognized tribe in the state of Alabama. On November 21, 1984, the US government took 231.54 acres (0.9370 km2) of land into trust for the tribe as a communal holding. On April 12, 1985, 229.54 acres (0.9289 km2) were declared a reservation. State-recognized tribes[edit] Alabama:

Cher-O-Creek Intra Tribal Indians Ma-Chis Lower Creek Indian Tribe of Alabama
Alabama
(petitioned for federal recognition 6/27/83, acknowledgment declined 8/18/88)[49] Star Clan of Muscogee
Muscogee
Creeks

Georgia:

Lower Muskogee Creek Tribe (East of the Mississippi) (petitioned for federal recognition 2/2/72, acknowledgment declined 12/21/81)[50]

Notable Muscogee[edit]

Fred Beaver (1911–1980), Muscogee- Seminole
Seminole
painter and muralist Acee Blue Eagle
Acee Blue Eagle
(1909–1959), Muscogee-Pawnee-Wichita artist, actor, author, and director of art at Bacone College William Augustus Bowles
William Augustus Bowles
(1763–1805), also known as Estajoca, Maryland-born English adventurer and organizer of Muscogee
Muscogee
Creek attempts to create a state outside of Euro-American control Samuel Benton Callahan (1833–1911), represented the Creek and Seminole
Seminole
nations in the Second Confederate Congress Ernest Childers
Ernest Childers
(1918–2005), lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Army during World War II
World War II
and the first Native American to be awarded a Medal of Honor
Medal of Honor
during that war Chitto Harjo
Chitto Harjo
(1846–1911), orator, veteran, and traditionalist Eddie Chuculate (born 1972), Muscogee- Cherokee
Cherokee
author and journalist Joy Harjo
Joy Harjo
(born 1959), Muscogee- Cherokee
Cherokee
poet and jazz musician Suzan Shown Harjo
Suzan Shown Harjo
(born 1945), Muscogee-Cheyenne activist, policymaker, journalist, and poet Joan Hill
Joan Hill
(born 1930), Muscogee- Cherokee
Cherokee
artist Jack Jacobs (1919–1974), football player William Harjo LoneFight (born 1966), author, president of Native American Services, languages and cultural activist Alexander McGillivray
Alexander McGillivray
(1750–1793), leader of the Muscogee
Muscogee
during the American Revolution William McIntosh
William McIntosh
(c. 1775 – 1825) led part of the pro-American Creek forces against the Red Sticks. Menawa
Menawa
(c. 1765 – 1836) was a principal leader of the Red Sticks during the Creek Wars. Mary Musgrove
Mary Musgrove
(c. 1700 – 1765) served as a cultural liaison between colonial Georgia and the Muscogee
Muscogee
Creek community. Louis Oliver (1904–1991), Muskogee poet Opothleyahola
Opothleyahola
(c. 1798 – 1863) was speaker for Creek Nation and later principal chief. He travelled to Washington DC to sign treaties and lead Creek warriors on American side in Seminole
Seminole
War. Jim Pepper (1941–1992), Muscogee-Kaw jazz musician Grant-Lee Phillips
Grant-Lee Phillips
(born 1963), Alternative-Americana artist and founder-songwriter of Grant Lee Buffalo, enrolled in the Muscogee (Creek) Nation[51] Alexander Posey
Alexander Posey
(1873–1908), Muscogee
Muscogee
Creek poet, humorist, journalist, and politician Will Sampson
Will Sampson
(1933–1987), film actor, noted for performance in One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1978) Cynthia Leitich Smith
Cynthia Leitich Smith
(born 1967), children's book author, noted for Jingle Dancer France
France
Winddance Twine (born 1960) Professor of Sociology at the University of California Santa Barbara Carrie Underwood
Carrie Underwood
(born 1983), country singer[52][53] Tommy Warren, (1917–1968) Major League Baseball professional athlete William Weatherford, also known as Red Eagle (c. 1781 – 1824), led the Creek War
Creek War
offensive against the United States

See also[edit]

Black Seminoles Battle of Burnt Corn College of the Muscogee
Muscogee
Nation Crazy Snake Rebellion Etowah Indian Mounds Fushatchee Green corn ceremony List of sites and peoples visited by the Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto
Expedition Nuyaka (Creek Nation) Ocmulgee National Monument Stomp dance Muskogee, Oklahoma

Notes[edit]

^ "2010 Census CPH-T-6. American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes in the United States
United States
and Puerto Rico: 2010" (PDF). census.gov. Retrieved 7 February 2015.  ^ a b Transcribed documents Archived 2012-02-13 at the Wayback Machine. Sequoyah Research Center and the American Native Press Archives ^ Fogelson ix ^ Mahon, pp. 187–189. ^ United States
United States
Census Office, A Century of Population Growth from the First Census of the United States
United States
to the Twelfth: 1790–1900, Government Printing Office, 1909, p. 11 ^ Walter, Williams (1979). "Southeastern Indians before Removal, Prehistory, Contact, Decline". Southeastern Indians: Since the Removal Era. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press. pp. 7–10.  ^ a b Prentice, Guy (2003). "Pushmataha, Choctaw
Choctaw
Indian Chief". Southeast Chronicles. Retrieved 2008-02-11.  ^ Finger, John R. (2001). Tennessee
Tennessee
Frontiers: Three Regions in Transition. Indiana University Press. p. 19. ISBN 0-253-33985-5.  ^ William Bartram, Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida, the Cherokee
Cherokee
Country, the Extensive Territories of the Muscogulges or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Chactaws (2nd edition), London 1794, pp. 52–53 ^ William Bartram, Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida, the Cherokee
Cherokee
Country, the Extensive Territories of the Muscogulges or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Chactaws (2nd edition), London 1794, p. 54 ^ About North Georgia
North Georgia
(1994–2006). "Moundbuilders, North Georgia's early inhabitants". Golden Ink. Retrieved 2008-05-02.  ^ Saunt, Claudio (1999). "'Martial virtue, and not riches': The Creek relationship to property". A New Order of Things. Property, Power, and the Transformation of the Creek Indians, 1733–1816. Cambridge University Press. pp. 38–63. ISBN 0521660432.  ^ Saunt, Claudio (1999). A New Order of Things. Property, Power, and the Transformation of the Creek Indians, 1733–1816. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521660432.  ^ Gentleman of Elva (1557). "Chapter II, How Cabeza de Vaca arrived at court". Narratives of the Career of Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto
in the Conquest of Florida
Florida
as told by a Knight of Elvas. Kallman Publishing Co. (1968), Translated by Buckingham Smith. ASIN B000J4W27Q.  ^ Ethridge, Robbie (2003). "Chapter 5: "The People of Creek Country"". Creek Country: The Creek Indians and their World. The University of North Carolina
North Carolina
Press. p. 93. ISBN 0-8078-5495-6.  ^ Isham, Theodore and Blue Clark. "Creek (Mvskoke)." Archived 2010-07-20 at the Wayback Machine. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Historical Society's Encyclopedia of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
History and Culture. Retrieved 20 Aug 2012. ^ Creek Towns (accessed May 12, 2010). ^ "Creek Indian Leaders." New Georgia Encyclopedia. Accessed May 12, 2010. ^ Walker 390 ^ "Mary Musgrove," Georgia Encyclopedia Online (accessed May 12, 2010). ^ "Creek Indians," New Georgia Encyclopedia (accessed May 12, 2010). ^ Kokomoor, Kevin (2014). "'Burning & Destroying All Before Them': Creeks and Seminoles
Seminoles
on Georgia's Revolutionary Frontier". Georgia Historical Quarterly. 98 (4): 300. Retrieved 14 February 2018.  ^ Forbs, Gerald, "The Origin of the Seminole
Seminole
Indians," p. 108, Chronicles of Oklahoma, Vol. 15, No. 1, March 1937. ^ Edward Cashin The King's Ranger: Thomas Brown and the American Revolution on the Southern Frontier Pg. 130 ^ " Alexander McGillivray
Alexander McGillivray
– Encyclopedia of Alabama".  ^ Jane G. Landers (1 June 2010). ATLANTIC CREOLES IN THE AGE OF REVOLUTIONS. Harvard University Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-674-05416-5.  ^ Chris Kimball, "W.A. Bowles", Southern History ^ a b Perdue, Theda (2003). "Chapter 2 "Both White and Red"". Mixed Blood Indians: Racial Construction in the Early South. The University of Georgia Press. p. 51. ISBN 0-8203-2731-X.  ^ Remini, Robert. ""The Reform Begins"". Andrew Jackson. History Book Club. p. 201. ISBN 0-9650631-0-7.  ^ Remini, Robert. ""Brothers, Listen ... You Must Submit"". Andrew Jackson. History Book Club. p. 258. ISBN 0-9650631-0-7.  ^ Miller, Eric (1994). " George Washington
George Washington
And Indians". Eric Mille. Retrieved 2008-05-02.  ^ Sugden, John. "The Shooting Star.' New York Times: Books. 1997 (retrieved 5 December 2009) ^ "The Creeks." Archived 2005-11-18 at the Wayback Machine. War of 1812" People and Stories. (retrieved 5 December 2009) ^ Adams, 777–778 ^ Steve Canerossi. "Ft. Mims Massacre Baldwin County, Alabama
Alabama
August 30, 1813". Retrieved 2009-10-04.  ^ Paul Burke. "Treaty with The Creeks". First People. Retrieved 2009-10-04.  ^ Merwyn Garbarino, The Seminole
Seminole
Pg. 40 ^ a b c d e f Sharyn Kane & Richard Keeton. "Fort Benning – The Land and the People". SEAC. Retrieved 2010-08-07.  ^ "Woodson County history". Archived from the original on 2011-06-28.  ^ a b "Creek Confederacy". AAANativeArts.com. 1999–2005. Retrieved 2010-08-11.  ^ a b Earnest Gouge (2010). "The Creek stories of Earnest Gouge, Panther Helps Man Defeat Giant Lizard" (PDF). The College of William and Mary. Retrieved 2010-08-11.  ^ Seibert, David. "Shoulder-bone Creek Treaty". GeorgiaInfo: an Online Georgia Almanac. Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved 30 November 2016.  ^ Onecle (November 8, 2005). "Indian Treaties". Retrieved 2009-03-31.  ^ https://www.mcn-nsn.gov/government/executive-branch/ ^ Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Indian Affairs. 2008 Pocket Pictorial:17 ^ a b "Oklahoma's Tribal Nations." Archived 2010-03-28 at the Wayback Machine. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Indian Affairs Commission. 2010 (retrieved 10 April 2010) ^ Native American Rights Fund. Visions for the Future: A Celebration of Young Native American Artists, Volume 1. Boulder, CO: Native American Rights Fund, 2007: 82. ISBN 978-1-55591-655-8. ^ "Native American Week Planned at UNM-Gallup." Archived 2012-07-03 at the Wayback Machine. University of New Mexico Today. 8 November 2007 (retrieved 25 February 2010) ^ "LCITE-Index".  ^ [1] ^ "Grant-Lee Phillips." The Ark. Retrieved 23 September 2013. ^ La Bella, Laura. Carrie Underwood
Carrie Underwood
New York: Rosen Publishing, 2008: 15. ISBN 978-1-4042-1370-8. (retrieved 5 April 2009) ^ "Creek Nation Tribal Member Carrie Underwood
Carrie Underwood
Wins Grammy", Free Press. 14 February 2007 (retrieved 5 April 2009)

References[edit]

Braund, Kathryn E. Holland (1993). Deerskins & Duffels: The Creek Indian Trade with Anglo-America, 1685–1815. Indians of the Southeast. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. OCLC 45732303.  Jackson, Harvey H. III (1995). Rivers of History-Life on the Coosa, Tallapoosa, Cahaba and Alabama. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: The University of Alabama
Alabama
Press. ISBN 0-8173-0771-0.  Swanton, John R. (1922). Early History of the Creek Indians and their Neighbors. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 73. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. OCLC 18032096.  Perdue, Theda. Chapter 2: "Both White and Red," in Mixed Blood Indians: Racial Construction in the Early South, The University of Georgia Press. p. 51. ISBN 0-8203-2731-X. Swanton, John R. (1928). "Social Organization and the Social Usages of the Indians of the Creek Confederacy". Forty-Second Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. pp. 23–472. OCLC 14980706.  Walker, Willard B. (2004). "Creek Confederacy Before Removal". In Raymond D. Fogelson (ed.). Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 14: Southeast. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. pp. 373–392. OCLC 57192264. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) Winn, William W. (2015). The Triumph of Ecunnau-Nuxulgee: Land Speculators, George M. Troup, State Rights, and the Removal of the Creek Indians from Georgia and Alabama, 1825–38. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press. Worth, John E. (2000). "The Lower Creeks: Origins and Early History". In Bonnie G. McEwan (ed.). Indians of the Greater Southeast: Historical Archaeology and Ethnohistory. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. pp. 265–298. OCLC 49414753. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Muscogee.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of an 1879 American Cyclopædia
American Cyclopædia
article about Muscogee.

Muscogee (Creek) Nation
Muscogee (Creek) Nation
of Oklahoma, official site Poarch Band of Creek Indians, official site Creek Nation Indian Territory
Indian Territory
Project Creek (Muskogee) by Kenneth W. McIntosh – Encyclopedia of North American Indians History of the Creek Indians in Georgia Comprehensive Creek Language
Creek Language
materials online Southeastern Native American Documents, 1763–1842. New Georgia Encyclopedia entry Encyclopedia of Alabama
Alabama
article Creek (Mvskoke), Encyclopedia of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
History and Culture Seven Chestnuts historical marker  "Creek or Muskogee Indians". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.   "Muskhogean Stock". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 

v t e

Muscogee
Muscogee
Creek Confederacy

Four mother towns

Abihka Coweta Kasihta Tukabatchee

Groups and towns

Alabama Apalachicola Eufaula Coushatta Hitchiti Muklassa Muscogee Okchai Okfuskee Pensacola Tallapoosa

Federally recognized tribes

Alabama- Coushatta Tribe of Texas Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana Kialegee Tribal Town Muscogee
Muscogee
(Creek) Nation Poarch Band of Creek Indians Thlopthlocco Tribal Town

Languages

Alabama Apalachee Creek-Seminole Koasati

Culture

Religion Four Mothers Society Green Corn Ceremony Stomp dance College of the Muscogee
Muscogee
Nation

History

Mississippian culture Pisgah Phase Etowah Moundville Long Swamp Site Chiaha Leon-Jefferson culture Battle of Taliwa State of Muskogee Red Sticks Red Stick War Trail of Tears Creek War
Creek War
of 1836 Creek National Capitol Crazy Snake Rebellion

Politics and law

Treaty of New York (1790) Treaty of Washington (1826) Treaty of Cusseta Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Tax Commission v. United States

v t e

Native American tribes in  Oklahoma

Federally recognized tribes

Absentee Shawnee Alabama-Quassarte Apache Caddo Cherokee Cheyenne and Arapaho Chickasaw Choctaw Citizen Potawatomi Comanche Delaware Nation Delaware Tribe Eastern Shawnee Fort Sill Apache Iowa Kaw Kialegee Kickapoo Kiowa Miami Modoc Muscogee
Muscogee
(Creek) Osage Otoe-Missouria Ottawa Pawnee Peoria Ponca Quapaw Sac and Fox Seminole Seneca-Cayuga Shawnee Thlopthlocco Tonkawa United Keetoowah Wichita Wyandotte

Tribal languages (still spoken)

Alabama Arapaho Caddo Cayuga Cherokee Cheyenne Chickasaw Chiwere (Iowa and Otoe) Choctaw Comanche Delaware Koasati Hitchiti-Mikasuki Mescalero-Chiricahua Mesquakie (Fox, Kickapoo, and Sauk) Muscogee Osage Ottawa Pawnee Ponca Potawatomi Quapaw Seneca Shawnee Wichita W

.