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MUSSAF (also spelled MUSAF) is an additional service that is recited on Shabbat
Shabbat
, Yom Tov , Chol Hamoed
Chol Hamoed
, and Rosh Chodesh . The service, which is traditionally combined with the Shacharit
Shacharit
in synagogues , is considered to be additional to the regular services of Shacharit, Mincha
Mincha
, and Maariv
Maariv
.

During the days of the Holy Temple
Holy Temple
, additional offerings were offered on these festive days. Mussaf is now recited in lieu of these offerings.

Mussaf refers to both the full service (which includes the Amidah and all Jewish prayer
Jewish prayer
that follow that are normally recited during Shacharit
Shacharit
) and the Amidah itself that is recited for Mussaf. The main addition is a fourth recitation of the Amidah specially for these days. It is permissible to recite the Mussaf prayer at any time during the day on these days. Nevertheless, the tradition is that it be recited immediately following Shacharit
Shacharit
as a combined service.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Beliefs of movements

* 2.1 Orthodox * 2.2 Conservative * 2.3 Reform

* 3 Mussaf by day

* 3.1 Rosh Chodesh * 3.2 Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
* 3.3 Simchat Torah

* 4 Prayers included on the Sabbath * 5 Do women recite Mussaf? * 6 Offerings * 7 See also * 8 References

ETYMOLOGY

The name "Mussaf" refers to addition, since it is an additional prayer service recited on festive days that is taking the place of additional offerings that were once made on these days. It is related to the name Joseph (Yosef).

BELIEFS OF MOVEMENTS

ORTHODOX

Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism
is most active at reciting Mussaf, including it as part of the regular prayer service on the days it is recited.

CONSERVATIVE

In Conservative Judaism
Conservative Judaism
, Mussaf is recited but has been adapted. The liturgy has been changed, identifying the State of Israel
Israel
as the Jewish homeland, but recognizing the Temple only as historical and not as a structure that will one day be restored.

REFORM

Reform Judaism
Reform Judaism
completely omits Mussaf. There are two reasons why the Reform movement decided not to include Mussaf. One is that it would involve reciting some prayers four times in a row. The other is their lack of belief in sacrifices as a legitimate way to become close to God.

MUSSAF BY DAY

ROSH CHODESH

During Shabbat
Shabbat
and Yom Tov, Tefillin
Tefillin
are not worn at all. But on Rosh Chodesh, they are worn during Shacharit, and they are removed prior to Mussaf.

During leap years on the Hebrew calendar
Hebrew calendar
, a verse is inserted for the atonement of willful sin .

ROSH HASHANAH

On most days Mussaf is recited, the Amidah contains seven blessings - the three at the beginning and three at the end of every Amidah, and one in the middle in regards to the particular day. But on Rosh Hashanah , the Amidah contains nine blessings. The three middle blessings are in reference to Kingship, Remembrance, and the Shofar blowings.

While not required, the shofar is traditionally blown during Mussaf as well as Shacharit
Shacharit
in order to confound the Satan
Satan
.

SIMCHAT TORAH

On most Jewish holidays
Jewish holidays
in the Diaspora
Diaspora
, Birkat Kohanim is recited during the chazzan's repetition during Mussaf. But on Simchat Torah , it is recited during Shacharit. This is because there is a tradition to drink prior to Mussaf, and Birkat Kohanim cannot be performed by drunk Kohanim

PRAYERS INCLUDED ON THE SABBATH

The Mussaf service starts with the silent recitation of the Amidah . It is followed by a second public recitation that includes an additional reading known as the Kedushah. This is followed by the Tikanta Shabbat
Shabbat
reading on the holiness of Shabbat
Shabbat
, and then by a reading from the biblical Book of Numbers
Book of Numbers
about the sacrifices that used to be performed in the Temple in Jerusalem
Temple in Jerusalem
. Next comes Yismechu, "They shall rejoice in Your sovereignty"; Eloheynu, "Our God and God of our Ancestors, may you be pleased with our rest"; and Retzei, "Be favorable, our God, toward your people Israel
Israel
and their prayer, and restore services to your Temple."

After the Amidah comes the full Kaddish , followed by Ein ke'eloheinu. In Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism
this is followed by a reading from the Talmud
Talmud
on the incense offering called Pittum Haketoreth and daily psalms that used to be recited in the Temple in Jerusalem. These readings are usually omitted by Conservative Jews, and are always omitted by Reform Jews.

The Musaf service culminates with the Rabbi's Kaddish, the Aleinu , and then the Mourner's Kaddish. Some synagogues conclude with the reading of An'im Zemirot, "The Hymn of Glory", Mourner's Kaddish, The psalm of the Day and either Adon Olam or Yigdal
Yigdal
.

DO WOMEN RECITE MUSSAF?

There is a debated over whether, in Orthodox Judaism, women are required to recite Mussaf, being that it is a time-bound commandment, and that women are only obligated to pray once a day. The Mussaf service contains only a commemorative mention of the sacrifices, and does not contain any personal requests, thereby making there be no special reason for women to recite it.

Nevertheless, women are permitted to recite Mussaf. On Rosh Hashanah , a woman who does not wish to remain in the synagogue for the Mussaf service must still listen to the shofar blowing.

Sephardic authorities feel a woman should come to the synagogue and listen to Mussaf, but not recite it.

On High Holidays
High Holidays
, women are required to recite Mussaf and Ne\'ila .

OFFERINGS

This table IS INCOMPLETE. (August 2010)

The verses recited during the Mussaf Amidah (which are also read for the Maftir on the corresponding days) are all derived from the Book of Numbers chapters 28 and 29 (Parshat Pinchas ). The following additional offerings are commanded on each day Mussaf is recited. Due to the fact that Jewish holidays
Jewish holidays
are observed two days in the Diaspora rather than the one day commanded in the Torah
Torah
, the schedule for recitation is modified.

DAY OFFERINGS BIBLICAL VERSES OTHER NOTES

Shabbat
Shabbat
Two lambs 2/10 meal offering of fine flour and olive oil Numbers 28:9-10

* When Shabbat
Shabbat
coincides with Yom Tov or Chol Hamoed, the Yom Tov Mussaf Amidah is recited with Shabbat
Shabbat
verses inserted. * When Shabbat
Shabbat
coincides with Rosh Chodesh, a special Shabbat-Rosh Chodesh Amidah is recited, beginning with the verse "Ata Yatzarta" and containing verses for the offerings of both.

Rosh Chodesh Elevation offering Two young bulls One ram Seven lambs Numbers 28:9-11

Passover
Passover
Day 1 Fire offering Elevation offering Two young bulls One ram Seven male lambs Numbers 28:16-19 Recited days 1-2 in Diaspora ( Nisan
Nisan
15-16)

Passover
Passover
Days 2-7 Fire offering Elevation offering Two young bulls One ram Seven male lambs Numbers 28:19 Recited on days 3-8 in Diaspora ( Nisan
Nisan
17-22)

Shavuot
Shavuot
Elevation offering Two young bulls One ram Seven male lambs Numbers 28:26-27 Recited two days in Diaspora ( Sivan
Sivan
6-7)

Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah

Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur

Sukkot
Sukkot
Day 1 Elevation offering Fire offering 13 young bulls 2 rams 14 lambs Numbers 29:12-13 Recited on first two days of Sukkot
Sukkot
in Diaspora ( Tishrei
Tishrei
15-16)

Sukkot
Sukkot
Day 2 12 young bulls 2 rams 14 lambs Numbers 29:17 Recited on the first day of Chol Hamoed
Chol Hamoed
(third day of Sukkot) in the Diaspora

Sukkot
Sukkot
Day 3 11 young bulls 2 rams 14 lambs Numbers 29:20 Recited on the first and second days of Chol Hamoed
Chol Hamoed
(third and fourth days of Sukkot) in the Diaspora

Sukkot
Sukkot
Day 4 10 young bulls 2 rams 14 lambs Numbers 29:23 Recited on the second and third days of Chol Hamoed
Chol Hamoed
(fourth and fifth days of Sukkot) in the Diaspora

Sukkot
Sukkot
Day 5 9 young bulls 2 rams 14 lambs Numbers 29:26 Recited on the third and fourth days of Chol Hamoed
Chol Hamoed
(fifth and sixth days of Sukkot) in the Diaspora

Sukkot
Sukkot
Day 6 8 young bulls 2 rams 14 lambs Numbers 29:29 Recited on the fourth and fifth days of Chol Hamoed
Chol Hamoed
(sixth and seventh days of Sukkot) in the Diaspora

Sukkot
Sukkot
Day 7 ( Hoshana Rabbah ) 7 young bulls 2 rams 14 lambs Numbers 29:32

Shemini Atzeret
Shemini Atzeret
/ Simchat Torah Elevation offering Fire offering one bull one ram 7 lambs Numbers 29:35-36

SEE ALSO

* Shacharit
Shacharit
* Mincha
Mincha
* Maariv
Maariv
* Ne\'ila

REFERENCES

* ^ Tosefta Berachot: Translated into English with a Commentary By Eliyahu Gurevich, page 113 * ^ These are the words: a vocabulary of Jewish spiritual life, page 100 * ^ My People's Prayer Book: Shabbat
Shabbat
morning : Shacharit
Shacharit
and Musaf By Lawrence A. Hoffman, page 138 * ^ Explaining Reform Judaism
Reform Judaism
By Eugene B. Borowitz, Naomi Patz, page 23 * ^ Halakhic positions of Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik, Volume 3 By Aharon Ziegler * ^ Rosh Hashanah--Its Significance, Laws, and Prayers: A Presentation ... By Nosson Scherman, Hersh Goldwurm, Avie Gold, page 101 * ^ Rosh Hashanah--Its Significance, Laws, and Prayers: A Presentation ... By Nosson Scherman, Hersh Goldwurm, Avie Gold, page 62 * ^ Halichos Bas Yisrael, Volume I By Rabbi Yitzchak Yaacov Fuchs, page 45 * ^ Halichos Bas Yisrael, Volume II By Rabbi Yitzchak Yaacov Fuchs, page 104 * ^ Halichos Bas Yisrael, Volume II By Rabbi Yitzchak Yaacov Fuchs, page 141 * ^ Halichos Bas Yisrael, Volume I By Rabbi Yitzchak Yaacov Fuchs, page 46

* v * t * e

Jewish prayer
Jewish prayer

List of Jewish prayers and blessings
List of Jewish prayers and blessings

SHACHARIT

PREPARATION

* Birkot hashachar * Akeida * Offerings

PESUKEI DEZIMRA

* Mizmor Shir (Psalm 30) * Barukh she\'amar * Songs of thanksgiving * ( Psalm 100 ) * Yehi kevod * Hallel ( Ashrei * Psalms 146 * 147 * 148 * 149 * 150 ) * Baruch Adonai L\'Olam * Vayivarech David * Atah Hu Adonai L\'Vadecha * Az Yashir * Yishtabach

CORE PRAYERS

* Barechu * Yotzer ohr * Ahava rabbah * Shema * Emet Vayatziv * Amidah * Kedushah

CONCLUSION

* Tachanun * Torah
Torah
reading 1, 2, 3 * Ashrei * Psalm 20 * Uva letzion * Aleinu * Shir shel yom * Kaddish * Ein Keloheinu 4

MINCHA

* Ashrei * Torah
Torah
reading 1, 5 * Amidah * Kedushah * Tachanun * Aleinu * Kaddish

MAARIV

* Barechu * Maariv
Maariv
Aravim * Ahavat Olam * Shema * Emet V\'Emunah * Hashkiveinu * Baruch Adonai L\'Olam * Half Kaddish * Amidah * Full Kaddish * Aleinu * Mourner\'s Kaddish

SHABBAT / HOLIDAY ADDITIONS

* Extended Pesukei dezimra (Psalms 19 * 34 * 90 * 91 * 135 * 136 * 33 * Lekhah Dodi * 92 * 93 ) * Nishmat * Shochen Ad * Hallel * Torah
Torah
reading * Yom Tov Torah
Torah
readings * Haftarah * Yekum Purkan * Av HaRachamim * Mussaf * Birkat Cohanim 6 * Anim Zemirot * Tzidkatcha * Al HaNissim * Adon Olam

SEASONAL ADDITIONS

* Psalm 27
Psalm 27
* Avinu Malkeinu * Selichot
Selichot

OTHER PRAYERS

* Amen
Amen
* Modeh Ani * Ma Tovu * Adon Olam * Yigdal
Yigdal
* Al Netilat Yadayim * Asher Yatzar * Birkat HaMazon * El Malei Rachamim * Havdalah
Havdalah
* Kiddush Levana * Tefilat HaDerech * Birkat Hachama

* 1 On Shabbat
Shabbat
* 2 On holidays * 3 On Mondays and Thursdays * 4 Only on Shabbat
Shabbat
and holidays, according to Nusach Ashkenaz in the diaspora * 5 On fast days * 6 Daily

.