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The Hawiye ( so, Hawiye, ar, بنو هوية, it, Haouia, en, Hawiye) is a major Somali clan. Members of this clan traditionally inhabit central and southern
Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the Northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Oce ...
, the
Somali Region
Somali Region
and the North Eastern Province (currently administered by Ethiopia and Kenya, respectively). They are also the majority in the capital city,
Mogadishu
Mogadishu
. The Fiqishini, a subclan of the Habar Gidir Hawiye, inhabit the Sool region of Somaliland.


Overview

Like many Somalis, Hawiye members trace their paternal ancestry to Irir, the first son of Samaale. According to many documented sources and historians, the patriarch Samaale arrived in northern Somalia from
Yemen ) , image_map = File:Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a (''Houthi takeover in Yemen, De jure'')Aden (Temporary capital Yemeni government, in exile) , coordinates = , capital_exile = ...
during the 9th century and subsequently founded the eponymous Samaale clan. Two of the major clans the Hawiye and Dir trace descent from Irir the son of Samaale, who in turn traces his geneological traditions to Arabia of the Quraysh Banu Hashim lineage through Aqiil the son of Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib, who was the Uncle of the Prophet Muhammed.


Distribution

Following an ancient pastoralist migration and population movement across the Somali peninsula in search of grazing land and water supplies over a period of a thousand years, the Hawiye clans can today be found inhabiting an area stretching from the fertile lands of southern Somalia between
Barawa
Barawa
and Kismayo, to the coast surrounding
Mogadishu
Mogadishu
and Warsheikh, west to the modern city of Beledweyne in the Hiran, Somalia, Hiran region and north to the ancient port town of Hobyo in the arid central Mudug region.


Role and Influence in Somalia

The Hawiye have historically played an important role in Somalia. The majority of Somalia's founding fathers hailed from the Hawiye. The first President, Prime minister and the father of the Somali Military were all Hawiye. Aden Adde the first President was Udeejeen. The first Prime Minister Abdullahi Issa was Habar Gidir. The father of the Somali Military Daud Abdulle Hirsi was Abgaal. Since then the Hawiye have produced four more Presidents and three more Prime Ministers. The Hawiye figure prominently in many important fields of Somali society, including the Business and Media sector. For example, Abdirahman Yabarow, the editor-in-chief of VOA Somali is kin. Yusuf Garaad Omar who was the Chairman of BBC Somali for over a decade and helped pioneer its rise during his tenure, is also a member. As are the Heads of major national Corporations - Jubba Airways and Hormuud Telecom. Currently the Hawiye play a leading role in the regions of Galmudug, Hirshabelle and Benadir (Mogadishu), but also Somalia as a whole.


History

Hawiye along with some Samaale sub-clans migrated to central and southern
Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the Northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Oce ...
in the 1st century AD to populate the Horn of Africa. They established farmlands in the fertile plain lands of southern Somalia and flourishing harbor ports in south and central Somalia. According to the 12th-century author Muhammad al-Idrisi, Al-Idrisi, the Hawiye clan occupied the coastal areas between Ras Hafun and Merca, as well as the lower basin of the lower Shebelle River, Shabelle river. Al-Idrisi's mention of the Hawiye is the first documentary reference to a specific Somali group in the Horn of Africa. Later Arab writers also make references to the Hawiye clan in connection with both Merca and the lower Shabelle valley. Ibn Sa'id al-Maghribi, Ibn Sa'id (1214–74), for instance, considered Merca to be the capital of the Hawiye, who lived in fifty villages on the bank of a river which he called "the nile of Mogadishu, a clear reference to the Shabelle river. Along with Rahanweyn, Hawiye clan also came under the Ajuran Empire control in the 13th century that governed much of southern
Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the Northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Oce ...
and eastern Ethiopia, with its domain extending from Hobyo in the north, to Kelafo, Qelafo in the west, to Kismayo in the south.Lee V. Cassanelli, ''The shaping of Somali society: reconstructing the history of a pastoral people, 1600-1900'', (University of Pennsylvania Press: 1982), p.102. Hiraab Imamate was the successor state of Ajuran Sultanate. The reason for their rebellion was the Ajuran rulers, in the end, became extremely prideful, neglected the sharia law, and imposed a heavy tax on their subjects which was the main reason for the rebellion. Other groups would follow in the rebellion which would eventually bring down Ajuran rule in the inter-riverine region and Benadir coast. Lee Cassanelli in his book, ''The Shaping of Somali society'', provides a historical picture of the Hiraab Imamate. He writes:
"According to local oral tradition, the Hiraab imamate was a powerful alliance of closely related groups who shared a common lineage under the Gorgaarte clan divisions. It successfully revolted against the Ajuran Empire and established an independent rule for at least two centuries from the seventeen hundreds and onwards. The alliance involved the army leaders and advisors of the Habar Gidir and Duduble, a Fiqhi/Qadi of Sheekhaal, and the Imam was reserved for the Mudulood branch who is believed to have been the first born. Once established, the Imamate ruled the territories from the Shabeelle valley, the Benaadir provinces, the Mareeg areas all the way to the arid lands of Mudug, whilst the ancient port of Hobyo emerged as the commercial center and being its capital for the newly established Hiraab Imamate in the late 17th century. Hobyo served as a prosperous commercial centre for the Imamate. The agricultural centres of El Dher District, El Dher and Harardhere included the production of sorghum and beans, supplementing with herds of camels, cattle, goats and sheep. Livestock, hides and skin, whilst the aromatic woods and raisins were the primary exports as rice, other foodstuffs and clothes were imported. Merchants looking for exotic goods came to Hobyo to buy textiles, precious metals and pearls. The commercial goods harvested along the Shabelle river were brought to Hobyo for trade. Also, the increasing importance and rapid settlement of more southerly cities such as further boosted the prosperity of Hobyo, as more and more ships made their way down the Somali coast and stopped in Hobyo to trade and replenish their supplies. The economy of the Hawiye in the interior includes the predominant nomadic pastoralism, and to some extent, cultivation within agricultural settlements in the riverine area, as well as mercantile commerce along the urban coast. At various points throughout history, trade of modern and ancient commodities by the Hawiye through maritime routes included leather, cattle skin, slaves, ivory and ambergris. Soon afterwards, the entire region was snapped up by the fascists Italians and it led to the birth of a Modern Somalia. However, the Hiraab hereditary leadership has remained intact up to this day and enjoys a dominant influence in national Somali affairs."


Clan tree

Ali Jimale Ahmed outlines the Hawiye clan genealogical tree in ''The Invention of Somalia'': * Samaale ** Irir ***Hawiye ****Karanle ***** Kaariye Karanle ***** Gidir Karanle ***** Sixaawle Karanle ***** Murusade Karanle ****** Sabti ****** Foorculus **** Gugundhab

***** Baadicade ***** Jidle alias Murule]

***** Jijeele **** Gorgate ***** Hiraab ****** Mudulood *******Wacdaan ******* Moobleen ******* Ujajeen *******Abgaal ******** Harti *********Angonyar ********* Warsangeli *********Abokor ********Wabudhan *********Da'oud *********Reer Mattan *********Mohamed Muse ********Wa'esli *********Cabdiraxmaan *********Macalin Diblaawe ****** Duduble ****** Habar Gidir ******* Sacad ********Reer Ayaanle ********Reer Hilowle ********Reer Jalaf ******* Saleebaan ******* Cayr ******* Saruur ***** Silcis ***** Wadalaan **** Jambeelle ***** Hintire **** Xaskul **** Raarane


Notable Hawiye figures


Politicians

* Abdullahi Issa, Prime Minister of Somalia, 1954–1960 * Aden Abdullah Osman Daar, President of Somalia, 1960–1967 * Haji Farah Ali Omar, Deputy Prime Minister of Somalia, 1967–1969 * Hussein Kulmiye Afrah, Vice-President of Somalia, 1971–1976 * Ali Mahdi Muhammad, President of Somalia, 1991–1995 * Abdiqasim Salad Hassan, President of Somalia, 2000–2004 * Ali Mohammed Ghedi, Prime Minister of Somalia, 2004–2007 * Nur Hassan Hussein, Prime Minister of Somalia, 2007–2009 * Sharif Ahmed, President of Somalia, 2009–2012 * Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, President of Somalia, 2012–2017 * Abdirahman Janaqow, Somali leader, Deputy Chairman of the Islamic Courts Union of Somalia (ICU), Minister of Justice * Abdullahi Ahmed Addow, Somalia Ambassador to the United States, 1970–1980 * Abdi Mude Ibrahim, Current Lafey Constituency Kenyan Member of National Assembly/Parliament, 2017–2022 * Abukar Umar Adani, Islamist, Tycoon, Owner of the El-Ma`an Port which served as Mogadishu's temporary Port since its closure in 1995 * Bashir Raghe Shiiraar, Leader of the US-backed Alliance for Peace and the Fight Against International Terrorism * Shaaban Ali Issack , Former Kenyan Member of National Assembly/Parliament, Assistant Minister for Urban Development, 1995–2007 * Hassan Mohamed Hussein Mungab, Mayor of Mogadishu, Chief of the Somali Supreme Court, 2012–2016 * Mohamed Abdi Hassan, Entrepreneur, Chief Architect who captured the MV Sirius Star Ship, 2008 * Mohamed Afrah Qanyare, Politician, Businessman, Former Presidential Candidate in the 2004 elections * Mohamed Nur, Popular Mayor of Mogadishu, 2009–2012, famously nicknamed ''Tarzan'' * Mohamed Moallim Hassan, Politician who served as Minister of Fishery and Marine Resources of Somalia, 2010-2011 * Mohamed Hussein Ali, Former Kenyan Member of National Assembly/Parliament, 2007-2013 * Omar Macalim, Current Mandera Town Constituency Kenyan Member of National Assembly/Parliament, 2017-2022


Military personnel

* Daud Abdulle Hirsi, First Commander-In-Chief of the Somali National Forces in 1960, Commanding Officer of the 1964 Ethiopian–Somali Border War * Salaad Gabeyre Kediye, Brigadier General, Father of the 1969 ''Kacaan'' Revolution * Mohamed Farrah Aidid, General, Chairman and Commanding Officer of the United Somali Congress that toppled Dictator Siad Barre and battled US Delta forces, 1987–1994 * Ahmed Maxamed Xasan, Lieutenant Colonel who famously refused government orders to bomb Hargeisa in the lead up to the Civil War, 1988–1991 * Abdi Hasan Awale Qeybdiid, Longest reigning Police Commissioner, dubbed ''Tiger Abdi'' in the infamous Battle of Mogadishu (1993), Black Hawk Down * Hassan Dahir Aweys, Decorated Colonel of the Ogaden War, Founder of the Islamic Courts Union


Leading intellectuals

* Hussein Sheikh Ahmed Kaddare, Linguist, Author of the Kaddariya script, 1952 * Ismail Jim'ale Osoble, Lawyer, Minister of Information 1967–1969, Author of the Somali Manifesto of 1990 * Abdi Mohamed Ulusso, Writer, 2004 Presidential Candidate * Abdirahman Yabarow, Editor-in-Chief of the VOA Somali Service * Abdulkadir Yahya Ali, Peace Activist, Founder of the Center for Research and Dialogue * Ali Jimale, Educator at the City University of New York * Ali Sheikh Ahmed, Dual President of Mogadishu University and Al-Islaah * Elman Ali Ahmed, Entrepreneur and Social Activist * Hilowle Imam Omar, Chairman of the Somali Civil War Reconciliation Program * Hussein Ali Shido, Founding member of the United Somali Congress * Ibrahim Hassan Addou, Former Professor of Washington University, Foreign Minister of the Islamic Courts Union in 2006 * Sheikh Omar Iman Abubakar, Professor and Researcher in Hadith Studies, Chairman of Hizbul Islam


Music and literature

* Abdi Bashiir Indhobuur, Poet and Composer * Abdulle Geedannaar, Poet * Hasan Adan Samatar, Famous Musician in the 1970s and 1980s * K'naan, Somali-Canadian Poet, Rapper and Musician * Magool (Halima Khalif Omar), Musician


Political factions and organizations

* Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism (ARPCT) a Somali alliance created by various faction leaders and entrepreneurs * Hizbul Shabaab, the Youth Movement wing of the ICU before ceding the organisation to Aden Hashi Farah "Eyrow" * Islamic Courts Union (ICU), a rival administration to the Transitional Federal Government. * Juba Valley Alliance (JVA), primary opponent of the Somali Patriotic Movement * Somali National Alliance (SNA), formed by Mohamed Farrah Aidid * Somali Salvation Army (SSA), the Ali Mahdi Muhammad branch of the United Somali Congress * United Somali Congress (USC), formed in 1987, played a leading role in the ouster of the dictatorship


See also

* Somali aristocratic and court titles


References

{{Somali clans Hawiye clan, Somali clans in Ethiopia