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The MUROMACHI PERIOD (室町時代, _Muromachi jidai_, also known as the MUROMACHI ERA, the ASHIKAGA ERA, or the ASHIKAGA PERIOD) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. The period marks the governance of the Muromachi or Ashikaga shogunate (_Muromachi bakufu_ or _Ashikaga bakufu_), which was officially established in 1338 by the first Muromachi shogun , Ashikaga Takauji , two years after the brief Kenmu Restoration (1333–36) of imperial rule was brought to a close. The period ended in 1573 when the 15th and last shogun of this line, Ashikaga Yoshiaki , was driven out of the capital in Kyoto by Oda Nobunaga .

From a cultural perspective, the period can be divided into the Kitayama and Higashiyama periods (later 15th – early 16th centuries).

The early years from 1336 to 1392 of the Muromachi period are known as the _Nanboku-chō _ or Northern and Southern Court period. This period is marked by the continued resistance of the supporters of Emperor Go-Daigo , the emperor behind the Kenmu Restoration . The years from 1465 to the end of the Muromachi period are also known as the Sengoku period or Warring States period.

CONTENTS

* 1 Muromachi bakufu

* 2 Economic and cultural developments

* 2.1 Zen Buddhism * 2.2 Shinto

* 3 Provincial wars and foreign contacts

* 3.1 Economic effect of wars between states * 3.2 Western influence * 3.3 Christianity

* 4 Events * 5 See also * 6 References

MUROMACHI BAKUFU

Hana-no-gosho palace

Emperor Go-Daigo 's brief attempt to restore the imperial power in the Kenmu Restoration alienated the samurai class. Ashikaga Takauji obtained the samurai's strong support, and deposed Emperor Go-Daigo. In 1338 Takauji was proclaimed shogun and established his government in Kyoto . However, Emperor Godaigo escaped from his confinement and revived his political power in Nara . The ensuing period of Ashikaga rule (1336–1573) was called Muromachi from the district of Kyoto in which its headquarters – the _Hana-no-gosho_ (花の御所, Flower Palace) – were located by third shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu in 1378. What distinguished the Ashikaga shogunate from that of Kamakura was that, whereas Kamakura had existed in equilibrium with the imperial court, Ashikaga took over the remnants of the imperial government. Nevertheless, the Ashikaga shogunate was not as strong as that in Kamakura had been, and was greatly preoccupied with civil war. Not until the rule of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (as shogun, 1368–94, and chancellor, 1394–1408) did a semblance of order emerge. Muromachi samurai (1538)

Yoshimitsu allowed the constables, who had had limited powers during the Kamakura period, to become strong regional rulers, later called _daimyō _. In time, a balance of power evolved between the shogun and the daimyō; the three most prominent daimyō families rotated as deputies to the shogun at Kyoto. Yoshimitsu was finally successful in reunifying the Northern and Southern courts in 1392, but, despite his promise of greater balance between the imperial lines, the Northern Court maintained control over the throne thereafter. The line of shoguns gradually weakened after Yoshimitsu and increasingly lost power to the daimyō and other regional strongmen. The shogun's influence on imperial succession waned, and the daimyō could back their own candidates.

In time, the Ashikaga family had its own succession problems, resulting finally in the Ōnin War (1467–77), which left Kyoto devastated and effectively ended the national authority of the _bakufu_. The power vacuum that ensued launched a century of anarchy (see Provincial Wars and Foreign Contacts ).

ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS

A ship of the Muromachi period (1538)

The Japanese contact with the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) began when China was renewed during the Muromachi period after the Chinese sought support in suppressing Japanese pirates in coastal areas of China. Japanese pirates of this era and region were referred to as _wokou _ by the Chinese (Japanese _wakō_). Wanting to improve relations with China and to rid Japan of the wokou threat, Yoshimitsu accepted a relationship with the Chinese that was to last for half a century. In 1401 he restarted the tribute system, describing himself in a letter to the Chinese Emperor as "Your subject, the King of Japan". Japanese wood, sulfur, copper ore, swords, and folding fans were traded for Chinese silk, porcelain, books, and coins, in what the Chinese considered tribute but the Japanese saw as profitable trade.

During the time of the Ashikaga bakufu, a new national culture, called Muromachi culture, emerged from the bakufu headquarters in Kyoto to reach all levels of society, strongly influenced by Zen Buddhism.

ZEN BUDDHISM

Zen played a central role in spreading not only religious teachings and practices but also art and culture, including influences derived from paintings of the Chinese Song (960-1279), Yuan , and Ming dynasties. The proximity of the imperial court to the bakufu resulted in a commingling of imperial family members, courtiers, daimyō, samurai, and Zen priests. Art of all kinds—architecture, literature, Noh drama, Kyōgen (comedy) , poetry, sarugaku (folk entertainment) , the tea ceremony , landscape gardening, and flower arranging—all flourished during Muromachi times.

SHINTO

Music scene during the Muromachi period (1538)

There was renewed interest in Shinto , which had quietly coexisted with Buddhism during the centuries of the latter's predominance. Shinto, which lacked its own scriptures and had few prayers, had, as a result of syncretic practices begun in the Nara period, widely adopted Shingon Buddhist rituals. Between the eighth and fourteenth centuries, Shintoism was nearly totally absorbed by Buddhism, becoming known as Ryōbu Shinto (Dual Shinto).

The Mongol invasions in the late thirteenth century, however, evoked a national consciousness of the role of the kamikaze in defeating the enemy. Less than fifty years later (1339–43), Kitabatake Chikafusa (1293–1354), the chief commander of the Southern Court forces, wrote the _ Jinnō Shōtōki _. This chronicle emphasized the importance of maintaining the divine descent of the imperial line from Amaterasu to the current emperor, a condition that gave Japan a special national polity (kokutai ). Besides reinforcing the concept of the emperor as a deity, the _Jinnōshōtōki_ provided a Shinto view of history, which stressed the divine nature of all Japanese and the country's spiritual supremacy over China and India.

PROVINCIAL WARS AND FOREIGN CONTACTS

The Ōnin War (1467–77) led to serious political fragmentation and obliteration of domains: a great struggle for land and power ensued among _bushi_ chieftains and lasted until the mid-sixteenth century. Peasants rose against their landlords and samurai against their overlords as central control virtually disappeared. The imperial house was left impoverished, and the _bakufu_ was controlled by contending chieftains in Kyoto. The provincial domains that emerged after the Ōnin War were smaller and easier to control. Many new small _daimyō_ arose from among the samurai who had overthrown their great overlords. Border defenses were improved, and well fortified castle towns were built to protect the newly opened domains, for which land surveys were made, roads built, and mines opened. New house laws provided practical means of administration, stressing duties and rules of behavior. Emphasis was put on success in war, estate management, and finance. Threatening alliances were guarded against through strict marriage rules. Aristocratic society was overwhelmingly military in character. The rest of society was controlled in a system of vassalage. The _shōen _ (feudal manors) were obliterated, and court nobles and absentee landlords were dispossessed. The new daimyō directly controlled the land, keeping the peasantry in permanent serfdom in exchange for protection.

ECONOMIC EFFECT OF WARS BETWEEN STATES

Most wars of the period were short and localized, although they occurred throughout Japan. By 1500 the entire country was engulfed in civil wars. Rather than disrupting the local economies, however, the frequent movement of armies stimulated the growth of transportation and communications, which in turn provided additional revenues from customs and tolls. To avoid such fees, commerce shifted to the central region, which no daimyō had been able to control, and to the Inland Sea . Economic developments and the desire to protect trade achievements brought about the establishment of merchant and artisan guilds.

WESTERN INFLUENCE

Main article: Nanban trade Nanban ships arriving for trade in Japan. 16th-century painting.

By the end of the Muromachi period, the first Europeans had arrived. The Portuguese landed in Tanegashima south of Kyūshū in 1543 and within two years were making regular port calls, initiating the century-long Nanban trade period . The Spanish arrived in 1587, followed by the Dutch in 1609. The Japanese began to attempt studies of European civilization in depth, and new opportunities were presented for the economy, along with serious political challenges. European firearms, fabrics, glassware, clocks, tobacco, and other Western innovations were traded for Japanese gold and silver. Significant wealth was accumulated through trade, and lesser daimyō, especially in Kyūshū, greatly increased their power. Provincial wars became more deadly with the introduction of firearms, such as muskets and cannons, and greater use of infantry.

CHRISTIANITY

Main article: Kirishitan A Japanese votive altar, Nanban style. End of 16th century. Guimet Museum .

Christianity affected Japan, largely through the efforts of the Jesuits , led first by the Spanish Francis Xavier (1506–1552), who arrived in Kagoshima in southern Kyūshū in 1549. Both daimyō and merchants seeking better trade arrangements as well as peasants were among the converts. By 1560 Kyoto had become another major area of missionary activity in Japan. In 1568 the port of Nagasaki , in northwestern Kyūshū, was established by a Christian daimyō and was turned over to Jesuit administration in 1579. By 1582 there were as many as 150,000 converts (two percent of the population) and 200 churches. But _bakufu_ tolerance for this alien influence diminished as the country became more unified and openness decreased. Proscriptions against Christianity began in 1587 and outright persecutions in 1597. Although foreign trade was still encouraged, it was closely regulated, and by 1640, in the Edo period , the exclusion and suppression of Christianity became national policy.

EVENTS

* 1336: Ashikaga Takauji captures Kyoto and forces Emperor Daigo II to move to a southern court (Yoshino, south of Kyoto) * 1338: Ashikaga Takauji declares himself shogun, moves his capital into the Muromachi district of Kyoto and supports the northern court * 1392: The southern court surrenders to shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu and the empire is unified again * 1397: Kinkaku-ji is built by Ashikaga Yoshimitsu.

_ Ryōan-ji rock garden

* 1427: Edo is established * 1450: Ryōan-ji is built by Hosokawa Katsumoto . * 1467: The Ōnin War is split among feudal lords (daimyō) * 1489: Ginkaku-ji is built by Ashikaga Yoshimasa * 1543: Firearms are introduced by shipwrecked Portuguese * 1546: Hōjō Ujiyasu who had won the Battle of Kawagoe becomes ruler of the Kantō region * 1549: Catholic missionary Francis Xavier arrives in Japan * 1555: Mōri Motonari , who had won the Battle of Miyajima , becomes ruler of the Chūgoku region * 1560: Battle of Okehazama * 1568: The daimyō Oda Nobunaga enters Kyoto and ends the civil war

* 1570: The Archbishopric of Edo is established and the first Japanese Jesuits are ordained * 1570: Battle of Anegawa * 1573: Oda Nobunaga overthrows the Muromachi bakufu_ and extends his control over all of Japan :281

SEE ALSO

* Higashiyama period

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ Sansom, George (1961). _A History of Japan, 1334–1615_. Stanford University Press. p. 279. ISBN 0804705259 .

* This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/. - Japan

Preceded by _ Kenmu Restoration _ 1333–1336 History of Japan Muromachi period 1336–1573 Succeeded by _ Azuchi–Momoyama period _ 1568–1600

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Chronology, dates and paternity of the Ashikaga shoguns

Name ------------------------- Lived ------------------------- Reigned ------------------------- Son of -------------------------

1ST Takauji 1305–1358 1338–1358 Sadauji

2ND Yoshiakira 1330–1368 1358–1367 Takauji

3RD Yoshimitsu 1358–1408 1367–1395 Yoshiakira

4TH Yoshimochi 1386–1428 1395–1423 Yoshimitsu

5TH Yoshikazu 1407–1425 1423–1425 Yoshimochi

6TH Yoshinori 1394–1441 1428–1441 Yoshimitsu

7TH Yoshikatsu 1433–1443 1442–1443 Yoshinori

8TH Yoshimasa 1435–1490 1449–1474 Yoshinori

Name ------------------------- Lived ------------------------- Reigned ------------------------- Son of -------------------------

9TH Yoshihisa 1465–1489 1474–1489 Yoshimasa

10TH Yoshitane 1465–1522 1490–1493 1508–1521 Yoshimi

11TH Yoshizumi 1478–1513 1493–1508 Masatomo

12TH Yoshiharu 1510–1550 1521–1545 Yoshizumi

13TH Yoshiteru 1535–1565 1545–1565 Yoshiharu

14TH Yosihide 1538–1568 1564–1568 Yoshitsuna

15TH Yoshiaki 1537–1597 1568–1573 Yoshiharu

_

* Related topics: Muromachi period * Hana-no Gosho _ * Nijō Castle * Ashikaga clan * Seii Taishogun

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Ashikaga family tree

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TAKAUJI (1) 1305–1338–1358

YOSHIAKIRA (2) 1330–1358-1367–1368

YOSHIMITSU (3) 1358–1367-1395–1408

YOSHIMOCHI (4) 1386–1395-1423–1428

YOSHIKAZU (5) 1407–1423–1425

YOSHINORI (6) 1394–1428–1441

YOSHIKATSU (7) 1433–1442–1443 Masatomo 1435–1491

YOSHIMASA (8) 1435–1449-1474–1490

YOSHIMI 1439–1491

YOSHIZUMI (11) 1478–1493-1508–1513

YOSHIHISA (9) 1465–1474–1489

YOSHITANE (10) 1465–1490-1493+1508-1521–1522

YOSHIHARU (12) 1510–1521-1545–1550

YOSHITSUNA 1509–1573

YOSHITERU (13) 1535–1545–1565 YOSHIAKI (15) 1537–1568-1573–1597

YOSHIHIDE (14) 1538–1564–1568

NOTES:

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Yoshimasa's successors were Yoshihisa (son), Yoshitane (first adopted son) and Yoshizumi (second adopted son) * ^ The broken lines indicate adoptions within the shogunal clan

* v * t * e

Japan articles

HISTORY

CHRONOLOGY

* Prehistory

* Paleolithic

* Ancient history

* Jōmon * Yayoi * Kofun

* Antiquity history

* Asuka * Nara * Heian

* Post-antiquity history

* Kamakura * Muromachi * Azuchi–Momoyama * Edo

* Modern history

* Bakumatsu

* Empire of Japan

* Meiji * Taishō * Shōwa

* Post-war

* Post-occupation

* Heisei

BY TOPIC

* Economic * Education

* Military

* Naval * Imperial Army * Imperial Navy * Overseas actions

GEOGRAPHY

* Addresses * Archipelago * Cities * Districts * Earthquakes * Environment * Extreme points * Islands * Lakes * Prefectures * Regions * Rivers * Towns * Villages

POLITICS

* Constitution

* Pre-war

* Elections

* Emperor

* list

* Foreign relations

* Human rights

* LGBT

* Judiciary * Law * Law enforcement

* National Diet

* House of Councillors * House of Representatives

* Political parties

* Self-Defense Forces

* Air * Ground * Maritime

GOVERNMENT

* Cabinet * Fiscal policy * Foreign policy * Ministries

* Prime Minister

* list

* Deputy Prime Minister

ECONOMY

* Agriculture, forestry, fishing * Central bank * International rankings * Labor * Manufacturing

* Energy

* solar power

* Telecommunications * Transport * Yen (currency)

SOCIETY

* Crime * Demographics * Education * Etiquette * Gambling * Housing * Languages * Religion * Sexuality * Smoking

* Women

* Kyariaūman (career woman)

CULTURE

* Aesthetics * Anime (animation) / Manga (comics) * Architecture * Art * Bonsai (miniature trees) * Cinema * Cuisine * Festivals

* Folklore

* folktales

* Gardens * Geisha (hostess) * Games * Ikebana (flower arranging) * Kawaii ("cuteness") * Literature * Martial arts * Media * Music * Mythology * Names * Onsen (hot springs) / Sentō (bath house) * Sport * Tea ceremony * Television * Theatre

* Japan portal * Category * Commons * JP Phrase * JP Basic * WikiProject

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