It borders on Afghanistan to the south, China's Xinjiang region to the east, and Kyrgyzstan to the north. Within Tajikistan it borders to the west on four other GBAO districts and on the Region of Republican Subordination. Its administrative capital is Murghob (also known as Murghab). The population in Murghob district is 16,900 of which 4,000 were in Murghab town (1 January 2008 estimate).
The land is mostly a desolate plateau with scattered mountains, especially toward the east and south. The highest mountains are around the Fedchenko Glacier in the northwest and along the Pamir River in the south. The population is mostly Kyrgyz. Formerly the land was used mostly as summer pasture ('jailoo'). The Pamir Highway curves from the southwest to the northeast. The four major lakes are Karakul in the northeast and three river lakes: Sarez Lake on the Bartang River, Yashil Kul on the Gunt River, and Zorkul on the Pamir River. The people of this region are extremely welcoming to visitors and are truly warm, open hearted individuals.