Murata rifle (村田銃, Murata jū) was the first indigenously
produced Japanese service rifle adopted in 1880 as the Meiji Type 13
Murata single-shot rifle. The 13 referred to the adoption date, the
year 13 in the
Meiji period according to the Japanese calendar.
2 Combat history
4.1 Non-State actors
5 See also
7 External links
The development of the weapon was lengthy as it involved the
establishment of an adequate industrial structure to support it.
Before producing local weapons, the early Imperial
Japan Army had been
relying on various imports since the time of the Boshin War, and
especially on the French Chassepot, the British
Snider-Enfield and the
Spencer repeating rifle. This was about 300 years after Japan
developed its first guns, derived from Portuguese matchlock designs,
Tanegashima or "Nanban guns".
The combat experience of the
Boshin War emphasized the need for a
standardized design, and the Japanese Army was impressed with the
metallic-cartridge design of the French Gras rifle. The design was
invented by Major Murata Tsuneyoshi, an infantry officer in the
Japanese Imperial Army. Adopted in Emperor Meiji's thirteenth year
of reign, the rifle was designated as the model 13 and went into
production as the 11-millimeter Type 13 single-shot, bolt-action rifle
Superficial improvements such as components, bayonet lugs, and minor
configurations led to the redesignation of the Type 13 to the Type 18
rifle in 1885. Further modifications in the same year involving both
tubular and box magazines led to the Type 22 rifle, which used a
tubular magazine and was reduced to caliber 8mm. The Type 22 was the
first Japanese military rifle to utilize smokeless powder and entered
military service in 1889.
Three models of bayonets were produced for the rifles: Type 13 and
Type 18 which were used with the single-shot variants and Type 22
which were compatible with the repeater variants.
Japanese soldiers during the First Sino-Japanese War, equipped with
Murata rifle was the standard infantry weapon of the Imperial
Japanese Army during the
First Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) and in
the Boxer Rebellion. The
Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army was quick to recognize
that the design of even the improved Type 22 version of the Murata
rifle had many technical issues and flaws. Following the combat
experience of the First Sino-Japanese War, a decision was made to
replace it with the
Arisaka Type 30 rifle, which had been designed in
1898, and which also used the more modern smokeless powder. The rifle
performed well in any situation and terrain. However, due to
insufficient production, many of the reserve infantry units sent to
the front-lines during the latter stages of the
Russo-Japanese War of
1904–1905 continued to be equipped with the Murata Type 22 rifle.
Murata rifle was equipped and sold to the Philippines from
Japan and used by the Katipunero forces from 1896 to 1897 via arms
smuggling and later the Filipino troops under the Philippine
Revolutionary Army was fought against the Spanish Colonial forces
Philippine Revolution of 1896 to 1898 and the
Spanish–American War of 1898 and among the battle against the
American colonial forces during the
Philippine–American War of 1899
Type 13 (1880) preliminary model (11×60mmR). Bolt action,
Type 16 (1883) carbine (11×60mmR). Derived from Type 13, structurally
Type 18 (1885) final version (11×60mmR). Improved internal mechanisms
Type 22 (1889) smaller caliber repeater (8×53mmR). Tube magazine,
capacity of eight rounds.
Type 22 carbine (1889) carbine variant of original Type 22 (8×53mmR).
Tube magazine holds five rounds.
Civilian models (various) usually retired Type 13s and Type 18s; were
commonly converted to bolt action shotguns via omission of bayonet
lugs and rifling.
First Philippine Republic
Republic of China: Some Type 13s used by various warlord armies,
including the Fengtian Army.
Katipunan: Some smuggled into Spanish Philippines. 100,000 Muratas
provided through a loan.
Firearms of Japan
Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army Service Rifle
^ "Japanese MURATA Type 13 (M.1880)". MilitaryRifles.com. 2008-08-28.
^ a b Rifles of the World John Walter, p.88
^ a b Honeycutt & Anthony p. 8
^ Honeycutt & Anthony p. 16
^ a b Kowner, Rotem (2006). Historical Dictionary of the
Russo-Japanese War. Scarecrow. ISBN 0-8108-4927-5. p. 247.
^ a b https://thedailyguardian.net/option/arrests-in-october/
^ a b Rifles David Westwood, p.370
^ Affairs in the Philippine Islands. Hearings before the Committee.
June 28, 1902. p. 1687.
^ Chinese Warlord Armies 1911–30 by Philip Jowett, page 22.
Honeycutt Jr., Fred L. and Anthony, Patt F. Military Rifles of Japan.
Fifth Edition, 2006. Julin Books, U.S.A. ISBN 0-9623208-7-0.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Murata rifle.
Murata Type 13 rifle
Murata Type 18 rifle