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Murad II
Murad II
(June 1404 – 3 February 1451) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānī, Turkish:II. Murat) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1421 to 1444 and 1446 to 1451. Murad II's reign was marked by the long war he fought against the Christian
Christian
feudal lords of the Balkans
Balkans
and the Turkish beyliks in Anatolia, a conflict that lasted 25 years. He was brought up in Amasya, and ascended the throne on the death of his father Mehmed I. His mother was Valide Sultan
Sultan
Emine Hatun
Emine Hatun
(daughter of Suleyman Bey, ruler of Dulkadirids), his father's third consort. Their marriage served as an alliance between the Ottomans and this buffer state, and produced a son, Mehmed II, who would go on to successfully conquer the Byzantine Empire's capital, Constantinople, in 1453.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Sultan 3 Murad II
Murad II
as Ghazi Sultan 4 Family 5 Portrayals 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Early life[edit]

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Murad was born in June 1404 to Sultan
Sultan
Mehmed I
Mehmed I
and his wife Emine Hatun, and he spent his early childhood in Amasya. In 1410, Murad came along with his father to the Ottoman capital, Edirne. After his father ascended to the Ottoman throne, he made Murad governor of the Amasya Sanjak. Murad remained at Amasya
Amasya
until the death of Mehmed I
Mehmed I
in 1421. He was solemnly recognized as sultan of the Ottoman Sultanate
Ottoman Sultanate
at sixteen years of age, girded with the sabre of Osman at Bursa, and the troops and officers of the state willingly paid homage to him as their sovereign. Sultan[edit]

Sultan
Sultan
Murad II
Murad II
at archery practice (miniature painting from 1584)

Murad's reign was troubled by insurrection early on. The Byzantine Emperor, Manuel II, released the 'pretender'[1] Mustafa Çelebi
Mustafa Çelebi
(known as Düzmece Mustafa) from confinement and acknowledged him as the legitimate heir to the throne of Bayezid I
Bayezid I
(1389–1402). The Byzantine Emperor had first secured a stipulation that Mustafa should, if successful, repay him for his liberation by giving up a large number of important cities. The pretender was landed by the Byzantine galleys in the European dominion of the sultan and for a time made rapid progress. Many Turkish soldiers joined him, and he defeated and killed the veteran general Beyazid Pasha, whom Murad had sent to fight him. Mustafa defeated Murad's army and declared himself Sultan
Sultan
of Adrianople (modern Edirne). He then crossed the Dardanelles
Dardanelles
to Asia with a large army; but the young Sultan
Sultan
showed in this emergency that he possessed military and political abilities worthy of his best ancestors. Mustafa was out-manoeuvered in the middle of the field, and his troops, whose confidence in his person and cause he had lost by his violence and incapacity, passed over in large numbers to Murad II. Mustafa took refuge in the city of Gallipoli, but the sultan, who was greatly aided by a Genoese commander named Adorno, besieged him there and stormed the place. Mustafa was taken and put to death by the sultan, who then turned his arms against the Roman emperor and declared his resolution to punish the Palaiologos
Palaiologos
for their unprovoked enmity by the capture of Constantinople.

Murad II
Murad II
and John Hunyadi

Murad II
Murad II
then formed a new army called Azap
Azap
in 1421 and marched through the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and laid siege to Constantinople. While Murad was besieging the city, the Byzantines, in league with some independent Turkish Anatolian states, sent the sultan's younger brother Küçük Mustafa
Küçük Mustafa
(who was only 13 years old) to rebel against the sultan and besiege Bursa. Murad had to abandon the siege of Constantinople
Constantinople
in order to deal with his rebellious brother. He caught Prince Mustafa and executed him. The Anatolian states that had been constantly plotting against him — Aydinids, Germiyanids, Menteshe and Teke — were annexed and henceforth became part of the Ottoman Sultanate. Murad II
Murad II
then declared war against Venice, the Karamanid
Karamanid
Emirate, Serbia
Serbia
and Hungary. The Karamanids were defeated in 1428 and Venice withdrew in 1432 following the defeat at the second Siege of Thessalonica in 1430. In the 1430s Murad captured vast territories in the Balkans
Balkans
and succeeded in annexing Serbia
Serbia
in 1439. In 1441 the Holy Roman Empire and Poland
Poland
joined the Serbian-Hungarian coalition. Murad II won the Battle of Varna
Battle of Varna
in 1444 against János Hunyadi. Murad II
Murad II
relinquished his throne[2] in 1444 to his son Mehmed II, but a Janissary
Janissary
revolt[3] in the Empire forced him to return. In 1448 he defeated the Christian
Christian
coalition at the Second Battle of Kosovo (the first one took place in 1389). When the Balkan
Balkan
front was secured, Murad II
Murad II
turned east to defeat Timur's son, Shah Rokh, and the emirates of Karamanid
Karamanid
and Çorum-Amasya. In 1450 Murad II
Murad II
led his army into Albania
Albania
and unsuccessfully besieged the Castle of Kruje
Kruje
in an effort to defeat the resistance led by Skanderbeg. In the winter of 1450–1451, Murad II
Murad II
fell ill, and died in Edirne. He was succeeded by his son Mehmed II
Mehmed II
(1451–81). Murad II
Murad II
as Ghazi Sultan[edit] When Murad II
Murad II
ascended to the throne, he sought to regain the lost Ottoman territories that had reverted back to autonomy following his grandfather Bayezid I’s defeat at the Battle of Ankara
Battle of Ankara
in 1402 at the hands of Timur
Timur
Lang. He needed the support of both the public and the nobles “who would enable him to exercise his rule”, and utilized the old and potent Islamic trope of Ghazi King.[4] In order to gain popular, international support for his conquests, Murad II
Murad II
modeled himself after the legendary Ghazi kings of old. The Ottomans already presented themselves as ghazis, painting their origins as rising from the ghazas of Osman, the founder of the dynasty. For them, ghaza was the noble championing of Islam and justice against non-Muslims and Muslims alike, if they were cruel; for example, Bayezid I
Bayezid I
labeled Timur
Timur
Lang, also a Muslim, an apostate prior to the Battle of Ankara
Battle of Ankara
because of the violence his troops had committed upon innocent civilians and because “all you do is to break promises and vows, shed blood, and violate the honor of women.”[5] Murad II
Murad II
only had to capitalize on this dynastic inheritance of doing ghaza, which he did by actively crafting the public image of Ghazi Sultan. After his accession, there was a flurry of translating and compiling activity where old Persian, Arab, and Anatolian epics were translated into Turkish so Murad II
Murad II
could uncover the ghazi king legends.[5] He drew from the noble behavior of the nameless Caliphs in the Battalname, an epic about a fictional Arab warrior who fought against the Byzantines, and modelled his actions on theirs.[5] He was careful to embody the simplicity, piety, and noble sense of justice that was part of the Ghazi King persona. For example, the Caliph
Caliph
in Battalname saw the battle turning in his enemy’s favor, and got down from his horse and prayed, after which the battle ended in a victory for him. In the Battle of Varna
Battle of Varna
in 1444, Murad II
Murad II
saw the Hungarians gaining the upper hand, and he got down from his horse and prayed just like the Caliph, and soon after, the tide turned in the Ottoman’s favor and the Hungarian king Wladyslaw was killed.[5][4] Similarly, the Caliph
Caliph
in the epic roused his warriors by saying “Those of you who die will be martyrs. Those of you who kill will be ghazis”; before the Battle of Varna, Murad II repeated these words to his army, saying “Those of us who kill will be ghazis; those of us who die will be martyrs.”[5] In another instance, since the Ghazi King is meant to be a just and fair, when Murad took Thessalonica in the Balkans, he took care to keep the troops in check and prevented widespread looting.[4] Finally, just as the fictional Caliph’s ghazas were immortalized in Battalname, Murad II’s battles and victories were also compiled and given the title "The Ghazas of Sultan
Sultan
Murad" (Gazavat- i Sultan
Sultan
Murad).[5] Murad II
Murad II
successfully painted himself as a simple soldier who did not partake in royal excesses, and as a noble ghazi sultan who sought to consolidate Muslim power against non-Muslims such as the Venetians and Hungarians. Through this self-presentation, he got the support of the Muslim population of not only the Ottoman territories, for both himself and his extensive, expensive campaigns, but also the greater Muslim populations in the Dar-al-Islam – such as the Mamluks and the Muslim Delhi Sultanates of India. Murad II
Murad II
was basically presenting himself not only as “a ghazi king who fights caffres [nonmuslims], but also serves as protector and master of lesser ghazis.”[5] Family[edit]

Consorts

Murad II
Murad II
had four known wives:

Yeni Hatun, daughter of Şadgeldi Paşazade Mustafa Bey of the Kutluşah of Amasya[6] Halime Hatun, daughter of Izzeddin Isfendiyar Bey, the ruler of Isfendiyarids[7] Hüma Hatun;[8] Despina Hatun (m.1435), the daughter of Đurađ Branković
Đurađ Branković
of Serbia;[9]

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Sons

Murad had five sons:

Ahmed Çelebi (1419 – 1437, buried in Muradiye Complex, Bursa); Alaeddin Ali Çelebi (1425 – 1443, buried in Muradiye Complex, Bursa); Mehmed the Conqueror
Mehmed the Conqueror
(1431 – 3 May 1481, buried in Fatih Mosque, Istanbul) – with Hüma Hatun; Orhan
Orhan
Çelebi (died 1441, buried in Darülhadis Mausoleum, Edirne); Hasan Çelebi (1450 – 18 February 1451, buried in Darülhadis Türbesi) – with Halime Hatun;

Daughters

Murad had four daughters:

Erhundu Hatun, married to Damat Yakub Bey; Şehzade Hatun (buried in Muradiye Complex, Bursa), married to Damat Sinan Bey; Fatma Hatun (buried in Muradiye Complex, Bursa) – with Hüma Hatun, married to Damat Mahmud Çelebi, son of Çandırlı Ibrahim Pasha; Hatice Hatun (buried in Muradiye Complex, Bursa), married Damat Isa Bey.

Portrayals[edit] Murad II
Murad II
is portrayed by İlker Kurt in 2012 film Fetih 1453. He was also portrayed by Vahram Papazian
Vahram Papazian
in the Albanian movie The Great Warrior Skanderbeg
Skanderbeg
in 1953. References[edit]

^ Finkel, C., Osman's Dream:The History of the Ottoman Empire, Osman 2005, pp.43, Basic Books ^ " Murad II
Murad II
Ottoman sultan". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-01-20.  ^ Kafadar, Cemal, Between Two Worlds, University of California Press, 1996, p xix. ISBN 0-520-20600-2 ^ a b c Finkel, Caroline (2007). Osman's Dream. New York and London: Basic Books. pp. 39, 41, 46.  ^ a b c d e f g Anooshahr, Ali (2009). The Ghazi Sultans and the Frontiers of Islam. New York and London: Routledge. pp. 123, 142, 143, 150, 151, 164.  ^ Franz Babinger, Mehmed the Conqueror
Mehmed the Conqueror
and His Time, (Princeton University Press, 1978), 14. ^ Necdet Sakaoğlu, Famous Ottoman Women, (Avea, 2007), 40. ^ Murat Iyigun, War, Peace, and Prosperity in the Name of God, (University of Chicago Press, 2015), 119. ^ Peter F. Sugar, A History of East Central Europe:Southeastern Europe under Ottoman Rule, 1354-1804, Vol. 5, (University of Washington Press, 1996), 16.

Attribution

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Creasy, Edward (1878). History of the Ottoman Turks; From the beginning of their empire to the present time. 

Further reading[edit]

Babinger, Franz, Mehmed the Conqueror
Mehmed the Conqueror
and his Time. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1978. ISBN 0-691-01078-1 Harris, Jonathan, The End of Byzantium. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-300-11786-8 Imber, Colin, The Ottoman Empire. London: Palgrave/Macmillan, 2002. ISBN 0-333-61387-2

External links[edit] Media related to Murad II
Murad II
at Wikimedia Commons

Encyclopædia Britannica

Murad II House of Osman Born: 1404 Died: 3 February 1451

Regnal titles

Preceded by Mehmed I Ottoman Sultan 26 May 1421 – 1444 Succeeded by Mehmed II

Preceded by Mehmed II Ottoman Sultan 1446 – 3 February 1451

v t e

Ottoman Sultans / Caliphs

Dynasty Family tree (detailed) Family tree (simplified) Line of succession

Osman I Orhan Murad I Bayezid I Interregnum Mehmed I Murad II Mehmed II Murad II Mehmed II Bayezid II Selim I Suleiman I Selim II Murad III Mehmed III Ahmed I Mustafa I Osman II Mustafa I Murad IV Ibrahim Mehmed IV Suleiman II Ahmed II Mustafa II Ahmed III Mahmud I Osman III Mustafa III Abdul Hamid I Selim III Mustafa IV Mahmud II Abdulmejid I Abdülaziz Murad V Abdul Hamid II Mehmed V Mehmed VI Abdulmejid II
Abdulmejid II
( Caliph
Caliph
only)

§ First Ottoman caliph

Book Category

Related templates: Claimants Valide Sultans

v t e

Ottoman princes

1st generation

Alaeddin Pasha Orhan

2nd generation

Süleyman Pasha Murad I Şehzade Halil

3rd generation

Savcı Bey Bayezid I

4th generation

Süleyman Çelebi İsa Çelebi Mehmed I Musa Çelebi Mustafa Çelebi

5th generation

Murad II Küçük Mustafa

6th generation

Mehmed the Conqueror

7th generation

Bayezid II Sultan
Sultan
Cem

8th generation

Şehzade Ahmet Şehzade Korkut Selim I

9th generation

Suleiman the Magnificent

10th generation

Şehzade Mustafa Şehzade Mehmed Şehzade Abdullah Selim II Şehzade Bayezid Şehzade Cihangir

11th generation

Murad III

12th generation

Mehmed III Sultan
Sultan
Yahya

13th generation

Şehzade Mahmud Ahmed I Mustafa I

14th generation

Osman II Murad IV Ibrahim

15th generation

Şehzade Ömer Mehmed IV Suleiman II Ahmed II

16th generation

Mustafa II Ahmed III

17th generation

Mahmud I Osman III Mustafa III Abdul Hamid I

18th generation

Selim III Mustafa IV Mahmud II

19th generation

Abdulmejid I Abdulaziz

20th generation

Abdul Hamid II Murad V Mehmed V Şehzade Ahmed Kemaleddin Mehmed VI Şehzade Yusuf Izzeddin Abdulmejid II

21st generation

Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Selaheddin Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Selim Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Abdülkadir Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Abid Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Ziyaeddin Şehzade Ömer
Şehzade Ömer
Hilmi

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 13613380 LCCN: n80089157 ISNI: 0000 0000 8426 9728 GND: 124745105 BNF: cb16634563w (data)

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