Municipalities of Western Macedonia
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A municipality is usually a single
administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for geographical areas into which a particular ...

administrative division
having
corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal person, legal ...
status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. The term ''municipality'' may also mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a
special-purpose district Special districts (also known as special service districts, special district governments, limited purpose entities, or special-purpose districts) are independent, special-purpose governmental units that exist separately from local governments such ...
. The term is derived from
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of co ...

French
''municipalité'' and
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...
''municipalis''. The
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication use ...

English
word ''municipality'' derives from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
social contract In moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or ...
''
municipium Municipium (pl. municipia) is the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through t ...
'' (derived from a word meaning "duty holders"), referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state (granting
Roman citizenship Citizenship Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recognize persons as its ...
to the inhabitants) while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments (a limited autonomy). A municipality can be any political
jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be i ...
from a sovereign state, such as the
Principality of Monaco Monaco (; ), officially the Principality of Monaco (french: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque Ligurian: ''Prinçipatu de Mu̍negu''), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. Th ...
, to a small village, such as
West Hampton Dunes, New York West Hampton Dunes is an Administrative divisions of New York#Village, incorporated village in the Southampton, New York, Town of Southampton on Westhampton Island, in Suffolk County, New York, Suffolk County, in New York (state), New York, United ...
. The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass * only one
populated place Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, country, or the world. Governments typically quantify the size of the resident population within their jurisdiction by a process called a c ...
such as a
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...

city
, town, or village * several of such places (e.g., early jurisdictions in the U.S. state of New Jersey (1798–1899) as Township (New Jersey), townships governing several villages, Municipalities of Mexico, Municipalities of Colombia) * only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile.


Political powers

Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the State (polity), state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, and corporate income tax, but may also receive substantial funding from the state. In some European countries, such as Germany, municipalities have the constitutional right to Public service, supply public services through municipally-owned Public utility, public utility companies.


Terms in various countries


Municipality

Terms cognate with "municipality", mostly referring to territory or political structure, are Spanish ' (Spain) and ' (Chile), and Catalan '.


Communes

In many countries, terms cognate with "commune" are used, referring to the community living in the area and the common interest. These include terms: * in Romance languages, such as French ' (Communes of France, France, French-speaking areas of Belgium and Switzerland, French-speaking countries of Africa, e.g. Communes of Benin, Benin), Italian ', Romanian ', and Spanish ' (Communes of Chile, Chile); * in Germanic languages such as German ' (in political parlance), Swedish ', Faroese ', Norwegian, Danish '; * the more remote cognates ' in Dutch, ' in Luxembourgish and in German (the official term); * Finnish '. * Ukrainian '. * and Polish '. The same terms may be used for church congregations or parishes, for example, in the German and Dutch Protestant churches.


Other terms

In Greece, the word Δήμος (demos) is used, also meaning 'community'; the word is known in English from the compound ''democracy'' (rule of the people). In some countries, the Spanish term ', referring to a municipality's administration building, is extended via synecdoche to denote the municipality itself. In Communes of Moldova, Moldova and Communes of Romania, Romania, both ''municipalities'' (''municipiu''; urban administrative units) and ''communes'' (''comună''; rural units) exist, and a commune may be part of a municipality. In many countries, comparable entities may exist with various names.


English-speaking

*In Australia, the term local government area (LGA) is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are legally designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." *In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation, usually within general municipal statutes. Types of Lists of municipalities in Canada, municipalities within Canada include city, cities, District municipality, district municipalities, municipal districts, municipalities, Parish (administrative division), parishes, Rural municipality, rural municipalities, towns, townships, villages, and villes among others. The Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower, upper, and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include counties and regional municipalities. Nova Scotia also has regional municipalities, which include cities, counties, districts, or towns as municipal units. *In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika (Municipality), Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as previously Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were previously classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality even if their population was under 100,000. Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Generally, smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are also a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Seventy-fourth Amendment of the Constitution of India, Constitutional (74th Amendment) Act,1992. *In the Local government in the United Kingdom, United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, and until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town which is organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, and also for the governing body itself. Such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, and of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a ''district'', and in Scotland as a ''council area''. A ''district'' may be awarded ''borough'' or ''city'' status, or can retain its ''district'' title. *In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 Parishes of Jersey, parishes into which it is subdivided. This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. * In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is usually understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and later on, may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago, San Fernando, Port of Spain, Arima and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. *In the United States, "municipality" is usually understood as a city, town, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law context, some U.S. state codes define "municipality" more widely, from the state itself to any political subdivisions given jurisdiction over an area that may include multiple populated places and unpopulated places (see also: Local government in the United States#Municipal governments).


Chinese-speaking

*In the China, People's Republic of China, a administrative divisions of China, direct-administered municipality (直辖市 in pinyin: zhíxiáshì) is a municipality with equal status to a provinces of China, province: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, Chongqing, Chongqing Municipality, Shanghai, Shanghai Municipality, and Tianjin, Tianjin Municipality (see also: Direct-administered municipalities of China). *In the Taiwan, Republic of China (Taiwan), a administrative divisions of Taiwan, special municipality (直轄市 in pinyin: zhíxiáshì) is a municipality with equal status to a province: Kaohsiung, New Taipei City, New Taipei, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei, and Taoyuan, Taiwan, Taoyuan (see also: Special municipality (Taiwan)).


Municipalities by country

*In Portuguese language usage, there are two words to distinguish the territory and the administrative organ. When referring to the territory, the word ''concelho'' is used, when referring to the Organs of state, organ of State, the word ''município'' is used. This differentiation is in use in Portugal and some of its former overseas provinces, but it's no longer in use in Brazil.


See also

*Council of European Municipalities and Regions *Council–manager government *Creature of statute *Lists of municipalities *Mayor–council government *Municipal corporation *Municipal government * ''''


References


External links

* {{Authority control Types of administrative division Municipalities, Municipality Types of populated places