Municipalities in the Province of Pontevedra
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A municipality is usually a single having status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. The term ''municipality'' may also mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a . The term is derived from ''municipalité'' and ''municipalis''. The word ''municipality'' derives from the ' (derived from a word meaning "duty holders"), referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state (granting to the inhabitants) while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments (a limited autonomy). A municipality can be any political from a sovereign state, such as the , to a small village, such as . The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass * only one such as a , town, or village * several of such places (e.g., early jurisdictions in the of (1798–1899) as governing several villages, , ) * only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of , Chile.


Political powers

Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the . Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with , , and , but may also receive substantial funding from the state. In some European countries, such as Germany, municipalities have the constitutional right to through municipally-owned .


Terms in various countries


Municipality

Terms cognate with "municipality", mostly referring to territory or political structure, are Spanish ' (Spain) and ' (Chile), and Catalan '.


Communes

In many countries, terms cognate with "commune" are used, referring to the community living in the area and the common interest. These include terms: * in Romance languages, such as French ' (, French-speaking areas of Belgium and Switzerland, French-speaking countries of Africa, e.g. ), Italian ', Romanian ', and Spanish ' (); * in Germanic languages such as German ' (in political parlance), Swedish ', Faroese ', Norwegian, Danish '; * the more remote cognates ' in Dutch, ' in Luxembourgish and in German (the official term); * Finnish '. * Ukrainian '. * and Polish '. The same terms may be used for church congregations or parishes, for example, in the German and Dutch Protestant churches.


Other terms

In Greece, the word Δήμος (demos) is used, also meaning 'community'; the word is known in English from the compound ''democracy'' (rule of the people). In some countries, the Spanish term ', referring to a municipality's administration building, is extended via to denote the municipality itself. In and , both ''municipalities'' (''municipiu''; urban administrative units) and ''communes'' (''comună''; rural units) exist, and a commune may be part of a municipality. In many countries, comparable entities may exist with various names.


English-speaking

*In , the term (LGA) is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are legally designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." *In , municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation, usually within general municipal statutes. Types of include , , s, municipalities, , , s, s, s, and s among others. The Province of has different tiers of municipalities, including lower, upper, and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include counties and regional municipalities. also has regional municipalities, which include cities, counties, districts, or towns as municipal units. *In , a Municipality or is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as previously Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were previously classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality even if their population was under 100,000. Under the system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Generally, smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are also a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the . *In the , the term was used until the came into effect in 1974 in and , and until 1975 in and 1976 in , "both for a city or town which is organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, and also for the governing body itself. Such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, and of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a ''district'', and in Scotland as a ''council area''. A ''district'' may be awarded ''borough'' or ''city'' status, or can retain its ''district'' title. *In , a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 into which it is subdivided. This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. * In , "municipality" is usually understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and later on, may be upgraded to city status. , , , and are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. *In the , "municipality" is usually understood as a city, town, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law context, some U.S. state codes define "municipality" more widely, from the state itself to any political subdivisions given jurisdiction over an area that may include multiple populated places and unpopulated places (see also: ).


Chinese-speaking

*In the , a (直辖市 in : zhíxiáshì) is a municipality with equal status to a : , , , and (see also: ). *In the , a (直轄市 in : zhíxiáshì) is a municipality with equal status to a province: , , , , , and (see also: ).


Municipalities by country

*In Portuguese language usage, there are two words to distinguish the territory and the administrative organ. When referring to the territory, the word ' is used, when referring to the , the word ''município'' is used. This differentiation is in use in Portugal and some of its former overseas provinces, but it's no longer in use in Brazil.


See also

* * * * * * * * ''''


References


External links

* {{Authority control Types of populated places