Bombay Riots usually refers to the riots in Mumbai, in December
1992 and January 1993, in which around 900 people died. The
riots were mainly due to escalations of hostilities after large scale
protests (which were initially peaceful, but eventually turned
violent) by Muslims in reaction to the 1992 Babri Masjid Demolition by
Hindu Karsevaks in Ayodhya.
An investigative commission was formed under Justice B.N. Srikrishna,
but the recommendations of the Inquiry were not enacted.
Many scholars stated that the riots were pre-planned, and that the
Hindu rioters were granted access to information about the locations
of Muslim homes and businesses through sources that were not
public. The violence was widely reported as having been
orchestrated by the Shiv Sena, a
Hindu-nationalist political party in
Maharashtra. A high-ranking member of the special branch later
stated that the police were fully aware of the Shiv Sena's
capabilities to commit acts of violence, and that they had incited
hate against the minority communities. Historian Barbara Metcalf
has stated that the riots were anti-Muslim pogrom.
The riots were followed by the retaliatory 12 March 1993 Bombay
1.1 9 December 1992
1.2 10 December 1992
1.3 11 December 1992
1.4 12 December 1992
1.5 12 December 1992 to 5 January 1993
1.6 6 January 1993 to 20 January 1993
1.7 7 January 1993
1.8 8 January 1993
1.9 9 January 1993
1.10 10 January 1993
1.11 11 January 1993
1.12 12 January 1993
1.13 13 January 1993
1.14 14 January 1993
1.15 15 January 1993
1.16 16 January 1993
1.17 17 January 1993
1.18 18 January 1993
1.19 19 January 1993
1.20 The period subsequent to 20 January 1993
2 Total number of deaths
B.N. Srikrishna Commission
4 Arrests, convictions and verdict
5 In popular culture
The riots started as a result of communal tension prevailing in the
city after the Babri Mosque demolition on 6 December 1992. The
Shrikrishna Commission identified two phases to the riots. The first
was mainly a Muslim backlash as a result of the Babri Masjid
demolition in the week immediately succeeding 6 December 1992 led by
political leaders representing Hindutva in the city of Ayodhya. The
second phase was a
Hindu backlash occurring as a result of the
Hindu Mathadi Kamgar (workers) by Muslim fanatics in
Dongri (an area of South Bombay), stabbing of Hindus in Muslim
majority areas and burning of six Hindus, including a physically
handicapped girl in Radhabai Chawl. This phase occurred in January
1993, with most incidents reported between 6 and 20 January.
The Report asserted that the communal passions of the Hindus were
aroused to fever pitch by the inciting writings in print media,
particularly Saamna and Navaakal which gave exaggerated accounts of
the Mathadi murders and the Radhabai Chawl incident; rumours were
floated that there were imminent attacks by Muslims using
sophisticated arms, though the possibility of it happening was very
imminent.[clarification needed] From 8 January 1993, many riots
occurred between Hindus led by the
Shiv Sena and the Muslims funded by
Mumbai underworld at that time. The communal violence and rioting
triggered off by the burning at Dongri and Radhabhai Chawl and then
the retaliatory violence by
Shiv Sena was hijacked by local criminal
elements who saw in it an opportunity to make quick gains. By the time
the right wing
Shiv Sena realised that enough had
been done by way of "retaliation", the violence and rioting was beyond
the control of its leaders who had to issue an appeal to put an end to
The police had to resort to firing in 43 cases resulting in the death
of 11 Hindus, 31 Muslims and three others. There were several cases of
mob violence, stabbing and arson. One temple in Dharavi, one in
Deonar, one in Park Site and one in Saki Naka were attacked.
Simultaneously, two mosques in Dharavi, one madrasa in Mahim and
Bhoiwada each and one dargah in Dadar were also attacked.
Though the police found their resources stretched, they were unwilling
to take the help of army for carrying out operational duties. Army
columns were used only to carry out flag marches which had little
impact on the, by now hardened and emboldened, rioters. The imposition
of curfew from the night of 7 December 1992 also did not appear to
deter the clashing mobs in view of its effete enforcement. Police
intervention came about by resort to fire on 72 occasions, killing 15
Hindus and 72 Muslims and injuring 131 Muslims and one Christian.
9 December 1992
The situation improved for better and the number of cases of mob
violence, stabbing, arson and rioting showed a downward trend. The
number of occasions when the police had to resort to firing dropped to
28. The police firing resulted in deaths of 17 persons (five Hindus
and 12 Muslims) while 3 Hindus, 12 Muslims and six others sustained
injuries. Thirty–four cases of arson resulting in loss of property
and injuries to one
Hindu and 10 Muslims were reported from different
jurisdictions. One temple in Ghatkopar, 3 mosques in Trombay and one
kabrastan in Jogeshwari were subjected to attack by violent mobs.
10 December 1992
The situation improved further with the number of police stations
affected coming down to four, though serious communal riots occurred
Dharavi and Mahim police jurisdictions to control which the police
had to fire on three and two occasions respectively. Two Muslims were
injured in police firing within the jurisdiction of Mahim.
11 December 1992
On this day there was one case of private firing in Azad Maidan
jurisdiction in which one Muslim died and four Muslims were injured.
However, there was further improvement in overall situation. There was
no occasion for police to resort to firing, though 23 different police
stations appear to have been affected in varying degrees.
12 December 1992
The situation showed further improvement and the number of police
stations affected came down to 14, though there also the occurrences
were stray. There were three instances of police firing, one each in
Ghatkopar, Bhandup and Dindoshi in which one
Hindu and one Muslim were
injured. Mob violence took the toll of one life. There were six cases
of stabbing in which 1
Hindu and two Muslims died and one
one Muslim sustained injuries. There were eight stray cases of arson.
Four dead bodies, all of Muslims, having multiple stab wounds on vital
organs and in highly decomposed condition, were recovered from a
gutter in Golibar area.
In yet another incident, one was found murdered with her throat slit
and her body was dumped in the open compound of National Girls’ High
School adjoining Behrampada.
The December phase of the rioting petered out by 12 December 1992. The
police appeared to have regained grip on the law and order situation
and peace appeared to have returned. However, beneath the surface
there was simmering discontent and seething anger amongst the Muslims
that unduly excessive police firing had resulted in large number of
Muslim casualties. Media had criticised the police for having used
unnecessary and excessive fire–power, going so far as to suggest
that Muslims were intentionally targeted and selectively killed. This
refrain was repeated by political leaders and ministers, past and
current. The explanation of the commissioner of police that the
aggressive and violent mobs in the initial stages comprised Muslims
and therefore, Muslim casualties were higher. Considering it from all
aspects, the Commission was not inclined to give serious credence to
the theory that dis–proportionately large number of Muslim deaths in
December 1992 was necessarily indicative of an attempt on the part of
the police to target and liquidate Muslims because of bias.
12 December 1992 to 5 January 1993
On 20 December 1992, two Muslims were locked inside a room in Goregaon
jurisdiction, and the room was set on fire as a result of which they
suffered severe burns resulting in the death of one.
Two bodies, one of a male
Hindu and another identified as that of a
uniformed Muslim police constable attached to the Nasik Rural Police
Headquarters, were recovered from the septic tank of the public
latrine in Behrampada on 20 and 21 December 1992 respectively. These
bodies bore multiple stab injuries. It would appear that there was a
systematic attempt to stab and murder Hindus and the policeman, though
a Muslim, became a victim of the anger of the Muslims directed against
the uniform worn by him.
On 24/25 December 1992 one Mathadi worker was killed in Dongri area.
Though subsequent investigation by police resulted in arrest of the
accused who was an alcoholic and whose motive was far from communal,
at the material time the immediate reaction was that the killing was
done of a Muslim.
The fires under the simmering cauldron were continuously stoked by
communal activities even after the active phase of the December 1992
riots was over. There was a sudden spurt in attendance at Friday
namaaz in mosques, which was interpreted by the
Hindu as ominous and
evidencing intent to seek revenge on the part of Muslims. This was
because it was alleged that the namaaz were used as occasions for
delivering instigatory communal speeches. The Hindus replied with Maha
Hindu worship of the God), in an ostensible response
against the sudden spurt in namaaz on streets. The Maha aartis were
started from 26 December 1992 were viewed as a direct challenge to the
Muslims, and endangered the fragile peace which had been established,
with allegations that participants of the Maha aartis indulged in
rioting. The Maha aartis continued unabated throughout January 1993
and came to an end only by or about the first week of February 1993.
The last week of December 1992 and first week of January 1993,
particularly between 1 and 5 January, saw a series of stabbing
incidents in which both Hindus and Muslims were victims, though the
majority of such incidents took place in Muslim dominated areas of
South Bombay and a majority of victims were Hindus.
The stabbings appeared to be executed with professional accuracy
intended to kill the victims. The killers had not
been then identified in several cases, though it was presumed, at
least in the cases where the Hindus were victims, that the killers
were Muslims and vice versa. The motive for the stabbings appears to
have been to whip up communal frenzy between Hindus and Muslims. Some
of the Muslim criminal elements operating in South Bombay, like Salim
Rampuri and Firoz Konkani, have been identified as the brains behind
the stabbing incidents. That they were Muslim
criminals was publicised in the media, and it was general opinion that
the Muslims were keen on resuming aggression.
On 25 December 1992 a pamphlet in Urdu language was distributed around
Jama Masjid in Mahim area. This pamphlet was communally provocative
and incited Muslims to fight against Hindus and calls upon the Muslims
to the construct the Babri Masjid if necessary, with blood.
On 1 January 1993 there was an article in the
Shiv Sena mouthpiece,
Saamna under the caption "Hindunni Akramak Vhayala Have" (Hindus must
be aggressive now), openly inciting Hindus to violence.
On 2 January 1993 a number of Muslim hutments in M.P. Mill Compound in
Tardeo jurisdiction were set on fire. On the same day there was an
Dharavi jurisdiction in which two Muslims were assaulted
with iron rods by Hindus.
On 4 January 1993 a big mob of Hindus led by Gajanan Kirtikar, Ramesh
More and other
Shiv Sena activists took a morcha to the Jogeshwari
Police Station complaining of lack of security for Hindus. Some of the
people in the morcha attacked Chacha Nagar Masjid and the Muslims in
the vicinity and killed them. Several Muslim huts in Magdum Nagar in
Mahim jurisdiction were set on fire by Hindus.
On the night of 5 January 1993 a worker employed in the godown of
Vijay Transport Company who was sleeping in the godown went to the
street to relieve himself. Suddenly, he was set upon by miscreants who
stabbed him to death. Three more workers who came out of the godown to
help him were also stabbed to death. The murders of the workers
created tremendous tension in the area. The workers' Union called for
a Bandh. Huge meetings were held which were addressed by leaders of
Unions. Speeches were made during this meeting to condemn the police
and Government for their ineffectiveness with exhortations that Hindus
might have to pick up swords to defend themselves if the police failed
to protect them. At the time when these murders of workers took place,
neither the police, nor the public, had a clue as to the identity of
the killers, which came to be established much later. Nonetheless, the
Hindus spearheaded by the
Shiv Sena kicked up a furore that the
murders had been committed by Muslims, virtually giving a call for
arms, killing 10 Muslims. On 5/6 January 1993 the workers gave a call
for bandh of wholesale markets, which also gave immense publicity to
the murders of the workers allegedly by Muslims.
6 January 1993 to 20 January 1993
On 6 January 1993 there were several cases of stabbing in Dongri,
Pydhonie, V.P. Road and Nagpada jurisdictions in which the victims
were innocent pedestrians who were stabbed. Cases of stabbing, arson,
mob violence and attacks on private and Government properties occurred
in Dongri, Pydhonie, V.P. Road, Nagpada, Tardeo, Mahim, Dharavi,
Nirmal Nagar, Chembur and Kherwadi police stations. Most of the
stabbing cases occurred in isolated lanes and bye–lanes and by the
time police arrived on the scene, the miscreants would vanish. In all,
18 cases of stabbing were reported by the evening of this day of which
were from Pydhonie, two from Dharavi, two from V.P. Road, two from
Nagpada and one each from Nirmal Nagar, Kherwadi and Andheri. These
stabbing cases resulted in one Hindu, one Muslim and two others being
killed and 1 Hindu, one Muslim and one other being injured. Mob
violence accounted for the deaths of one
Hindu and one Muslim and
injuries to nine Hindus and eighteen Muslims. Rumours of further
imminent riots swept the city and the police were unable to scotch
them. Despite repeated denials of such rumours by the police, the
public did not believe them.
The situation in Mahim went out of control at 2100 hours. Hindus
attacked Muslims in Muslim pockets in Mahim area and killed them, led
Shiv Sena Corporator, Milind Vaidya, and a police constable, Sanjay
Gawade, openly carrying a sword. There were serious riots in which
frenzied mobs of Hindus and Muslims attacked each other.
7 January 1993
The violence and riots spread to several parts of the city. There were
more deaths and more stabbings and 16 police station areas (Pydhonie,
Dongri, Agripada, Gamdevi, V.P. Road, Byculla, Bhoiwada, Nagpada,
Kherwadi, Nehru Nagar, Kurla, Deonar, Trombay, Bandra, Vakola and
Jogeshwari) were affected by serious riots. The stabbing incidents
resulted in deaths of 16
Hindu and four Muslims and injured 3 Hindus
and twelve Muslims.
Eleven cases of mob violence occurred in different jurisdictional
areas, killing two Muslims and injuring two Hindus and two Muslims.
Seven cases of arson were reported on that day in which, apart from
huge property loss, two Muslims were killed; two Hindus and two
Muslims were injured. The police resorted to firing on four occasions,
resulting in injuries to 3 Hindus and 5 Muslims. Violent mobs of
Hindus and Muslims kept attacking each other and the police when they
tried to intervene.
The mobs also created roadblocks to prevent the police and
fire-brigade from reaching the sites of incidents for rendering
assistance. A taxi in which three Muslims were travelling was set on
Shiv Sena workers in Pratiksha Nagar, Antop Hill jurisdiction,
resulting in the 2 Muslims being burnt alive.
8 January 1993
A gruesome incident occurred during the wee hours of 8 January 1993,
at about 0030 hours, one of the
Hindu residences in a chawl popularly
known as Radhabai Chawl in Jogeshwari jurisdiction were locked from
outside and set on fire by miscreants. One male and two female members
Hindu family (Bane) were charred to death. One of the victims was
a physically handicapped girl.
Hindu backlash commenced. The communal riots spread to the
jurisdictions of Pydhonie, Dongri, Jogeshwari, M.R.A. Marg, L.T. Marg,
V.P. Road, D.B. Marg, Gamdevi, Nagpada, Agripada, Byculla, Kala
Chowki, N.M. Joshi Marg, Worli, Bhoiwada, Dadar, Mahim, Dharavi,
Kurla, Nehru Nagar, Trombay, Chembur, Bandra, Nirmal Nagar, Ghatkopar,
Vikhroli, Parksite, Vakola, Oshiwara, D.N. Nagar, Jogeshwari and Aarey
Sixty–six stabbing cases were reported from different jurisdictions,
in which 3 Hindu, 37 Muslims and two others were killed and injuries
caused to several Muslims. Forty–eight cases of mob violence
occurred in which sixteen Muslims were killed and 4 Hindus and 17
Muslims and one other received injuries. Thirty–one cases of arson
were reported which, apart from causing loss of property, resulted in
deaths of two Muslims and injuries to five Muslims and one Hindu.
A dargah and mosque in Pydhonie jurisdiction, a kabrastan and a
madrassa in Jogeshwari jurisdiction and a temple in Byculla
jurisdiction were attacked and damaged. Police resorted to firing on
31 occasions in different jurisdictions resulting in the killing of
six Hindus and 18 Muslims and injuries to 10 Hindus and 24 Muslims and
one other. Several raids conducted by the police resulted in seizure
of weapons of offence like broken tube lights, swords, petrol bombs
That the rioters had become defiant and the authority of the police
was considerably eroded, appeared clear when a crude bomb was hurled
at the police commissioner's car from one of the buildings in Pydhonie
jurisdiction and exploded on the road. The commissioner of police and
his staff had a lucky escape, though the severity of the explosion
caused a big dent on the road. Eleven army columns were deployed by
the police to do Flag March in different areas. Curfew was imposed in
areas where it was considered necessary.
9 January 1993
The riots continued unabated in 43 police station jurisdictions.
Fifty–seven cases of stabbing resulting in death of five Hindus and
18 Muslims and injuries to 7 Hindus, 41 Muslims and one other, were
reported. Ninety–seven cases of mob violence occurred in various
parts of the city resulting in the death of one
Hindu and sixteen
Muslims and injures to 9 Hindus and 24 Muslims. Seventy-three cases of
arson were reported from different jurisdictions which caused loss of
property, death of a
Hindu and six Muslims and injures to two Hindus
and six Muslims.
In Pydhonie jurisdiction, few rounds were fired at a police picket
from the Suleman Bakery rooftop. The policemen climbed to the terrace
of the Taj Book Depot, a neighbouring building, and sighted 8 – 10
persons hiding behind the water tank on the bakery rooftop. Inspector
Anant Ingale shouted warnings and fired a few shots from his service
revolver, but his party was no match to the automatic weapon wielding
group. Joint Commissioner of Police R. D. Tyagi arrived with the
Special Operations Squad (SOS), and demanded the opening of the locked
door of the Bakery. The inmates responded by throwing soda-water
bottles and acid bulbs. The SOS stormed into the Bakery and were
promptly attacked by about 15 people armed with choppers, knives and
ironbars. There wasn't surrender or ceasement of attack, so the Police
had to open fire. Totally, 78 Muslims were flushed out of the bakery
dead, by the police.
Fifty–two cases of police firing occurred in different
jurisdictions, killing 5 Hindus, 22 Muslims and one other. Police
combing operations resulted in seizure of stocks of swords, iron bars,
choppers, kerosene cans, acid bulbs and soda water bottles from
10 January 1993
Twenty–six army columns were deployed for carrying out flag marches
and for the first time the Government issued instructions to the
commissioner of police that the army personnel may be directed to do
operational duties by resorting to firing after taking control of a
situation. Fifty–one police stations were affected by the riots.
Eighty–one cases of stabbing occurred in different jurisdictions
resulting in deaths of 10 Hindus and 39 Muslims and injuries to 12
Hindus and 42 Muslims. One hundred and eight cases of arson occurred
in which there was property loss, death of one Hindu, seven Muslims
and two others, while one Hindu, one Muslim and one other were
injured. Attempts of the fire brigade to reach the places of fire were
frustrated by the rioters who not only blocked the streets but also
threatened the fire brigade staff and resorted to stone throwing
against the fire brigade vehicles. Fires blazed uncontrolled.
Mob violence was reported from 25 jurisdictions causing deaths of two
Hindus, nineteen Muslims, while 3 Hindus, 27 Muslims and two others
The police were given orders to fire and resorted to firing on 82
occasions, resulting in deaths of 2 Hindus, 23 Muslims and one other,
while injuries were caused to 7 Hindus, 27 Muslims and two others.
Police seized large number of swords, choppers, tube lights, fire
balls, soda water bottles, iron bars, guptis and also one country made
revolver. The situation was very grave in several jurisdictional
areas. Even normally law-abiding citizens seemed gripped by the
communal frenzy and were seen attacking members of the rival
community. Peace committee members, politicians and other social
workers were conspicuous by their absence. Communal hatred and fear
psychosis appeared to have overtaken the citizens of Bombay making
tolerance and reason prime casualties. Rumours about attacks from
rival community swept the city.
11 January 1993
The situation continued to be serious. Fifty–two police stations
were affected by communal violence in varying degrees. Eighty–six
cases of stabbing occurred in different jurisdictions resulting in the
death of 11 Hindus, 44 Muslims and 1 other; 11 Hindus, 68 Muslims and
one other were injured. Four Hindus, 19 Muslims and two others were
killed in 129 incidents of mob violence in different jurisdictions.
Ninety–three cases of arson in different jurisdictions resulted in
the death of two Hindus and 20 Muslims and injuries to seventeen
Muslims. Police firing on 67 occasions caused to deaths of 3 Hindus
and 15 Muslims and injuries to 11 Hindus, 41 Muslims and two others.
The army column was used for operational duty in Dadar jurisdiction
where it fired on a riotous mob of Hindus without causing any
injuries. Police raids in several Muslim pockets unearthed several
swords, knives, choppers, kerosene bottles, acid bulbs, tube lights,
one country made revolver and live cartridges.
12 January 1993
In Devipada in Kasturba Marg jurisdiction. A
Hindu mob surrounds,
strips and rapes two Muslim women. The older woman manages to run
away. The uncle of the younger woman who comes to rescue the young
girl of 19, and that girl, are beaten and burnt alive by the violent
mob. The names of the miscreants are disclosed to police by a Hindu
lady in the locality. (Though the miscreants were arrested and tried
by the Sessions Court at Bombay, later on they were all acquitted on
the ground that the panchanamas were defective and that the
eye–witnesses were not produced). Police resorted to firing on 31
occasions in different jurisdictions resulting in the deaths of two
Hindus and nine Muslims and injuries to 23 Hindus and seven Muslims.
Fifty–six cases of stabbing occurred in different areas resulting in
the deaths of three Hindus, 37 Muslims and injuries to 11 Hindus and
51 Muslims. Seventy–one cases of mob violence in different areas
occurred in which one
Hindu and nine Muslims were killed; six Hindus
and 29 Muslims were injured. Seventy cases of arson were reported from
different police stations, in which six Muslims were killed and one
Muslim was injured.
The army column, come to rescue a group of sieged Muslims by Hindus in
Antop Hill jurisdiction is attacked by a violent
Hindu mob, resorts to
firing to disperse the mob. Army column resorts to firing within the
jurisdiction of Trombay jurisdiction against another rioting mob of
Hindus killing one
Hindu and injury to one.
13 January 1993
The situation improves slightly in several areas; the number of
affected police stations comes down to 48; stabbing cases to 36; mob
violence to 67 and arson to 51. The police resort to firing on 24
occasions resulting in the killing of two Muslims and injuries to six
Hindus and fourteen Muslims. Mob violence takes a toll of the lives of
three Muslims and injures four Hindus and 18 Muslims. Stabbings cause
the death of one
Hindu and 19 Muslims, while two Hindus and 10 Muslims
and one other are injured.
14 January 1993
The situation shows substantial improvement. The number of affected
police stations comes down to 40, the number of arson cases drops to
39, in which one
Hindu and nine Muslims were killed apart from loss to
property; mob violence is reported only in 34 cases in which seven
Muslims and are killed and nine Muslims are injured; the police resort
to firing only on four occasions in which no one is killed and one
Hindu is injured. Stabbing cases resulted in death of three Hindus and
16 Muslims and three others, while six Hindus, 18 Muslims and one
other are injured. The deployment of army columns is increased to 36.
15 January 1993
i) There is further improvement in the situation; the number of police
stations affected comes down to 29; mob violence occurs only in 24
cases resulting in death of twelve Muslims and four Hindus and
injuries to eight Muslims. The number of stabbing cases comes down to
12 in which one
Hindu and 15 Muslims are killed and three Hindus and
nine Muslims are injured; the number of arson cases comes down to 25
in which there was only loss of property without death or injury to
anyone. The police resort to firing only on two occasions which result
in killing of three Muslims, and injuries to 14 Muslims. Army column
deployed at Nirmal Nagar resorts to firing to quell a riotous mob.
ii) The Prime Minister of India, Shri Narsimha Rao, makes a quick tour
of the riot affected areas amidst heavy security arrangements.
16 January 1993
The situation shows further improvement. Only 15 stray cases of
stabbing are reported in which 12 Muslims are killed and injuries
caused to seven Muslims. Seven mob violence cases occur resulting in
injury to one Muslim; 23 stray cases of arson are reported in
different areas in which there is only property loss. Police firing
comes down to two cases in which none is injured.
17 January 1993
The situation seems to be improving for the better. There is no
occasion for the police to resort to firing. Three cases of stabbing
are reported from different areas in which two Muslims were injured;
three minor cases of mob violence occur causing injuries to thirteen
Muslims; and six minor cases of arson reported in which, apart from
loss of property, one Muslim is killed.
18 January 1993
There was no occasion on which police resorted to firing on this day.
There was one case of stabbing resulting in the killing of one Muslim,
three minor cases of mob violence in which none was injured; five
stray minor cases of arson were reported in which none was injured.
19 January 1993
The city appears to be limping back to normalcy. Five stray cases of
stabbing are reported in which one Muslim was killed and two Muslims
were injured. Though nine stray cases of arson are reported, there was
no loss of life or injury.
The period subsequent to 20 January 1993
From 20 January 1993 onwards there was no major communal incident
despite a few stray cases being reported. The rumour mills worked
overtime and rumours about imminent attacks and explosions likely to
occur were thick. Call was given out by Imam of Jama Masjid that
Muslims should boycott the Republic Day and hoist black flags on their
establishments and houses. Police maintained continued vigil along
with the army and para–military forces.
On 25 January 1993, there is a minor riot in
which is quickly controlled by police firing without any death or
26 January 1993 passed off peacefully in all jurisdictions except
Dindoshi where the police resorted to firing in which two Muslims were
killed and three Muslims were injured; mob violence caused injuries to
two policemen and two Muslims.
During the subsequent period in January the situation in the city
slowly comes back to normalcy.
Total number of deaths
Dead – 900 (575 Muslims, 275 Hindus, 45 and 5 others). The causes
for the deaths are police firing (356), stabbing (347), arson (91),
mob action (80), private firing (22) and other causes (4).
B.N. Srikrishna Commission
Main article: Srikrishna Commission
Justice Srikrishna, then a relatively junior Judge of the Bombay High
Court, accepted the task of investigating the causes of the riots,
something that many of his colleagues had turned down[citation
needed]. For five years until 1998, he examined victims, witnesses and
alleged perpetrators. Detractors came initially from left quarters who
were wary of a judge who was a devout and practising Hindu. The
Commission was disbanded by the
Shiv Sena led government in January
1996 and on public opposition was later reconstituted on 28 May 1996;
though when it was reconstituted its terms of reference were extended
to include the
Mumbai bomb blasts that followed in March 1993.
The report of the commission stated that the tolerant and secular
foundations of the city were holding even if a little shakily. Justice
Srikrishna indicted those he alleged as largely responsible for the
second phase of the bloodshed and to some extent the first, the Shiv
The report was criticised as "politically motivated". For a while, its
contents were a closely guarded secret and no copies were available.
Shiv Sena government rejected its recommendations. Since under the
Commissions of Inquiry Act, an Inquiry is not a court of law (even if
it conducts proceedings like a court of law) and the report of an
inquiry is not binding on Governments, Srikrishna's recommendations
cannot be directly enforced. To date, the recommendations of the
Commission have neither been accepted nor acted upon by the
Maharashtra Government. Many indicted policemen were
promoted by the government and indicted politicians continue to hold
high political office even today.
According to the commission report, the causes of these riots were
Decline of employment
changing political discourse.
The immediate causes were listed as
the demolition of Babri Masjid
the aggravation of Muslim sentiments by the Hindus with their
the insensitive and harsh approach of the police while handling the
protesting mobs which initially were not violent.
Arrests, convictions and verdict
Only 3 convictions happened in the 1992-93
Bombay riots cases. On
10 July 2008, a
Mumbai court sentenced former
Shiv Sena MP Madhukar
Sarpotdar and two other party activists to a year's rigorous
imprisonment in connection with the riots. However, he was
immediately granted bail. He died on 20 February 2010 without
serving his sentence.
In popular culture
The riots are portrayed in several different films:
They are the key plot in the 1995 film Bombay in which the
protagonists, a Muslim wife and her
Hindu husband, are separated from
their children during the riots.
The 2004 Hindi film Black Friday deals with the events leading to the
riots and the aftermath which led to the 1993 Bombay bomb blasts, and
related investigations, told through the different stories of the
people involved – police, conspirators, victims, middlemen.
The violence is also an instrumental part of the plot of the film
Slumdog Millionaire. The protagonist, Jamal Malik's mother is among
those killed in the riots, and he later remarks "If it wasn't for Rama
and Allah, we'd still have a mother."
The event also appeared in 2010 film Striker, 2000 film
Fiza and 2013
Mumbai riots in historic context".
^ "Why there's no noise about the
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Dawood and ISI's role in riots,
275 Hindus dead(32%)575 Muslims(67%) officially dead (45
Detailed Report 
Official Supreme Court of
India Biography, available at
Justice B.N. Srikrishna, "Skinning a Cat", (2005) 8 SCC (Jour) 3,
available at http://www.ebc-india.com/lawyer/articles/2005_8_3.htm (a
critique of judicial activism in India).
Justice B.N. Srikrishna, "Maxwell versus Mimamsa", (2004) 6 SCC (Jour)
49, available at:
http://www.ebc-india.com/lawyer/articles/2004v6a5.htm (a critique of
Indian and Western interpretative techniques).
Praveen Swami, "A welter of evidence: How Thackeray and Co. figure in
Srikrishna Commission Report", 17(16) FRONTLINE ( 5–18 Aug.
2000), available at
http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl1716/17160110.htm (examining the
Justice Srikrishna Commission's indictment of Bal Thackeray and the
Draupadi Rohera, "The sacred space of Justice Srikrishna", Sunday
Times (16 August 1998) (discussing Justice Srikrishna's
and his work with the Commission).
Suketu Mehta, "Maximum City: Bombay lost and found", (2004), Part I
Riots in India
Bombay Dog Riots
1857 Bharuch riot
Salem Riots of 1882
1927 Nagpur riots
Direct Action Day
1957 Ramnad riots
1969 Gujarat riots
1967 Ranchi-Hatia riots
1980 Moradabad riots
1984 Bhiwandi riot
1984 anti-Sikh riots
1985 Gujarat riots
1987 Meerut riots
1990 Hyderabad riots
1994 Anti-Urdu riots
2002 Gujarat riots
2006 Vadodara riots
Azad Maidan riots
2013 Canning riots
2013 Muzaffarnagar riots
2015 Nadia riots
2016 Kaliachak riots
2016 Dhulagarh riots
2017 Baduria riots
List of riots in India
List of massacres in India
Seven Islands of Bombay
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