MUMBAI (/mʊmˈbaɪ/ ; also known as BOMBAY, the official name until
1995 ) is the capital city of the Indian state of
Maharashtra . It is
the most populous city in
India and the ninth most populous
agglomeration in the world , with an estimated city population of 18.4
million. Along with the neighbouring regions of the Mumbai
Metropolitan Region , it is one of the most populous urban regions in
the world and the second most populous metropolitan area in India,
with a population of 20.7 million as of 2011 .
Mumbai lies on the
west coast of
India and has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai
was named an alpha world city . It is also the wealthiest city in
India, and has the highest GDP of any city in South , West , or
Central Asia .
Mumbai has the highest number of billionaires and
millionaires among all cities in India.
The seven islands that came to constitute
Mumbai were home to
communities of fishing colonies . For centuries, the islands were
under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded
to the Portuguese and subsequently to the British East
when in 1661 King Charles II married the Portuguese Catherine of
Braganza , and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of
Tangier and seven islands of Bombay . During the mid-18th century,
Bombay was reshaped by the
Hornby Vellard project, which undertook
reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along
with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation
project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on
Arabian Sea . Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by
economic and educational development. During the early 20th century it
became a strong base for the
Indian independence movement . Upon
India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay
State . In 1960, following the Samyukta
Maharashtra movement , a new
Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital.
Mumbai is the financial , commercial and entertainment capital of
India. It is also one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in
terms of global financial flow, generating 6.16% of India's GDP and
accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in
Mumbai Port Trust and JNPT ), and 70% of capital transactions
to India\'s economy . The city houses important financial
institutions such as the Reserve Bank of
India , the Bombay Stock
Exchange , the National Stock Exchange of
India , the SEBI and the
corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational
corporations . It is also home to some of India's premier scientific
and nuclear institutes like BARC , NPCL , IREL , TIFR , AERB , AECI ,
and the Department of Atomic Energy . The city also houses India's
Bollywood ) and Marathi film and television industry. Mumbai's
business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher
standard of living , attract migrants from all over India, making the
city a melting pot of many communities and cultures .
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Early history
* 2.2 Portuguese and British rule
* 2.3 Independent
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Climate
* 4 Economy
* 5 Civic administration
* 6 Politics
* 7 Transport
* 7.1 Public transport
* 7.1.1 Rail
* 7.1.2 Bus
* 7.1.3 Water
* 7.2 Road
* 7.3 Air
* 7.4 Sea
* 8 Utility services
* 9 Architecture
* 10 Demographics
* 10.1 Ethnic groups and religions
* 11 Culture
* 12 Media
* 13 Education
* 13.1 Schools
* 13.2 Higher education
* 14 Sports
* 15 See also
* 16 Notes
* 17 References
* 18 External links
The name _Mumbai_ is derived from _Mumbā_ or _Mahā-Ambā_—the
name of the patron goddess (Kuladevi )
Mumbadevi of the native Agri ,
Koli and Somvanshi Kshatriya communities— and _ā'ī_ meaning
"mother" in the Marathi language, which is the mother tongue of the
kolis and the official language of Maharashtra. The temple of
Mumbadevi , from whom the city of
The oldest known names for the city are _Kakamuchee_ and
_Galajunkja_; these are sometimes still used. In 1508, Portuguese
Gaspar Correia used the name _Bombaim_, in his _Lendas da
Índia_ ("Legends of India"). This name possibly originated as the
Old Portuguese phrase _bom baim_, meaning "good little bay", and
_Bombaim_ is still commonly used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese
Duarte Barbosa used the name _Tana-Maiambu_: _Tana_ appears
to refer to the adjoining town of
Thane and _Maiambu_ to _Mumbadevi_.
Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include:
_Mombayn_ (1525), _Bombay_ (1538), _Bombain_ (1552), _Bombaym_ (1552),
_Monbaym_ (1554), _Mombaim_ (1563), _Mombaym_ (1644), _Bambaye_
(1666), _Bombaiim_ (1666), _Bombeye_ (1676), _Boon Bay_ (1690), and
_Bon Bahia_. After the English gained possession of the city in the
17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as _Bombay_. Ali
Muhammad Khan, imperial _diwan _ or revenue minister of the Gujarat
province, in the _Mirat-i-Ahmedi_ (1762) referred to the city as
By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as _Mumbai_ or
_Mambai_ in the Indian statewise official languages of Marathi ,
Konkani , Gujarati , Kannada and Sindhi , and as _Bambai_ in
The Government of
India officially changed the English name to
_Mumbai_ in November 1995. This came at the insistence of the Marathi
Shiv Sena party, which had just won the
elections, and mirrored similar name changes across the country and
particularly in Maharashtra. According to _Slate _ magazine, "they
argued that 'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of 'Mumbai' and
an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule." _Slate_ also said "The
push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen
Marathi identity in the
Maharashtra region." While the city is still
referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from
other regions, mention of the city by a name other than _Mumbai_ has
been controversial, resulting in emotional outbursts sometimes of a
violently political nature.
A resident of
Mumbai is called _mumbaikar_ in the
Marathi language ,
in which the suffix _kar_ means _resident of_. The term has been in
use for quite some time but it gained popularity after the official
name change to Mumbai.
History of Mumbai and
Timeline of Mumbai history
Kanheri Caves served as a centre of
Buddhism in Western India
during ancient times
Mumbai is built on what was once an archipelago of seven islands :
Bombay Island ,
Worli , and Old
Woman\'s Island (also known as _Little Colaba_). It is not exactly
known when these islands were first inhabited.
found along the coastal areas around
Kandivali in northern Mumbai
suggest that the islands were inhabited since the Stone Age . Perhaps
at the beginning of the
Common era (2,000 years ago), or possibly
earlier, they came to be occupied by the Christian Koli fishing
In the third century BCE, the islands formed part of the Maurya
Empire, during its expansion in the south, ruled by the Buddhist
Magadha . The
Kanheri Caves in
excavated in the mid-third century BCE, and served as an important
Buddhism in Western
India during ancient Times. The city
then was known as _Heptanesia_ (
Ancient Greek : A Cluster of Seven
Islands) to the Greek geographer
Ptolemy in 150 CE. The Mahakali
Andheri were built between the 1st century BCE and the 6th
Between the second century BCE and ninth century CE, the islands came
under the control of successive indigenous dynasties :
Western Kshatrapas ,
Vakatakas , Kalachuris , Konkan
Mauryas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas , before being ruled by the
Silhara dynasty from 810 to 1260. Some of the oldest edifices in the
city built during this period are,
Jogeshwari Caves (between 520 and
Elephanta Caves (between the sixth to seventh century),
Walkeshwar Temple (10th century), and
Banganga Tank (12th century).
Haji Ali Dargah was built in 1431, when
Mumbai was under the
rule of the
King Bhimdev founded his kingdom in the region in the late 13th
century and established his capital in _Mahikawati_ (present day Mahim
). The Pathare Prabhus , among the earliest known settlers of the
city, were brought to _Mahikawati_ from Saurashtra in
1298 by Bhimdev. The
Delhi Sultanate annexed the islands in 1347–48
and controlled it until 1407. During this time, the islands were
administered by the Muslim Governors of
Gujarat , who were appointed
The islands were later governed by the independent
, which was established in 1407. The Sultanate's patronage led to the
construction of many mosques, prominent being the
Haji Ali Dargah in
Worli , built in honour of the Muslim saint Haji Ali in 1431. From
1429 to 1431, the islands were a source of contention between the
Gujarat Sultanate and the
Bahamani Sultanate of Deccan. In 1493,
Bahadur Khan Gilani of the
Bahamani Sultanate attempted to conquer the
islands but was defeated.
PORTUGUESE AND BRITISH RULE
Main articles: History of Bombay under Portuguese rule (1534–1661)
History of Bombay under British rule The
Madh Fort built by
the Portuguese, was one of the most important forts in
Mughal Empire , founded in 1526, was the dominant power in the
Indian subcontinent during the mid-16th century. Growing apprehensive
of the power of the Mughal emperor
Humayun , Sultan Bahadur Shah of
Gujarat Sultanate was obliged to sign the Treaty of Bassein with
Portuguese Empire on 23 December 1534. According to the treaty,
the seven islands of Bombay, the nearby strategic town of Bassein and
its dependencies were offered to the Portuguese. The territories were
later surrendered on 25 October 1535.
The Portuguese were actively involved in the foundation and growth of
their Roman Catholic religious orders in Bombay. They called the
islands by various names, which finally took the written form
_Bombaim_. The islands were leased to several Portuguese officers
during their regime. The Portuguese
several churches in the city, prominent being the St. Michael\'s
Mahim (1534), St. John the Baptist Church at Andheri
(1579), St. Andrew\'s Church at
Bandra (1580), and
Gloria Church at
Byculla (1632). The Portuguese also built several fortifications
around the city like the
Bombay Castle , _
Castella de Aguada _
(Castelo da Aguada or
Bandra Fort), and
Madh Fort . The English were
in constant struggle with the Portuguese vying for hegemony over
Bombay, as they recognised its strategic natural harbour and its
natural isolation from land-attacks. By the middle of the 17th century
the growing power of the
Dutch Empire forced the English to acquire a
station in western India. On 11 May 1661, the marriage treaty of
Charles II of England and
Catherine of Braganza , daughter of King
John IV of
Portugal , placed the islands in possession of the English
Empire , as part of Catherine's dowry to Charles. However,
Worli , Sion ,
Dharavi , and
remained under Portuguese possession. From 1665 to 1666, the English
managed to acquire Mahim, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala. Two views
of the English fort in Bombay, c. 1665
In accordance with the
Royal Charter of 27 March 1668 , England
leased these islands to the English East
India Company in 1668 for a
sum of £ 10 per annum. The population quickly rose from 10,000 in
1661, to 60,000 in 1675. The islands were subsequently attacked by
Yakut Khan , the
Siddi admiral of the
Mughal Empire , in October 1672,
Rickloffe van Goen , the Governor-General of Dutch
India on 20
February 1673, and
Siddi admiral Sambal on 10 October 1673.
In 1687, the English East
India Company transferred its headquarters
Surat to Bombay. The city eventually became the headquarters of
Bombay Presidency . Following the transfer, Bombay was placed at
the head of all the company's establishments in India. Towards the
end of the 17th century, the islands again suffered incursions from
Yakut Khan in 1689–90. The Portuguese presence ended in Bombay when
the Marathas under _
Baji Rao I captured
Salsette in 1737, and
Bassein in 1739. By the middle of the 18th century, Bombay began to
grow into a major trading town, and received a huge influx of migrants
from across India. Later, the British occupied
Salsette on 28
December 1774. With the Treaty of
Surat (1775), the British formally
gained control of
Salsette and Bassein, resulting in the First
Anglo-Maratha War . The British were able to secure
Salsette from the
Marathas without violence through the Treaty of Purandar (1776), and
later through the
Treaty of Salbai (1782), signed to settle the
outcome of the First Anglo-Maratha War. Ships in Bombay Harbour
(c. 1731). Bombay emerged as a significant trading town during the
From 1782 onwards, the city was reshaped with large-scale civil
engineering projects aimed at merging all the seven islands into a
single amalgamated mass. This project, known as
Hornby Vellard , was
completed by 1784. In 1817, the British East
India Company under
Mountstuart Elphinstone defeated
Baji Rao II , the last of the Maratha
_Peshwa_ in the
Battle of Khadki . Following his defeat, almost the
whole of the
Deccan came under British suzerainty, and was
incorporated into the Bombay Presidency. The success of the British
campaign in the
Deccan marked the end of all attacks by native powers.
By 1845, the seven islands coalesced into a single landmass by the
Hornby Vellard project via large scale land reclamation . On 16
April 1853, India's first passenger railway line was established,
connecting Bombay to the neighbouring town of Thana (now Thane).
American Civil War (1861–1865), the city became the
world's chief cotton-trading market, resulting in a boom in the
economy that subsequently enhanced the city's stature.
The opening of the
Suez Canal in 1869 transformed Bombay into one of
the largest seaports on the
Arabian Sea . In September 1896, Bombay
was hit by a bubonic plague epidemic where the death toll was
estimated at 1,900 people per week. About 850,000 people fled Bombay
and the textile industry was adversely affected. As the capital of
Bombay Presidency , the city witnessed the Indian independence
movement , with the Quit
India Movement in 1942 and The Royal Indian
Navy Mutiny in 1946 being its most notable events.
Main article: History of Bombay in Independent
Corporation Building, Bombay in 1950 –
Victoria Terminus partly
visible on far right.
After India's independence in 1947, the territory of the Bombay
Presidency retained by
India was restructured into
Bombay State . The
Bombay State increased, after several erstwhile princely
states that joined the Indian union were integrated into the state.
Subsequently, the city became the capital of Bombay State. On April
1950, Municipal limits of Bombay were expanded by merging the Bombay
Suburban District and Bombay City to form the Greater Bombay Municipal
Maharashtra movement to create a separate Maharashtra
state including Bombay was at its height in the 1950s. In the _Lok
Sabha _ discussions in 1955, the Congress party demanded that the city
be constituted as an autonomous city-state. The States Reorganisation
Committee recommended a bilingual state for Maharashtra–
Bombay as its capital in its 1955 report. Bombay Citizens\' Committee
, an advocacy group of leading Gujarati industrialists lobbied for
Bombay's independent status.
Following protests during the movement in which 105 people lost their
lives in clashes with the police,
Bombay State was reorganised on
linguistic lines on 1 May 1960. Gujarati -speaking areas of Bombay
State were partitioned into the state of Gujarat.
with Bombay as its capital was formed with the merger of Marathi
-speaking areas of Bombay State, eight districts from Central
Provinces and Berar , five districts from
Hyderabad State , and
numerous princely states enclosed between them. As a memorial to the
martyrs of the Samyukta
Flora Fountain was
renamed as _
Hutatma Chowk _ (Martyr's Square), and a memorial was
Hutatma Chowk memorial, built to honour the martyrs
of the Samyukta
Maharashtra movement (
Flora Fountain is on its left in
The following decades saw massive expansion of the city and its
suburbs. In the late 1960s,
Nariman Point and
Cuffe Parade were
reclaimed and developed. The Bombay Metropolitan Region Development
Authority (BMRDA) was established on 26 January 1975 by the Government
Maharashtra as an apex body for planning and co-ordination of
development activities in the Bombay metropolitan region . In August
1979, a sister township of
New Bombay was founded by the City and
Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) across the
Thane and Raigad
districts to help the dispersal and control of Bombay's population.
The textile industry in Bombay largely disappeared after the
Great Bombay Textile Strike , in which nearly 250,000
workers in more than 50 textile mills went on strike. Mumbai's
defunct cotton mills have since become the focus of intense
Jawaharlal Nehru Port , which currently handles 55–60% of
India's containerised cargo, was commissioned on 26 May 1989 across
the creek at
Nhava Sheva with a view to de-congest
Bombay Harbour and
to serve as a hub port for the city. The geographical limits of
Greater Bombay were coextensive with municipal limits of Greater
Bombay. On 1 October 1990, the Greater Bombay district was bifurcated
to form two revenue districts namely, Bombay City and Bombay Suburban
, though they continued to be administered by same Municipal
From 1990 to 2010, there has been an increase in violence in the
hitherto largely peaceful city. Following the demolition of the Babri
Ayodhya , the city was rocked by the Hindu-Muslim riots of
1992–93 in which more than 1,000 people were killed. On 12 March
1993, a series of 13 co-ordinated bombings at several city landmarks
by Islamic extremists and the Bombay underworld resulted in 257 deaths
and over 700 injuries. In 2006, 209 people were killed and over 700
injured when seven bombs exploded on the city's commuter trains . In
2008, a series of ten coordinated attacks by armed terrorists for
three days resulted in 173 deaths, 308 injuries, and severe damage to
several heritage landmarks and prestigious hotels. The blasts that
occurred at the Opera House, Zaveri Bazaar, and
Dadar on 13 July 2011
were the latest in the series of terrorist attacks in Mumbai.
Mumbai is the commercial capital of
India and has evolved into a
global financial hub. For several decades it has been the home of
India's main financial services, and a focus for both infrastructure
development and private investment. From being an ancient fishing
community and a colonial centre of trade,
Mumbai has become South
Asia's largest city and home of the world's most prolific film
Geography of Mumbai See also:
South Mumbai , Western
Suburbs (Mumbai) ,
Eastern Suburbs (Mumbai) , and List of
Mumbai consists of two revenue
Mumbai consists of two distinct regions:
Mumbai City district and
Mumbai Suburban district , which form two separate revenue districts
of Maharashtra. The city district region is also commonly referred to
as the _Island City_ or
South Mumbai . The total area of
603.4 km2 (233 sq mi). Of this, the island city spans 67.79 km2 (26
sq mi), while the suburban district spans 370 km2 (143 sq mi),
together accounting for 437.71 km2 (169 sq mi) under the
Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM). The
remaining areas belong to various Defence establishments, the Mumbai
Port Trust , the Atomic Energy Commission and the
Park, which are out of the jurisdiction of the MCGM. The Mumbai
Metropolitan Region which includes portions of
Raigad districts in addition to Greater Mumbai, covers an area of
4,355 km2 (1681.5 sq mi).
Mumbai lies at the mouth of the
Ulhas River on the western coast of
India, in the coastal region known as the
Konkan . It sits on Salsette
Island (Sashti Island), which it partially shares with the Thane
Mumbai is bounded by the
Arabian Sea to the west. Many
parts of the city lie just above sea level, with elevations ranging
from 10 m (33 ft) to 15 m (49 ft); the city has an average elevation
of 14 m (46 ft). Northern
Mumbai (Salsette) is hilly, and the
highest point in the city is 450 m (1,476 ft) at
Salsette in the Powai
Kanheri ranges. The
Sanjay Gandhi National Park (
Park) is located partly in the
Mumbai suburban district , and partly
Thane district, and it extends over an area of 103.09 km2
(39.80 sq mi).
Apart from the
Bhatsa Dam , there are six major lakes that supply
water to the city: Vihar , Lower Vaitarna , Upper Vaitarna , Tulsi ,
Tulsi Lake and
Vihar Lake are located in Borivili
National Park , within the city's limits. The supply from
also within the city limits, is used only for agricultural and
industrial purposes. Three small rivers, the
Dahisar River , Poinsar
(or Poisar) and Ohiwara (or Oshiwara) originate within the park, while
Mithi River originates from
Tulsi Lake and gathers water
overflowing from Vihar and
Powai Lakes. The coastline of the city is
indented with numerous creeks and bays, stretching from the Thane
creek on the eastern to Madh Marve on the western front. The eastern
Salsette Island is covered with large mangrove swamps , rich
in biodiversity, while the western coast is mostly sandy and rocky.
Soil cover in the city region is predominantly sandy due to its
proximity to the sea. In the suburbs, the soil cover is largely
alluvial and loamy. The underlying rock of the region is composed of
Deccan basalt flows, and their acidic and basic variants dating
back to the late
Cretaceous and early
Mumbai sits on a
seismically active zone owing to the presence of 23 fault lines in the
vicinity. The area is classified as a Seismic Zone III region ,
which means an earthquake of up to magnitude 6.5 on the Richter
magnitude scale may be expected.
Average temperature and precipitation in
Mumbai Main article:
Climate of Mumbai
Mumbai has a tropical climate , specifically a tropical wet and dry
climate (Aw) under the
Köppen climate classification , with seven
months of dryness and peak of rains in July. The cooler season from
December to February is followed by the summer season from March to
June. The period from June to about the end of September constitutes
the south-west monsoon season, and October and November form the
Between June and September, the south west monsoon rains lash the
city. Pre-monsoon showers are received in May. Occasionally,
north-east monsoon showers occur in October and November. The maximum
annual rainfall ever recorded was 3,452 mm (136 in) for 1954. The
highest rainfall recorded in a single day was 944 mm (37 in) on 26
July 2005 . The average total annual rainfall is 2,146.6 mm (85 in)
for the Island City, and 2,457 mm (97 in) for the suburbs.
The average annual temperature is 27.2 °C (81 °F), and the average
annual precipitation is 2,167 mm (85 in). In the Island City, the
average maximum temperature is 31.2 °C (88 °F), while the average
minimum temperature is 23.7 °C (75 °F). In the suburbs, the daily
mean maximum temperature range from 29.1 °C (84 °F) to 33.3 °C (92
°F), while the daily mean minimum temperature ranges from 16.3 °C
(61 °F) to 26.2 °C (79 °F). The record high is 42.2 °C (108 °F)
set on 14 April 1952, and the record low is 7.4 °C (45 °F) set on
27 January 1962.
CLIMATE DATA FOR MUMBAI (CHHATRAPATI SHIVAJI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
India Meteorological Department (Period 1961–1990,
record high and low up to 2010)
Source #2: NOAA (humidity, sun 1971–1990)
Air pollution is a major issue in Mumbai. According to the 2016
World Health Organization Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database,
the annual average
PM2.5 concentration in 2013 was 63 μg/m3, which
is 6.3 times higher than that recommended by the WHO Air Quality
Guidelines for the annual mean PM2.5. The Central Pollution Control
Board for the Government of
India and the Consulate General of the
Mumbai monitor and publicly share real-time air quality
Economy of Mumbai The
Bombay Stock Exchange is
the oldest stock exchange in Asia.
Mumbai is India's largest city (by population) and is the financial
and commercial capital of the country as it generates 6.16% of the
total GDP. It serves as an economic hub of India, contributing 10%
of factory employment, 25% of industrial output, 33% of income tax
collections, 60% of customs duty collections, 20% of central excise
tax collections, 40% of India's foreign trade and ₹4,000 crore
(US$620 million) in corporate taxes . Along with the rest of India,
Mumbai has witnessed an economic boom since the liberalisation of
1991, the finance boom in the mid-nineties and the IT, export,
services and outsourcing boom in 2000s. Although
prominently figured as the hub of economic activity of
India in the
Mumbai Metropolitan Region is presently witnessing a
reduction in its contribution to India's GDP.
As of 2015 , Mumbai's metro area GDP (PPP) was estimated at $368
billion. Many of India's numerous conglomerates (including Larsen &
Toubro , State Bank of
India (SBI), Life Insurance Corporation of
Tata Group , Godrej and Reliance ), and five of the
Fortune Global 500 companies are based in Mumbai. This is facilitated
by the presence of the Reserve Bank of
India (RBI), the Bombay Stock
Exchange (BSE), the National Stock Exchange of
India (NSE), and
financial sector regulators such as the Securities and Exchange Board
Until the 1970s,
Mumbai owed its prosperity largely to textile mills
and the seaport, but the local economy has since then diversified to
include finance , engineering , diamond-polishing, healthcare and
information technology. The key sectors contributing to the city's
economy are: finance, gems the district has an estimated 15,000
Mumbai has been ranked sixth among top ten global cities on the
billionaire count with 28 and 46000 millionaires, with total wealth
around $820 billion 48th on the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index
2008, seventh in the list of "Top Ten Cities for Billionaires" by
Forbes _ magazine (April 2008), and first in terms of those
billionaires' average wealth. As of 2008 , the Globalization and
World Cities Study Group (GaWC) has ranked
Mumbai as an "Alpha world
city", third in its categories of Global cities .
Mumbai is the third
most expensive office market in the world, and was ranked among the
fastest cities in the country for business startup in 2009.
Headquarters of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai
MCGM is the largest civic organisation in the country.
Greater Mumbai, an area of 603 square kilometres (233 sq mi),
consisting of the
Mumbai City and
Mumbai Suburban districts, extends
Colaba in the south, to
Dahisar in the north, and
Mankhurd in the east. Its population as per the 2011 census was
It is administered by the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai
(MCGM) (sometimes referred to as the Brihanmumbai Municipal
Corporation ), formerly known as the _Bombay Municipal Corporation_
MCGM is in charge of the civic and infrastructure needs of
the metropolis. The Mayor is chosen through indirect election by the
councillors from among themselves for a term of two and half years.
The Municipal Commissioner is the chief Executive Officer and head of
the executive arm of the Municipal Corporation. All executive powers
are vested in the Municipal Commissioner who is an Indian
Administrative Service (IAS) officer appointed by the state government
. Although the Municipal Corporation is the legislative body that lays
down policies for the governance of the city, it is the Commissioner
who is responsible for the execution of the policies. The Commissioner
is appointed for a fixed term as defined by state statute. The powers
of the Commissioner are those provided by statute and those delegated
by the Corporation or the Standing Committee.
Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai was ranked 9th out of 21
Cities for best governance "> The
Bombay High Court exercises
jurisdiction over Maharashtra,
Goa , Daman and Diu, and Dadra and
Nagar Haveli .
The two revenue districts of
Mumbai come under the jurisdiction of a
District Collector . The Collectors are in charge of property records
and revenue collection for the Central Government , and oversee the
national elections held in the city.
Mumbai Police is headed by a Police Commissioner , who is an
Indian Police Service (IPS) officer. The
Mumbai Police is a division
Maharashtra Police , under the state Home Ministry. The city
is divided into seven police zones and seventeen traffic police zones,
each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police. The Traffic Police
is a semi-autonomous body under the
Mumbai Police. The
Brigade , under the jurisdiction of the Municipal Corporation, is
headed by the Chief Fire Officer, who is assisted by four Deputy Chief
Fire Officers and six Divisional Officers. The
Region Development Authority (MMRDA) is responsible for infrastructure
development and planning of
Mumbai Metropolitan Region .
Mumbai is the seat of the
Bombay High Court , which exercises
jurisdiction over the states of
Goa , and the Union
Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu and
Dadra and Nagar Haveli .
has two lower courts, the
Small Causes Court for civil matters, and
Sessions Court for criminal cases.
Mumbai also has a special
Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (TADA) court for people accused of
conspiring and abetting acts of terrorism in the city.
First session of the
Indian National Congress in Bombay (28–31
Mumbai had been a traditional stronghold and birthplace of the Indian
National Congress , also known as the Congress Party. The first
session of the
Indian National Congress was held in Bombay from
28–31 December 1885. The city played host to the Indian National
Congress six times during its first 50 years, and became a strong base
Indian independence movement during the 20th century.
The 1960s saw the rise of regionalist politics in Bombay, with the
formation of the
Shiv Sena on 19 June 1966, out of a feeling of
resentment about the relative marginalisation of the native Marathi
people in Bombay.
Shiv Sena switched from 'Marathi Cause' to larger
'Hindutva Cause' in 1985 and joined hands with Bhartiya Janata Party
(BJP) in same year. The Congress had dominated the politics of Bombay
from independence until the early 1980s, when the
Shiv Sena won the
1985 Bombay Municipal Corporation elections.
In 1989, the
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), a major national political
party, forged an electoral alliance with the
Shiv Sena to dislodge the
Congress in the
Maharashtra Legislative Assembly elections. In 1999,
several members left the Congress to form the Nationalist Congress
Party (NCP) but later allied with the Congress as part of an alliance
known as the Democratic Front . Currently, other parties such as
Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS),
Samajwadi Party (SP), Bahujan Samaj
Party (BSP), and several independent candidates also contest elections
in the city.
In the Indian national elections held every five years,
represented by six parliamentary constituencies: North , North West ,
North East , North Central , South Central , and South . A Member of
parliament (MP) to the _
Lok Sabha _, the lower house of the Indian
Parliament , is elected from each of the parliamentary constituencies.
In the 2014 national elections , all six parliamentary constituencies
were won by the BJP and
Shiv Sena in alliance, with both parties
winning three seats each.
Maharashtra state assembly elections held every five years,
Mumbai is represented by 36 assembly constituencies. A Member of the
Legislative Assembly (MLA) to the
Vidhan Sabha _
(Legislative Assembly) is elected from each of the assembly
constituencies. In the 2014 state assembly elections , out of the 36
assembly constituencies, 15 were won by the BJP, 14 by the Shiv Sena
and 5 by the Congress.
Elections are also held every five years to elect corporators to
power in the MCGM. The Corporation comprises 227 directly elected
Councillors representing the 24 municipal wards , five nominated
Councillors having special knowledge or experience in municipal
administration, and a Mayor whose role is mostly ceremonial. In the
2012 municipal corporation elections , out of the 227 seats, the Shiv
Sena-BJP alliance secured 107 seats, holding power with the support of
independent candidates in the MCGM, while the Congress-NCP alliance
bagged 64 seats. The tenure of the Mayor , Deputy Mayor, and
Municipal Commissioner is two and a half years.
Mumbai Suburban Railway system carries more than 6.99
million commuters on a daily basis. It has the highest passenger
density of any urban railway system in the world. The Mumbai
Monorail opened in February 2014. BEST buses carry a total of 4.5
million passengers daily. The black and yellow Premier Padmini
Taxis are iconic of Mumbai. The Bandra-
Worli Sea Link is a
cable-stayed bridge that connects central
Mumbai with its western
Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust is the busiest port in
Public transport in Mumbai
Public transport systems in
Mumbai include the
Railway , Monorail , Metro , Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and
Transport (BEST) buses, black-and-yellow meter taxis , auto rickshaws
and ferries . Suburban railway and BEST bus services together
accounted for about 88% of the passenger traffic in 2008. Auto
rickshaws are allowed to operate only in the suburban areas of Mumbai,
while taxis are allowed to operate throughout Mumbai, but generally
South Mumbai . Taxis and rickshaws in
Mumbai are required
by law to run on compressed natural gas (CNG), and are a convenient,
economical, and easily available means of transport.
Mumbai Suburban Railway , popularly referred to as Locals forms
the backbone of the city's transport system. It is operated by the
Central Railway and Western Railway zones of the
Indian Railways .
Mumbai's suburban rail systems carried a total of 6.3 million
passengers every day in 2007. Trains are overcrowded during peak
hours, with nine-car trains of rated capacity 1,700 passengers,
actually carrying around 4,500 passengers at peak hours. The Mumbai
rail network is spread at an expanse of 319 route kilometres. 191
rakes (train-sets) of 9 car and 12 car composition are utilised to run
a total of 2,226 train services in the city.
Mumbai Monorail and
Mumbai Metro have been built and are being
extended in phases to relieve overcrowding on the existing network.
The Monorail opened in early February 2014. The first line of the
Mumbai Metro opened in early June 2014.
Mumbai is the headquarters of two zones of the
Indian Railways : the
Central Railway (CR) headquartered at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus
(formerly Victoria Terminus), and the Western Railway (WR)
Mumbai is also well connected to most
India by the
Indian Railways . Long-distance trains originate
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus ,
Lokmanya Tilak Terminus ,
Mumbai Central ,
Bandra Terminus ,
Mumbai's bus services carried over 5.5 million passengers per day in
2008, which dropped to 2.8 million in 2015. Public buses run by BEST
cover almost all parts of the metropolis, as well as parts of Navi
Mira-Bhayandar and Thane. The BEST operates a total of 4,608
buses with CCTV cameras installed, ferrying 4.5 million passengers
daily over 390 routes. Its fleet consists of single-decker,
double-decker, vestibule, low-floor, disabled-friendly,
Euro III compliant diesel and compressed natural
gas powered buses. BEST introduced air-conditioned buses in 1998.
BEST buses are red in colour, based originally on the Routemaster
buses of London.
Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation (MSRTC,
also known as ST) buses provide intercity transport connecting Mumbai
with other towns and cities of
Maharashtra and nearby states. The
Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport (NMMT) and
Thane Municipal Transport
(TMT) also operate their buses in Mumbai, connecting various nodes of
Navi Mumbai and
Thane to parts of Mumbai.
Buses are generally favoured for commuting short to medium distances,
while train fares are more economical for longer distance commutes.
Mumbai Darshan_ is a tourist bus service which explores numerous
tourist attractions in
Mumbai . Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) lanes
have been planned throughout Mumbai. Though 88% of the city's
commuters travel by public transport,
Mumbai still continues to
struggle with traffic congestion . Mumbai's transport system has been
categorised as one of the most congested in the world.
Water transport in Mumbai consists of ferries, hovercrafts and
catamarans. Services are provided by both government agencies as well
as private partners.
Hovercraft services plied briefly in the late
1990s between the
Gateway of India
Gateway of India and
CBD Belapur in Navi Mumbai.
They were subsequently scrapped due to lack of adequate infrastructure
Mumbai is served by National Highway 3 , National Highway 4 ,
National Highway 8 , National Highway 17 and National Highway 222 of
India's National Highways system . The Mumbai-
Pune Expressway was the
first expressway built in India. The Eastern Freeway was opened in
Mumbai Nashik Expressway ,
Mumbai-Vadodara Expressway , are
under construction. The Bandra-
Worli Sea Link bridge, along with Mahim
Causeway , links the island city to the western suburbs. The three
major road arteries of the city are the
Eastern Express Highway from
Sion to Thane, the
Sion Panvel Expressway from Sion to
Panvel and the
Western Express Highway
Western Express Highway from
approximately 1,900 km (1,181 mi) of roads. There are five tolled
entry points to the city by road.
Mumbai had about 721,000 private vehicles as of March 2014, 56,459
black and yellow taxis as of 2005 , and 106,000 auto rickshaws, as of
Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Mumbai,
Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (formerly Sahar
International Airport) is the main aviation hub in the city and the
second busiest airport in
India in terms of passenger traffic. It
handled 36.6 million passengers and 694,300 tonnes of cargo during FY
2014–2015. An upgrade plan was initiated in 2006, targeted at
increasing the capacity of the airport to handle up to 40 million
passengers annually and the new terminal T2 was opened in February
Navi Mumbai International Airport to be built in the
Panvel area has been sanctioned by the Indian Government and
will help relieve the increasing traffic burden on the existing
Juhu Aerodrome was India's first airport, and now hosts the
Bombay Flying Club and a heliport operated by state-owned
Pawan Hans .
Mumbai is served by two major ports,
Mumbai Port Trust and Jawaharlal
Nehru Port Trust , which lies just across the creek in
Navi Mumbai .
Mumbai Port has one of the best natural harbours in the world, and has
extensive wet and dry dock accommodation facilities. Jawaharlal Nehru
Port, commissioned on 26 May 1989, is the busiest and most modern
major port in India. It handles 55–60% of the country's total
Ferry Wharf in
access to islands near the city.
The city is also the headquarters of the
Western Naval Command , and
also an important base for the
Indian Navy .
See also: Mumbai\'s water sources
Under colonial rule, tanks were the only source of water in Mumbai,
with many localities having been named after them. The
potable water to the city from six lakes, most of which comes from
the Tulsi and Vihar lakes. The Tansa lake supplies water to the
western suburbs and parts of the island city along the Western
Railway. The water is filtered at
Bhandup , which is Asia's largest
water filtration plant. India's first underground water tunnel was
Mumbai to supply water to the
Bhandup filtration plant.
About 700 million litres of water, out of a daily supply of 3500
million litres, is lost by way of water thefts, illegal connections
and leakages, per day in Mumbai. Almost all of Mumbai's daily refuse
of 7,800 metric tonnes, of which 40 metric tonnes is plastic waste ,
is transported to dumping grounds in
Gorai in the northwest,
the northeast, and to the
Deonar dumping ground in the east. Sewage
treatment is carried out at
Bandra , and disposed of by two
independent marine outfalls of 3.4 km (2.1 mi) and 3.7 km (2.3 mi) at
Electricity is distributed by the Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and
Transport (BEST) undertaking in the island city, and by Reliance
Tata Power , and the
Maharashtra State Electricity
Distribution Co. Ltd (
Mahavitaran ) in the suburbs. Consumption of
electricity is growing faster than production capacity. Power supply
cables are underground , which reduces pilferage, thefts and other
Cooking gas is supplied in the form of liquefied petroleum gas
cylinders sold by state-owned oil companies, as well as through piped
natural gas supplied by Mahanagar Gas Limited.
The largest telephone service provider is the state-owned
which held a monopoly over fixed line and cellular services up until
2000, and provides fixed line as well as mobile WLL services. Mobile
phone coverage is extensive, and the main service providers are
Vodafone Essar , Airtel , MTNL,
Loop Mobile , Reliance Communications
Idea Cellular and
Tata Indicom . Both
CDMA services are
available in the city. Mumbai, along with the area served by
telephone exchanges in
Navi Mumbai and
Kalyan is classified as a
_Metro_ telecom circle. Many of the above service providers also
provide broadband internet and wireless internet access in Mumbai. As
of 2014 ,
Mumbai had the highest number of internet users in India
with 16.4 million users.
Heritage structures in Mumbai
Mumbai city at night
Mumbai city skyline
The architecture of the city is a blend of
Gothic Revival ,
Art Deco , and other contemporary styles. Most of the
buildings during the British period, such as the
Victoria Terminus and
Bombay University , were built in
Gothic Revival style. Their
architectural features include a variety of European influences such
as German gables, Dutch roofs, Swiss timbering, Romance arches, Tudor
casements, and traditional Indian features. There are also a few
Indo-Saracenic styled buildings such as the
Gateway of India
Gateway of India . Art
Deco styled landmarks can be found along the Marine Drive and west of
Oval Maidan .
Mumbai has the second largest number of Art Deco
buildings in the world after
Miami . In the newer suburbs, modern
buildings dominate the landscape.
Mumbai has by far the largest number
of skyscrapers in India, with 956 existing buildings and 272 under
construction as of 2009 .
Mumbai Heritage Conservation Committee (MHCC), established in
1995, formulates special regulations and by-laws to assist in the
conservation of the city's heritage structures.
Mumbai has two UNESCO
World Heritage Sites , the
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus and the
Elephanta Caves . In the south of Mumbai, there are colonial-era
buildings and Soviet-style offices. In the east are factories and
some slums. On the West coast are former-textile mills being
demolished and skyscrapers built on top. There are 31 buildings taller
than 100 m, compared with 200 in Shanghai, 500 in
Hong Kong and 500 in
New York. The
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus , formerly known as
Victoria Terminus, is the headquarters of the Central Railway and a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site .
Growth of Mumbai
Data is based on
According to the 2011 census , the population of
Mumbai city was
12,479,608. The population density is estimated to be about 20,482
persons per square kilometre. The living space is 4.5sq metre per
Mumbai Metropolitan Region was home to 20,748,395 people by
2011. As Per 2011 census, Greater Mumbai, the area under the
administration of the
MCGM , has a literacy rate of 94.7%, higher than
the national average of 86.7%. The number of slum-dwellers is
estimated to be 9 million, up from 6 million in 2001, that is, 62% of
all Mumbaikars live in informal slums.
The sex ratio in 2011 was 838 females per 1,000 males in the island
city, 857 in the suburbs, and 848 as a whole in Greater Mumbai, all
numbers lower than the national average of 914 females per 1,000
males. The low sex ratio is partly because of the large number of male
migrants who come to the city to work. _ "Parsis of Bombay_", a
wood engraving, _ca._ 1878.
Mumbai is home to the largest population
of Parsis in the world.
Mumbai call themselves _
Mumbaikar _, _Mumbaiite_,
_Bombayite_ or _Bombaiite_.
Mumbai has a large polyglot population
like any other metropolitan city of India. Sixteen major languages of
India are also spoken in Mumbai, most common being Marathi ,
Gujarati and English. English is extensively spoken and is the
principal language of the city's white collar workforce. A colloquial
form of Hindi, known as _
Bambaiya _ – a blend of Marathi,
Indian English and some invented words –
is spoken on the streets.
Mumbai suffers from the same major urbanisation problems seen in many
fast growing cities in developing countries : widespread poverty and
unemployment, poor public health and poor civic and educational
standards for a large section of the population. With available land
at a premium,
Mumbai residents often reside in cramped, relatively
expensive housing, usually far from workplaces, and therefore
requiring long commutes on crowded mass transit, or clogged roadways.
Many of them live in close proximity to bus or train stations although
suburban residents spend significant time travelling southward to the
main commercial district.
Dharavi , Asia's second largest slum (if
Karachi 's Orangi Town is counted as a single slum) is located in
Mumbai and houses between 800,000 and one million people in
2.39 square kilometres (0.92 sq mi), making it one of the most densely
populated areas on Earth with a population density of at least
334,728 persons per square kilometre.
The number of migrants to
Mumbai from outside
Maharashtra during the
1991–2001 decade was 1.12 million, which amounted to 54.8% of the
net addition to the population of Mumbai.
The number of households in
Mumbai is forecast to rise from 4.2
million in 2008 to 6.6 million in 2020. The number of households with
annual incomes of 2 million rupees will increase from 4% to 10% by
2020, amounting to 660,000 families. The number of households with
incomes from 1–2 million rupees is also estimated to increase from
4% to 15% by 2020. According to Report of Central Pollution Control
Board (CPCB) 2016
Mumbai is the noisiest city in
India before Lucknow
ETHNIC GROUPS AND RELIGIONS
Others include Sikhs width:65.99%; overflow: hidden;">
The religious groups represented in
Mumbai as of 2011 include Hindus
Muslims (20.65%), Buddhists (4.85%), Jains (4.10%),
Christians (3.27%), Sikhs (0.58%), with Parsis and
Jews making up
the rest of the population. The linguistic/ethnic demographics are:
Gujaratis (19%), with the rest hailing from
other parts of India.
Christians include East Indian Catholics , who were converted
by the Portuguese during the 16th century, while Goan and Mangalorean
Catholics also constitute a significant portion of the Christian
community of the city.
Jews settled in Bombay during the 18th
century. The Bene Israeli Jewish community of Bombay, who migrated
Konkan villages, south of Bombay, are believed to be the
descendants of the
Jews of Israel who were shipwrecked off the Konkan
coast, probably in the year 175 BCE, during the reign of the Greek
Antiochus IV Epiphanes .
Mumbai is also home to the largest
Parsi Zoroastrians in the world, numbering about 60,000
though with a sharply declining population. Parsis migrated to India
from Pars (Persia/
Iran ) following the
Muslim conquest of Persia in
the seventh century. The oldest Muslim communities in
the Dawoodi Bohras , Ismaili
Khojas , and
Asiatic Society of Bombay is one
of the oldest public libraries in the city.
Mumbai's culture is a blend of traditional festivals, food, music,
and theatres. The city offers a cosmopolitan and diverse lifestyle
with a variety of food, entertainment, and night life, available in a
form and abundance comparable to that in other world capitals.
Mumbai's history as a major trading centre has led to a diverse range
of cultures, religions, and cuisines coexisting in the city. This
unique blend of cultures is due to the migration of people from all
India since the British period.
Mumbai is the birthplace of
Indian cinema —
Dadasaheb Phalke laid
the foundations with silent movies followed by Marathi talkies —and
the oldest film broadcast took place in the early 20th century.
Mumbai also has a large number of cinema halls that feature Bollywood,
Marathi and Hollywood movies. The
Mumbai International Film Festival
and the award ceremony of the
Filmfare Awards , the oldest and
prominent film awards given for
Hindi film industry in India, are held
in Mumbai. Despite most of the professional theatre groups that
formed during the
British Raj having disbanded by the 1950s, Mumbai
has developed a thriving "theatre movement" tradition in Marathi,
Hindi, English, and other regional languages.
Contemporary art is featured in both government-funded art spaces and
private commercial galleries. The government-funded institutions
Jehangir Art Gallery and the National Gallery of Modern
Art . Built in 1833, the
Asiatic Society of Bombay is one of the
oldest public libraries in the city. The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
Vastu Sangrahalaya (formerly The Prince of Wales Museum) is a renowned
South Mumbai which houses rare ancient exhibits of Indian
Mumbai has a zoo named
Jijamata Udyaan (formerly Victoria Gardens),
which also harbours a garden. The rich literary traditions of the city
have been highlighted internationally by
Booker Prize winners Salman
Aravind Adiga .
Marathi literature has been modernised in
the works of Mumbai-based authors such as Mohan Apte,
Anant Kanekar ,
Gangadhar Gadgil , and is promoted through an annual Sahitya
Akademi Award , a literary honour bestowed by India's National Academy
of Letters .
Girgaum Chowpatty beach. Beaches are a popular
tourist attraction in the city.
Mumbai residents celebrate both Western and
Indian festivals . Diwali
Holi , Eid , Christmas,
Good Friday , Dussera , Moharram
Ganesh Chaturthi ,
Durga Puja and
Maha Shivratri are some of the
popular festivals in the city. The
Kala Ghoda Arts Festival is an
exhibition of a world of arts that encapsulates works of artists in
the fields of music, dance, theatre, and films. A week-long annual
fair known as
Bandra Fair , starting on the following Sunday after 8
September, is celebrated by people of all faiths, to commemorate the
Nativity of Mary , mother of Jesus, on 8 September.
The Banganga Festival is a two-day music festival, held annually in
the month of January, which is organised by the
Development Corporation (MTDC) at the historic
Banganga Tank in
Mumbai. The Elephanta Festival—celebrated every February on the
Elephanta Islands —is dedicated to classical Indian dance and music
and attracts performers from across the country. Public holidays
specific to the city and the state include
Maharashtra Day on 1 May,
to celebrate the formation of
Maharashtra state on 1 May 1960, and
Gudi Padwa which is the New Year's Day for
Marathi people .
Beaches are a major tourist attraction in the city. The major beaches
Girgaum Chowpatty ,
Juhu Beach ,
Dadar Chowpatty, Gorai
Marve Beach , Versova Beach, Madh Beach,
Aksa Beach , and
Manori Beach. Most of the beaches are unfit for swimming, except
Girgaum Chowpatty and
Essel World is a theme park and
amusement centre situated close to
Gorai Beach, and includes Asia's
largest theme water park, Water Kingdom.
Adlabs Imagica opened in
April 2013 is located near the city of
Khopoli off the Mumbai-Pune
List of Mumbai radio stations _ The Times of
first office is opposite the
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus where it was
Mumbai has numerous newspaper publications, television and radio
stations. Marathi dailies enjoy the maximum readership share in the
city and the top
Marathi language newspapers are _
Maharashtra Times _,
_Navakaal _, _
Lokmat _, _Loksatta _, _
Mumbai Chaufer_, _
Saamana _ and
Sakaal _. Popular
Marathi language magazines are _Saptahik Sakaal_,
_Grihashobhika_, _Lokrajya_, _Lokprabha_ ">
Rajabai Clock Tower at
University of Mumbai
Mumbai are either "municipal schools" (run by the
or private schools (run by trusts or individuals), which in some cases
receive financial aid from the government. The schools are affiliated
with either of the following boards
Maharashtra State Board (MSBSHSE)
* The All-
India Council for the Indian School Certificate
National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS)
* The Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE)
International Baccalaureate (IB)
* The International General Certificate of Secondary Education
(IGCSE). Marathi or English is the usual language of instruction.
The primary education system of the
MCGM is the largest urban primary
education system in Asia. The
MCGM operates 1,188 primary schools
imparting primary education to 485,531 students in eight languages
Hindi , Gujarati ,
Urdu , English, Tamil , Telugu , and
Kannada ). The
MCGM also imparts secondary education to 55,576
students through its 49 secondary schools.
University of Mumbai
Under the 10+2+3/4 plan , students complete ten years of schooling
and then enroll for two years in junior college , where they select
one of three streams: arts, commerce, or science. This is followed by
either a general degree course in a chosen field of study, or a
professional degree course, such as law, engineering and medicine.
Most colleges in the city are affiliated with the University of Mumbai
, one of the largest universities in the world in terms of the number
University of Mumbai is one of the premier universities in
India. It was ranked 41 among the Top 50
Engineering Schools of the
world by America's news broadcasting firm _
Business Insider _ in 2012
and was the only university in the list from the five emerging BRICS
nations viz Brazil, Russia, India,
China and South Africa. Moreover,
University of Mumbai was ranked 5th in the list of best
India by _
India Today _ in 2013 and ranked at 62 in
the QS BRICS University rankings for 2013, a ranking of leading
universities in the five BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China
and South Africa). Its strongest scores in the QS University
Rankings: BRICS are for papers per faculty (8th), employer reputation
(20th) and citations per paper (28th). It was ranked 10th among the
top Universities of
India by QS in 2013. With 7 of the top ten Indian
Universities being purely science and technology universities, it was
India's 3rd best Multi Disciplinary University in the QS University
ranking. Indian Institute of Technology,
Mumbai is a premier
engineering institute in the country
The Indian Institute of Technology (Bombay) , Veermata Jijabai
Technological Institute (VJTI), University Institute of Chemical
Technology which are India's premier engineering and technology
schools, and SNDT Women\'s University are the other autonomous
universities in Mumbai. Thadomal Shahani
Engineering College is the
first and the oldest private engineering college affiliated to the
University of Mumbai and is also pioneered to be the first
institute in the city's university to offer undergraduate level
courses in Computer
Information Technology , Biomedical
Grant Medical College established in
Seth G.S. Medical College are the leading medical institutes
affiliated with Sir Jamshedjee Jeejeebhoy Group of Hospitals and KEM
Mumbai is also home to National Institute of
Engineering (NITIE), Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management
Studies (JBIMS), Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies
(NMIMS), S P
Jain Institute of Management and Research , Tata
Institute of Social Sciences (TISS) and several other management
schools. Government Law College and
Sydenham College , respectively
the oldest law and commerce colleges in India, are based in Mumbai.
Sir J. J. School of Art is Mumbai's oldest art institution.
Mumbai is home to two prominent research institutions: the Tata
Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), and the Bhabha Atomic
Research Centre (BARC). The BARC operates
CIRUS , a 40 MW nuclear
research reactor at their facility in
Brabourne Stadium , one of the oldest cricket stadiums in the
country Built in 1883,
Mahalaxmi Racecourse was created out of a
marshy land known as Mahalakshmi Flats.
Cricket is more popular than any other sport in the city. Due to a
shortage of grounds, various modified versions (generally referred to
as gully cricket) are played everywhere.
Mumbai is also home to the
Board of Control for
India (BCCI) and Indian Premier
League (IPL). The
Mumbai cricket team represents the city in the
Ranji Trophy and has won 40 titles, the most by any team. The city is
also represented by the
Mumbai Indians in the
Indian Premier League .
The city has two international cricket grounds, the Wankhede Stadium
Brabourne Stadium . The first cricket test match in
Mumbai at the
Bombay Gymkhana . The biggest cricketing
event to be staged in the city so far is the final of the 2011 ICC
Cricket World Cup which was played at the Wankhede Stadium.
London are the only two cities to have hosted both a World Cup final
and the final of an
ICC Champions Trophy which was played at the
Brabourne Stadium in 2006 .
Football is another popular sport in the city, with the FIFA World
Cup and the English
Premier League being followed widely. In the
Indian Super League ,
Mumbai City FC represents the city; while in the
I-League (matches in the city are played at the
Cooperage Ground ),
the city is represented by two teams:
Mumbai FC and Air-
When the Elite
Football League of
India was introduced in August 2011,
Mumbai was noted as one of eight cities to be awarded a team for the
inaugural season. Named the
Mumbai Gladiators , the team's first
season was played in
Pune in late 2012, and it will be Mumbai's first
American football franchise . In Hockey ,
Mumbai is home
Mumbai Marines and
Mumbai Magicians in the World Series Hockey
India League respectively. Matches in the city are played
Mahindra Hockey Stadium .
Rugby is another growing sport in
Mumbai with league matches being
held at the
Bombay Gymkhana from June to November.
Mumbai holds derby races at the Mahalaxmi Racecourse
. Mcdowell\'s Derby is also held in February at the Turf Club in
Mumbai. In March 2004, the
Mumbai Grand Prix was part of the F1
powerboat world championship , and the Force
India F1 team car was
unveiled in the city, in 2008. The city is planning to build its own
F1 track and various sites in the city were being chalked out, of
which the authorities have planned to zero down on Marve-
Kalyan land. If approved, the track will be clubbed with a
theme park and will spread over an area of some 160 to 200 ha (400 to
500 acres). In 2004, the annual
Mumbai Marathon was established as a
part of "
The Greatest Race on Earth ".
Mumbai had also played host to
Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open , an International Series
tournament of the ATP World Tour , in 2006 and 2007.
CURRENT REGIONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SPORTS TEAMS FROM MUMBAI
Mumbai cricket team
Vijay Hazare Trophy
Syed Musthaq Ali Trophy
Brabourne Stadium 1930
Maharashtra football team
Indian Premier League
Brabourne Stadium 2008
World Series Hockey
Mahindra Hockey Stadium
Football League of
Mahindra Hockey Stadium
Mumbai City FC
Indian Super League
Pro Kabaddi League
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Indoor Stadium
Mumbai Tennis Masters
Champions Tennis League
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