MULLAH (/ˈmʌlə, ˈmʊlə, ˈmuːlə/ ; Arabic : ملا,
Azerbaijani : Molla, Persian : ملا / Mollâ, Turkish : Molla,
Bengali : মোল্লা) is derived from the Arabic word
مَوْلَى mawlā, meaning "vicar", "master" and "guardian".
However, used ambiguously in the
The term mullah is primarily understood in the
* 1 Training and duties
* 2 Usage
* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links
TRAINING AND DUTIES
Ideally, a trained mullah will have studied Islamic traditions
(hadith ), and Islamic law (fiqh ). Such figures often have memorized
the Qur\'an . Uneducated villagers may frequently classify a literate
Mullahs have frequently been involved in politics, but only recently
have they served in positions of power, since Islamists seized power
The term is most often applied to Shi'ite clerics, as Shi\'a
The term has also been used among
Persian Jews ,
Outside of Eastern Arabia, which has a long Shiite tradition and numerous Shiite minorities, the term is seldom used in other Arabic-speaking areas where its nearest equivalent is often shaykh (implying formal Islamic training), imam (prayer leader; not to be confused with the imams of the Shiite world), or ʿālim ("scholar", plural ʿulamāʾ). In the Sunni world, the concept of "cleric" is of limited usefulness, as authority in the religious system is relatively decentralized.
The term is frequently used in English, although English-speaking
It is sometimes used in a derogatory and humorous form, to mock gnostically religious men.
Until the early 20th century, the term mullah was used in Iranian hawzas (seminaries) to refer to low-level clergy who specialized in telling stories of Ashura , rather than teaching or issuing fatwas . Today, the term is sometimes used as a derogatory term for any Islamic cleric. In recent years, at least among Shia clerics, the term ruhani (spiritual) has been promoted as an alternative to mullah and akhoond , free of pejorative connotations.
* This article incorporates text from Chinese and Japanese repository of facts and events in science, history and art, relating to Eastern Asia, Volume 1, a publication from 1863 now in the public domain in the United States.
* ^ Esposito, John (2004). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. p. 214. * ^ Roy, Olivier (1994). The Failure of Political Islam. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 28–9. ISBN 0-674-29140-9 . * ^ See for example: "Rabbinic Succession in Bukhara 1790–1930", * ^ Taheri, Amir (1985). The Spirit of Allah: Khomeini and the Islamic Revolution. Bethesda, Md.: Adler & Adler. p. 53. ISBN 0-917561-04-X . * ^ Chinese and Japanese repository of facts and events in science, history and art, relating to Eastern Asia, Volume 1. Oxford: s.n. 1863. p. 48. Retrieved 2011-07-06. (Original from the University of Michigan) * ^ Momen, Moojan , An Introduction to Shi'i Islam, Yale University Press, 1985, p. 203
* "Mollah". New International