HOME
The Info List - Mulasarvastivada


--- Advertisement ---



The Mūlasarvāstivāda (Sanskrit; traditional Chinese: 根本說一切有部; ; pinyin: Gēnběn Shuō Yīqièyǒu Bù) was one of the early Buddhist schools of India. The origins of the Mūlasarvāstivāda and their relationship to the Sarvāstivāda sect still remain largely unknown, although various theories exist. The continuity of the Mūlasarvāstivāda monastic order remains in Tibetan Buddhism, although until recently, only Mūlasarvāstivādin bhikṣus (monks) existed: the bhikṣuṇī order had never been introduced.

Contents

1 History

1.1 In India 1.2 In Central Asia 1.3 In Śrīvijaya

2 Vinaya
Vinaya
lineage 3 References 4 Further reading

History[edit] In India[edit] The relationship of the Mūlasarvāstivāda to the Sarvāstivāda school is a matter of dispute; modern scholars lean towards classifying them as independent.[1] Yijing claimed that they derived their name from being an offshoot of Sarvāstivāda, but Buton Rinchen Drub stated that the name was a homage to Sarvāstivāda as the "root" (mūla) of all Buddhist schools.[2] A number of theories have been posited by academics as to how the two are related, which Bhikkhu Sujato summaries as follows:

The uncertainty around this school has led to a number of hypotheses. Frauwallner’s theory holds that the Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya
Vinaya
is the disciplinary code of an early Buddhist community based in Mathura, which was quite independent in its establishment as a monastic community from the Sarvāstivādins of Kaśmir (although of course this does not mean that they were different in terms of doctrine). Lamotte, opposing Frauwallner, asserts that the Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya
Vinaya
was a late Kaśmīr compilation made to complete the Sarvāstivādin Vinaya. Warder suggests that the Mūlasarvāstivādins were a later development of the Sarvāstivāda, whose main innovations were literary, the compilation of the large Vinaya
Vinaya
and the Saddharmasmṛtyupasthāna Sūtra, which kept the early doctrines but brought the style up to date with contemporary literary developments. Enomoto pulls the rug out from all these theories by asserting that Sarvāstivādin and Mūlasarvāstivādin are really the same. Meanwhile, Willemen, Dessein, and Cox have developed the theory that the Sautrantikas, a branch or tendency within the Sarvāstivādin group of schools, emerged in Gandhāra
Gandhāra
and Bactria around 200 CE. Although they were the earlier group, they temporarily lost ground to the Kaśmīr Vaibhāśika school due to the political influence of Kaṇiṣka. In later years the Sautrantikas became known as Mūlasarvāstivādins and regained the ascendancy. I have elsewhere given my reasons for disagreeing with the theories of Enomoto and Willemen et al. Neither Warder nor Lamotte give sufficient evidence to back up their theories. We are left with Frauwallner's theory, which in this respect has stood the test of time.[3]

According to Gregory Schopen, the Mūlasarvāstivāda developed during the 2nd century CE and went into decline in India
India
by the 7th century.[4] In Central Asia[edit] The Mūlasarvāstivāda were prevalent at times throughout Central Asia due to missionary activities performed in the region. A number of scholars identify three distinct major phases of missionary activities seen in the history of Buddhism
Buddhism
in Central Asia, which are associated with the following sects chronologically:[5]

Dharmaguptaka Sarvāstivāda Mūlasarvāstivāda

In Śrīvijaya[edit] In the 7th century, Yijing writes that the Mūlasarvāstivāda were prominent throughout the kingdom of Śrīvijaya (modern day Indonesia). Yijing stayed in Śrīvijaya for six to seven years, during which time he studied Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and translated Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts into Chinese. Yijing states that the Mūlasarvāstivāda vinaya was almost universally adopted in this area.[6] He writes that the subjects studied, as well as the rules and ceremonies, were essentially the same in this region as they were in India.[7] Yijing described these islands as generally "Hīnayāna" in orientation, but writes that the Melayu Kingdom
Melayu Kingdom
included Mahāyāna
Mahāyāna
teachings such as Asaṅga's Yogācārabhūmi Śāstra. Vinaya
Vinaya
lineage[edit] The Mūlasarvāstivāda vinaya is one of three surviving vinaya lineages, along with the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
and Theravāda. The Tibetan Emperor Ralpacan
Ralpacan
restricted Buddhist ordination to the Mūlasarvāstivādin vinaya. As Mongolian Buddhism
Buddhism
was introduced from Tibet, Mongolian ordination follows this rule as well. The Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya
Vinaya
is extant in Tibetan (9th century translation) and Chinese (8th century translation), and to some extent in the original Sanskrit. References[edit]

^ Charles Willemen, Bart Dessein, Collett Cox. Sarvāstivāda Buddhist scholasticism. Brill, 1988. p.88. ^ Elizabeth Cook. Light of Liberation: A History of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India. Dharma
Dharma
Publishing, 1992. p. 237 ^ Sects & Sectarianism BETA: The origins of Buddhist Schools [1] ^ Gregory Schopen. Figments and fragments of Māhāyana Buddhism
Buddhism
in India. University of Hawaii Press, 2005. pp.76-77. ^ Willemen, Charles. Dessein, Bart. Cox, Collett. Sarvastivada Buddhist Scholasticism. 1997. p. 126 ^ Coedes, George. The Indianized States of South-East Asia. 1968. p. 84 ^ J. Takakusu (1896). A Record of the Buddhist Religion : As Practised in India
India
and the Malay Archipelago (A.D. 671-695)/I-Tsing. Oxford: Clarendon. Reprint: New Delhi, AES 2005. ISBN 81-206-1622-7. [page needed]

Further reading[edit]

Yamagiwa Nobuyuki (2003). "Recent Studies on Vinaya
Vinaya
Manuscripts". Journal of Indian and Buddhist studies 52 (1), 339-333 Satoshi Hiraoka (1998). "The Relation between the Divyavadana and the Mulasarvastivada
Mulasarvastivada
Vinaya". Journal of Indian Philosophy 26 (5), 419-434

v t e

Buddhism
Buddhism
topics

Glossary Index Outline

Foundations

Three Jewels

Buddha Dharma Sangha

Four Noble Truths Noble Eightfold Path Nirvana Middle Way

The Buddha

Tathāgata Birthday Four sights Physical characteristics Footprint Relics Iconography in Laos and Thailand Films Miracles Family

Suddhodāna (father) Māyā (mother) Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) Yasodhara (wife) Rāhula
Rāhula
(son) Ānanda (cousin) Devadatta
Devadatta
(cousin)

Places where the Buddha stayed Buddha in world religions

Key concepts

Avidyā (Ignorance) Bardo Bodhicitta Bodhisattva Buddha-nature Dhamma theory Dharma Enlightenment Five hindrances Indriya Karma Kleshas Mind Stream Parinirvana Pratītyasamutpāda Rebirth Saṃsāra Saṅkhāra Skandha Śūnyatā Taṇhā
Taṇhā
(Craving) Tathātā Ten Fetters Three marks of existence

Impermanence Dukkha Anatta

Two truths doctrine

Cosmology

Ten spiritual realms Six realms

Deva (Buddhism) Human realm Asura realm Hungry Ghost realm Animal realm Hell

Three planes of existence

Practices

Bhavana Bodhipakkhiyādhammā Brahmavihara

Mettā Karuṇā Mudita Upekkha

Buddhābhiseka Dāna Devotion Dhyāna Faith Five Strengths Iddhipada Meditation

Mantras Kammaṭṭhāna Recollection Smarana Anapanasati Samatha Vipassanā
Vipassanā
(Vipassana movement) Shikantaza Zazen Kōan Mandala Tonglen Tantra Tertön Terma

Merit Mindfulness

Satipatthana

Nekkhamma Pāramitā Paritta Puja

Offerings Prostration Chanting

Refuge Satya

Sacca

Seven Factors of Enlightenment

Sati Dhamma vicaya Pīti Passaddhi

Śīla

Five Precepts Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
vow Prātimokṣa

Threefold Training

Śīla Samadhi Prajñā

Vīrya

Four Right Exertions

Nirvana

Bodhi Bodhisattva Buddhahood Pratyekabuddha Four stages of enlightenment

Sotāpanna Sakadagami Anāgāmi Arhat

Monasticism

Bhikkhu Bhikkhuni Śrāmaṇera Śrāmaṇerī Anagarika Ajahn Sayadaw Zen
Zen
master Rōshi Lama Rinpoche Geshe Tulku Householder Upāsaka and Upāsikā Śrāvaka

The ten principal disciples

Shaolin Monastery

Major figures

Gautama Buddha Kaundinya Assaji Sāriputta Mahamoggallāna Mulian Ānanda Mahākassapa Anuruddha Mahākaccana Nanda Subhuti Punna Upali Mahapajapati Gotamī Khema Uppalavanna Asita Channa Yasa Buddhaghoṣa Nagasena Angulimala Bodhidharma Nagarjuna Asanga Vasubandhu Atiśa Padmasambhava Nichiren Songtsen Gampo Emperor Wen of Sui Dalai Lama Panchen Lama Karmapa Shamarpa Naropa Xuanzang Zhiyi

Texts

Tripiṭaka Madhyamakālaṃkāra Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras Pāli Canon Chinese Buddhist canon Tibetan Buddhist canon

Branches

Theravada Mahayana

Chan Buddhism

Zen Seon Thiền

Pure Land Tiantai Nichiren Madhyamaka Yogachara

Navayana Vajrayana

Tibetan Shingon Dzogchen

Early Buddhist schools Pre-sectarian Buddhism Basic points unifying Theravāda
Theravāda
and Mahāyāna

Countries

Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China India Indonesia Japan Korea Laos Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Russia

Kalmykia Buryatia

Singapore Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Tibet Vietnam Middle East

Iran

Western countries

Argentina Australia Brazil France United Kingdom United States Venezuela

History

Timeline Ashoka Buddhist councils History of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution Greco-Buddhism Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Roman world Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West Silk Road transmission of Buddhism Persecution of Buddhists Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal Buddhist crisis Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism Buddhist modernism Vipassana movement 969 Movement Women in Buddhism

Philosophy

Abhidharma Atomism Buddhology Creator Economics Eight Consciousnesses Engaged Buddhism Eschatology Ethics Evolution Humanism Logic Reality Secular Buddhism Socialism The unanswered questions

Culture

Architecture

Temple Vihara Wat Stupa Pagoda Candi Dzong architecture Japanese Buddhist architecture Korean Buddhist temples Thai temple art and architecture Tibetan Buddhist architecture

Art

Greco-Buddhist

Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree Budai Buddharupa Calendar Cuisine Funeral Holidays

Vesak Uposatha Magha Puja Asalha Puja Vassa

Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi Kasaya Mahabodhi Temple Mantra

Om mani padme hum

Mudra Music Pilgrimage

Lumbini Maya Devi Temple Bodh Gaya Sarnath Kushinagar

Poetry Prayer beads Prayer wheel Symbolism

Dharmachakra Flag Bhavacakra Swastika Thangka

Temple of the Tooth Vegetarianism

Miscellaneous

Abhijñā Amitābha Avalokiteśvara

Guanyin

Brahmā Dhammapada Dharma
Dharma
talk Hinayana Kalpa Koliya Lineage Maitreya Māra Ṛddhi Sacred languages

Pali Sanskrit

Siddhi Sutra Vinaya

Comparison

Bahá'í Faith Christianity

Influences Comparison

East Asian religions Gnosticism Hinduism Jainism Judaism Psychology Science Theosophy Violence Western philosophy

Lists

Bodhisattvas Books Buddhas

named

Buddhists Suttas Temples

.