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Muḥarram (Arabic: مُحَرَّم‎ muḥarram) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. It is one of the four sacred months of the year.[1] It is held to be the holiest month, Ramadan coming after. The word "Muharram" means "forbidden". Since the Islamic calendar
Islamic calendar
is a lunar calendar, Muharram
Muharram
moves from year to year when compared with the Gregorian calendar. The tenth day of Muharram
Muharram
is the Day of Ashura, which to Shia
Shia
Muslims is part of the Mourning of Muharram. Sunni
Sunni
Muslims fast during this day, because it is recorded in the hadith[2] that Musa (Moses) and his people obtained a victory over the Egyptian Pharaoh
Pharaoh
on the 10th day of Muharram; accordingly Muhammad
Muhammad
asked Muslims to fast on this day that is Ashura and on a day before that is 9th (called Tasu'a). Shia Muslims mourn the death of Imam Hussein (as )and his family, respecting the sacrifice of the martyrs by praying in abundance and refraining from all joyous events. During Muharram, Shia
Shia
Muslims do different things and with different intentions. Shia
Shia
Muslims observe and respect Muharram
Muharram
as the month that martyred Hussein ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad
Muhammad
and son of Ali, in the Battle of Karbala. They mourn for Hussein ibn Ali
Hussein ibn Ali
and refrain from all joyous events. Unlike Sunni
Sunni
Muslims, Shias do not fast on the 10th day of Muharram.[3] In addition there is an important Ziyarat
Ziyarat
book, the Ziyarat
Ziyarat
Ashura about Hussein ibn Ali. In the Shia sect it is popular to read this ziyarat on the "Day of Ashura", although most of the Shias try to read Ziyarat
Ziyarat
Ashura every day and they send salutations to Hussein ibn Ali.[4]

Contents

1 Muharram
Muharram
and Ashura

1.1 Muharram
Muharram
and Ashura to the Shia

2 Timing for Muharram 3 Incidents occurred during this month 4 Hadith 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Muharram
Muharram
and Ashura[edit] With the sighting of the new moon, the Islamic New Year
Islamic New Year
is ushered in. The first month, Muharram, is one of the four sacred months that Allah has mentioned in the Quran: Muharram, Rajab, Dhu al-Qi'dah, and Dhu al-Hijjah. Even before Islam
Islam
came, Quraish and Arabs as a whole knew the sanctity of the months and were forbidden to wage war on those months. Muharram
Muharram
and Ashura to the Shia[edit] Main article: Mourning of Muharram

Shia
Shia
Muslims in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Tanzania
in a Hussainia
Hussainia
as part of the commemoration of Muharram

Shia
Shia
Muslim
Muslim
children in Amroha, India
India
on camels in front of Azakhana as part of the procession commemorating events on and after Day of Ashura

Muharram
Muharram
is a month of remembrance and modern Shia
Shia
meditation that is often considered synonymous with Ashura. Ashura, which literally means the "Tenth" in Arabic, refers to the tenth day of Muharram. It is well-known because of historical significance and mourning for the murder of Hussein ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad.[5] Shiite begin mourning from the first night of Muharram
Muharram
and continue for ten nights, climaxing on the 10th of Muharram, known as the Day of Ashura. The last few days up until and including the Day of Ashura
Day of Ashura
are the most important because these were the days in which Imam Hussein and his family and followers (including women, children and elderly people) were deprived of water from the 7th onward and on the 10th, Imam Hussain and 72 of his followers were killed by the army of Yazid I at the Battle of Karbala
Battle of Karbala
on Yazid's orders. The surviving members of Imam Hussein's family and those of his followers were taken captive, marched to Damascus, and imprisoned there. Timing for Muharram[edit] The Islamic calendar
Islamic calendar
is a lunar calendar, and months begin when the first crescent of a new moon is sighted. Since the Islamic lunar calendar year is 10 to 11 days shorter than the solar year, Muharram migrates throughout the solar years. The estimated start and end dates for Muharram
Muharram
are as follows (based on the Umm al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia:[6])

AH First day (CE / AD) Last day (CE / AD)

1437 14 October 2015 12 November 2015

1438 02 October 2016 31 October 2016

1439 21 September 2017 20 October 2017

1440 11 September 2018 09 October 2018

1441 31 August 2019 29 September 2019

1442 20 August 2020 17 September 2020

Muharram
Muharram
dates between 2015 and 2020

The approximate dates for the next Muharram
Muharram
is from 21 September 2017 to 20 October 2017.[7][8] Incidents occurred during this month[edit]

Scenes in the procession at the Mohurrum festival

01 Muharram: anniversary of the death of Hazrat Ammasaheb Bibi Habiba Qadri in India; Birth of the Báb
Báb
(forerunner of the Bahá'í Faith) in 1235 AH. Seizure of the Grand Mosque in AH 1400.and also Hazrat Umar 2nd caliph of Islam
Islam
was martyred on 1st Muharram 02 Muharram: Hussein ibn Ali
Hussein ibn Ali
enters Karbala
Karbala
and establishes camp. Yazid's forces are present. Birth of Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
(founder of the Bahá'í Faith) in 1233 AH. 7thMuharram: Access to water was banned to Husayn ibn Ali
Ali
by Yazid's orders. 10th Muharram: Referred to as the Day of Ashurah (lit. "the tenth") was the day on which Hussein ibn Ali
Hussein ibn Ali
was martyred in the Battle of Karbala. Shia
Shia
Muslims spend the day in mourning, whilst the Sunni Muslims fast on this day commemorating the rescue of the people of Israel by Musa (Moses) from Pharaoh[9]

Many Sufi
Sufi
Muslims fast for the same reason as the Sunnis mentioned above, but also for the martyred people in Karbala, they pray for them and send upon them peace and blessings.

15 Muharram: Birth of Muhammad
Muhammad
Sirajuddin Naqshbandi in 1297 AH (1879-1880 AD) 25 Muharram: Zayn al-‘Ābidīn, fourth Shia
Shia
Imam was martyred by Marvanian in 95 AH (714 AD).[10] 27 Muharram, Maytham al-Tammar
Maytham al-Tammar
was martyred. 28 Muharram: Death anniversary Urs
Urs
of Ashraf Jahangir Semnani
Ashraf Jahangir Semnani
in 808 AH (1405 AD) a great Sufi
Sufi
saint in India. Death anniversary Urs
Urs
of Baba Farid, a great Sufi
Sufi
saint in Pakistan for six days in Muharram.

Hadith[edit] In Islamic eschatology:

Abu Hurairah
Abu Hurairah
said that the Prophet said:

There will be an Ayah
Ayah
(sign) in (the month of) Ramadan. Then, there will 'isabah (splitting into groups) in Shawwal. Then, there will be fighting in (the month of) Dhu al-Qi'dah. Then, the pilgrim will be robbed in (the month of) Dhu al-Hijjah. Then, the prohibitions will be violated in (the month of) al-Muharram. Then, there will be sound in (the month of) Safar, then the tribes will conflict with each other in the two months of Rabi' al-awwal
Rabi' al-awwal
& Rabi' al-thani. Then, the most amazing thing will happen between (the months of) Jumada and Rajab. Then, a well-fed she-camel will be better than a fortress (castle) sheltering a thousand (people).[11]

See also[edit]

Islamic Calendar Day of Ashura Day of Tasu'a Hosay Rawda Khwani

References[edit]

^ The others are Dhu al-Qi'dah, Dhu al-Hijjah
Dhu al-Hijjah
and Rajab, The Islamic Calendar ^ Volume 3, Book 31, Number 223: Narrated Abu Musa: The day of 'Ashura' was considered as 'Id day by the Jews. So the Prophet ordered, "I recommend you (Muslims) to fast on this day." [1] ^ "Ashura of Muharram
Muharram
– A Shia
Shia
and Sunni
Sunni
Muslim
Muslim
Observance". iqrasense.com. Retrieved 10 October 2015.  ^ Ziyarat
Ziyarat
Ashoora - Importance, Rewards, and Effects ^ "Muharram". 2010-12-08. Retrieved 2010-12-08.  ^ Umm al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia ^ Gent, R.H. van. "The Umm al-Qura Calendar of Saudi Arabia".  ^ http://www.ummulqura.org.sa/Index.aspx ^ Sahih Bukhari 003.031.222-225 Archived November 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Allama Majlisi. Bihar al-Anwar. 46. pp. 152–154.  ^ Al-Haakim, Naim ibn Hammad, Kitab Al-Fitan

Further reading[edit]

Chelkowski, Peter J. ed. 1979. Ta’ziyeh: Ritual and Drama in Iran. New York: New York University Press. Cole, Juan. 1988. Roots of North Indian Shiism in Iran and Iraq: Religion and State in Avadh, 1722-1859. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Kartomi, Margaret. 1986. ‘Tabut - a Shia
Shia
Ritual Transplanted from India
India
to Sumatra’, in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Indonesia: Essays in Honour of Professor J.D. Legge, edited by David P. Chandler and M.C. Ricklefs, Australia: Monash University, Centre for Southeast Asian Studies, 141-162. Mason, P.H. (2016) Fight-dancing and the Festival: Tabuik in Pariaman, Indonesia, and Iemanjá in Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. Martial Arts Studies Journal, 2, 71-90. DOI: 10.18573/j.2016.10065 Pinault, David. 1992. The Shiites: Ritual and Popular Piety in a Muslim
Muslim
Community. London: I.B. Tauris.

External links[edit]

Commemoration of Muharram
Muharram
is permissible Optional prayers for Muharram, especially Qalbi Zikr Muharram
Muharram
Quotes and Wishes Matam (beating the chest) in Muharram  "Muharram". New International Encyclopedia. 1997.  [2] Allahabad Azadari.Com A day of mourning for Shiites Muharram
Muharram
in West Sumatra What is Muharram ?

v t e

Months of the Islamic calendar
Islamic calendar
(AH)

Muharram Safar Rabi' I Rabi' II Jumada I Jumada II Rajab Sha`ban Ramadan Shawwal Dhu al-Q

.