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Muḥammad al-Baqir, full name Muhammad
Muhammad
bin ' Ali
Ali
bin al-Husayn bin Ali bin Abi Talib, also known as Abu Ja'far or simply al-Baqir (Arabic: محمد الباقر‎, translit. al-Bāqir, lit. 'the one who opens knowledge')[2] (677-733) was the fifth Shia imam, succeeding his father Zayn al-Abidin
Zayn al-Abidin
and succeeded by his son Ja'far al-Sadiq. He was the first imam descended from both grandsons of Muhammad: Hasan ibn Ali
Ali
and Husayn ibn Ali. He is revered by Shiite Muslims for his religious leadership, and respected by Sunni Muslims for his knowledge and Islamic scholarship as a jurist in Medina.[4][5]

Contents

1 Birth and early life 2 Name 3 Imamate

3.1 Division

4 Under the Umayyad
Umayyad
rulers 5 Works

5.1 Ma'athiru'l-Baqir 5.2 Umm al-Kitab 5.3 Tafsir al-Baqir

6 Selected sayings 7 Death 8 See also 9 Footnotes 10 References

Birth and early life[edit] Al-Baqir had a prominent lineage, his paternal and maternal grandfathers, Husayn ibn Ali
Husayn ibn Ali
and Hasan ibn Ali, were Muhammad's grandsons: His father was Ali ibn Husayn
Ali ibn Husayn
Zayn al-Abidin
Zayn al-Abidin
(son of Husayn, the second son of Ali) and his mother, Fatima Umm Abd Allah, was a daughter of al-Hasan (the first son of Ali). Al-Baqir was born in Medina
Medina
around 56 AH (676 AD), when Muawiyah I was trying to ensure that his son Yazid I
Yazid I
could inherit the caliphate. When Al-Baqir was a child, his family was affected by the Battle of Karbala; he was three or four years old when his grandfather, Husayn, was killed. According to Ya'qubi, al-Baqir was present at Karbala. In his youth he witnessed the struggle for power among the Umayyads, Abd Allah
Allah
ibn al-Zubayr and a number of Shiite parties, whilst his father maintained a distance from local political activity.[6][7] Name[edit] Al-Baqir is an abbreviation of Baqir al-'ilm, which means "he who opens knowledge", and al-Baqir is said to have been known for his knowledge. According to Ibn Khallikan, he received the nickname "al-Baqir" (the ample) due to the "ample fund of knowledge" he collected. However, Ya'qubi believed that he was called al-Baqir because he "split open knowledge", examining its depths.[a][7] The Shiites believe that Baqir al-'ilm was not an ordinary title, because it was given to him by Muhammad. According to al-Kulayni, Muhammad's only living companion Jabir ibn Abd Allah
Jabir ibn Abd Allah
would sit in the mosque and cry: "Ya baqir al-ilm, Ya baqir al-ilm". Although Medinans thought that Jabir was insane, he assured them that Muhammad
Muhammad
had told him: "O Jabir! You will meet a man from my family who will have the same name and the same characteristics as mine. He will split open knowledge extensively."[6] According to al-Kulayni, Jabir ibn Abd Allah
Jabir ibn Abd Allah
met al-Baqir when passing a Quran
Quran
school. Abd Allah
Allah
saw that the imam was still a child, and examined him to see if he had the features which Muhammad
Muhammad
had described. Jabir asked, "Characteristics of the Messenger of Allah; by Him in whose hands is my soul, O boy, what is your name?"[6] When al-Baqir answered that he was Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ali
Ali
ibn al-Husayn, Jabir "approached him, kissed his head and swore by his father and mother that Muhammad
Muhammad
had recited greeting upon him."[6][7] Imamate[edit] During the imamah of Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir, riots erupted throughout the Islamic world due to the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate's oppression. Disagreements within the Umayyad
Umayyad
party kept them occupied, and they left members of the household undisturbed for some time. However, tyranny in the Battle of Karbala
Battle of Karbala
had attracted many people to the imams. These conditions had permitted people (particularly the Shiites) to travel to Medina
Medina
in large groups and visit the imam freely. The possibility of spreading Islam
Islam
(which had not existed for the previous imams) was available to the fifth imam, indicated by a number of traditions about the imam and scholars trained under him.[b][5] Division[edit] After the death of Ali ibn Husayn
Ali ibn Husayn
Zayn al-Abidin
Zayn al-Abidin
(the fourth Imam), most of the Shiites agreed upon his son al-Baqir as the next imam; a minority favored another son of the imam (Zayd ibn Ali), and became known as Zaidiyyah. According to Ibn Khallikan,[c] Zaid (Muhammad al-Baqir's brother), appealed for people to support his cause. According to Al-Masudi, he asked for advice from Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir; al-Baqir advised him not to rely on the people of Kufa, explaining how they had previously behaved toward the members of his household. Zaid did not listen to his brother's advice, and led the people of Kufa
Kufa
in a fruitless riot. According to Al-Shahrastani,[d] a dispute had arisen between Muhammad al-Baqir and Zaid because Zaid had been following the Mu'tazilite Wasil ibn Ata. Zaid had also announced that the position of imam was conditional on his appearing publicly to assert his rights. Muhammad al-Baqir replied, "Your faith then is merely in your father, as such, for according to your theory he was not an imam, for he certainly never came forth to assert his claims."[5][7] Under the Umayyad
Umayyad
rulers[edit] Despite his non-involvement in political activities, the Umayyad rulers harassed Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir. Many Shia individuals and delegations came to Medina
Medina
from Kufa
Kufa
to hear al-Baqir's teachings and ask him questions,[8] among which was who had the right to rule.[9] He was also distrusted because of the uprising of his brother Zayd ibn Ali
Ali
and other relatives. Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik
made a pilgrimage to Mecca, where Mohammed al-Baqir and his son Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
were present. At a gathering, al-Baqir delivered a sermon: "We are the favorite and chosen servants of God, and His vicegerents on the face of the earth. One who obeys us is successful and one who opposes would be evil and wretched."[4] His statements were conveyed to Hisham, who wrote to the governor of Medina
Medina
when he returned to his court in Syria
Syria
instructing him to send al-Baqir and his son to Damascus. When they arrived, he kept them waiting for three days; on the fourth he called them to court, where he was practicing archery with his officials.[4] Works[edit] Ma'athiru'l-Baqir[edit] In Ma'athiru'l-Baqir the imam discussed a number of topics, from the nature of the soul and the qualities of the Ulama
Ulama
to the attributes of God and the divine nature (explaining that it was impossible for humans to understand it). A man asked him, "Should I think of anything (to understand Allah)?" The imam replied: "Yes, but you have to imagine a thing which the mind cannot contain and which is without limit. He is unlike whatever comes into your mind. Nothing resembles Him nor can any thought reach Him."[4] He also said, " Talk
Talk
about the creation of Allah, but do not talk about Allah
Allah
Himself, for that increases the owner of the talk nothing except perplexity."[4] He defined a Rasul as a prophet who hears and sees the angel in bodily form or in a dream. A Nabi is a prophet who hears but does not see the angel, and the imam is like the Nabi.[e] The imam was frequently asked to explain teachings about the imamate, which is also explained in Ma'athiru'l-Baqir (a summary of which is translated into English in Canon Sell's Ithna ʻAsharíyya or The Twelve Shiʻah Imams.[f][4][7][10] Umm al-Kitab[edit] Umm al-Kitab, or The Archetype of the Book, is in the form of a discussion between the imam and three companions. Resembling the Infancy Gospel of Thomas, it illustrates the similarity between imamology and gnostic Christology. A major concept of this work is the description of the numinous experience. Its central motif is the psychological and philosophical explanation of spiritual symbols, with believers instructed to perform acts of self-purification and renewal. Colors are used to symbolize theories and levels of consciousness which one must recognize in oneself.[11] Tafsir al-Baqir[edit] Tafsir al-baqir, or Tafsir Abul Jaroud, is al-Baqir's exegesis of the Quran. Ibn al-Nadim included this book in his list of exegeses of the Quran
Quran
in his Kitab al-Fihrist, writing that Abul Jaroud Ziyad ibn Abi Ziyad (the head of the Jarudiyya) reported al-Baqir's book. According to Sayyd Hasan al-Sadr, "A group of the reliable Shiites reported the book from him [Abul Jaroud] from the days of his righteousness"; among them was Abu Basïr Yahya bin al-Qasim al-Asadi. Ali
Ali
bin Ibrahï~m bin Hashim al-Qummi also mentioned it in his book, al-Tafsïr, by the authority of Abu Basïr.[4] Selected sayings[edit]

al-Baqir's hadith about humour

"The virtue of knowledge is more lovable with Allah
Allah
than the virtue of worship."[4] "The believer does not spend an expense more lovable with Allah
Allah
than saying the truth during consent and anger."[4] "Two kinds of my community have no share in Islam. (They are): the extremists and the fatalists."[4] "Whoever has three qualities or one of them will be in the shade of the throne of Allah: He should treat people with justice. He should do nothing unless he knows whether it pleases or angers Allah. He should seek no fault in his Muslim brother until he frees himself from that fault. For when he frees himself from a fault, he finds another fault in him. It is enough for the person that his own self diverts him from the people."[4] "I admonish you regarding five things: If you are wronged, do not commit wrongdoing to others. If you are betrayed, do not betray anyone, if you are called a liar, do not be furious. If you are praised, do not be jubilant. If you are criticized do not fret and think of what is said in criticism. If you find in yourself what is criticized about you, then you are falling down in the eyes of God. When you are furious at truth, it is a much greater calamity than you falling down in the eyes of the people. And if you are opposite of what is said (in criticism) about you, then it is a merit you acquired without having to tire yourself in obtaining it".[4] "How beautiful it is when goodness succeeds badness; and how unappealing it is when evil succeeds goodness".[12] "Being religious equals being extremely loving, and being extremely loving equals being religious".[13]

Death[edit]

The imam's desecrated grave at Al-Baqi'
Al-Baqi'
in Saudi Arabia

The cause and the time of the death of the fifth imam are unclear. According to some accounts al-Baqir was poisoned by Ibrahim ibn Walid ibn Abdallah, the nephew of Hisham. According to the Shiite account, the caliph gave Zaid a saddle treated with poison; Zaid gave it to the imam, who used it and died from the poison. Al-Baqir was laid to rest under the dome in Jannatul Baqee
Jannatul Baqee
where the imams Hasan ibn Ali
Hasan ibn Ali
and Zayn al-Abidin
Zayn al-Abidin
were buried.[5][7] See also[edit]

Shia Islam
Shia Islam
portal Islam
Islam
portal

Ali ibn Husayn
Ali ibn Husayn
Zayn al-Abidin Ja'far al-Sadiq Jabir ibn Abd Allah Zayd ibn Ali Zaidiyyah Mashhad-e Ardehal

Footnotes[edit]

^ See Ibn Khallikan, trans. de Slane, Vol. II, p. 579 and Ya'qubi, History, Vol. II, p. 384. ^ See the books of biographies of famous men in Islam
Islam
such as Irshad, pp.245-253. See also Kitab rijal al-Kashshi by Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Muhammad ibn ’Abd al-’Aziz Kashshi, Bombay, 1317; Kitab rijal al- Tusi by Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Hasan Tusi, Najaf, 1381; Kitab-i fihrist of Tusi, Calcutta, 1281: and other books of biography. ^ See Ibn Khallikan, trans. de Slane, Vol. III, p. 274. ^ See Shahrastani, Kjtab al-milal wa'l-nihal(The Book of Religious and Philosophical Sects) edit. Cureton, p. 116 ff. ^ The Imams, he asserts, are pure and free from the sin; that the world was under their rule, that through them the eye of God mercy falls on men; that if they did not exist, men would perish, and that they should not fear though worthless fellows might deny all this.[7] ^ An interesting part of which that shows the intellectual and spiritual character of the Imamate goes as follows: A man once asked the Imam, "Was the Prophet heir to all the knowledge of the prophets?" He replied, " Yes"; then he was asked if he had inherited it. He said he had. He was then asked whether he could raise the dead to life, restore sight to the blind, and cleanse the leper. He said, "Yes, by the valour of God Most High." He thus put his hand on the eyes of a man and blinded him, and then brought back his sight. Many more such stories are told.[7]

References[edit]

^ Shaykh al-Mufid. "The Infallibles - Taken from Kitab al Irshad". Retrieved 2009-05-19.  ^ a b A Brief History of The Fourteen Infallibles. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. 2004. p. 117.  ^ a b c d e f g al-Qarashi, Baqir Shareef. "3". The life of Imam Mohammad al-Baqir. Qum: Ansariyan Publications.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Sharif al-Qarashi, Baqir (1999). The Life of Imam
Imam
Mohammed al-Baqir; Chapter VI & VIII (PDF). Translated by Jasim al-Rasheed. Qum, Islamic Republic of Iran: Ansariyan Publications. ISBN 964-438-044-4.  ^ a b c d Tabatabai, Muhammad
Muhammad
Husayn (1975). Shiite Islam. Translated and Edited by Seyyed Hossein Nasr. State University of New York Press. pp. 68,179. ISBN 0-87395-390-8.  ^ a b c d Lalani, Arzina R. (March 9, 2001). Early Shi'i Thought: The Teachings of Imam
Imam
Muhammad
Muhammad
Al-Baqir. I. B. Tauris. pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-1860644344.  ^ a b c d e f g h Donaldson, Dwight M. (1933). The Shi'ite Religion: A History of Islam
Islam
in Persia and Irak. BURLEIGH PRESS. pp. 112–119.  ^ Dakake, Maria Massi (2007). The Charismatic Community: Shi'ite Identity in Early Islam. USA: State Univ of New York Pr. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-7914-7033-6.  ^ Meri, Josef W (2005). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia (1st ed.). Routledge. p. 523. ISBN 978-0-415-96690-0.  ^ Sell, Edward (1923). Ithna Asharíyya, or The twelve Shi'ah Imams, pp. 18-19. Publisher:. Madras, India: Christian Literature Society for India. pp. 18–19.  ^ Corbin, Henry (2001). The History of Islamic Philosophy. Translated by Liadain Sherrard with the assistance of Philip Sherrard. London and New York: Kegan Paul International. pp. 75–76.  ^ Muhammadi Reishahri, Muhammad
Muhammad
(2010). Mizan al-Hikmah. 3. Qum: Dar al-Hadith. p. 114.  ^ Muhammadi Reishahri, Muhammad
Muhammad
(2010). Mizan al-Hikmah. 2. Qum: Dar al-Hadith. p. 425. 

Shia Islam
Shia Islam
titles

Preceded by Zayn al-‘Ābidīn
Zayn al-‘Ābidīn
(‘Alī ibn Ḥusayn) 5th Imam
Imam
of Twelver
Twelver
and 4th Imam
Imam
of Ismaili Shia 713–733 Succeeded by Jaʿfar ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Sādiq

Find more about Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqirat's sister projects

Quotations from Wikiquote Data from Wikidata

v t e

Shia Imams

Twelver

Ali Hasan ibn Ali Husayn Ibn Ali Ali ibn Husayn
Ali ibn Husayn
Zayn al-Abidin Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Ja'far al-Sadiq Musa al-Kadhim Ali
Ali
al-Ridha Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Jawad Ali
Ali
al-Hadi Hasan al-Askari Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Mahdi

Tayyibi

Ali
Ali
("Asās" or "Wāsih" of Nabi Muhammad)

Hasan Husayn al-Sajjad al-Baqir Jafar al-Sādiq Ismā'il Muhammad Abadullāh (Wāfi Ahmad) Ahmad (Tāqi Muhammad) Husayn (Rādhi Abdullāh) Abdullah al-Mahdi Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Qā'im Ismāʿīl al-Mansur Ma'ādd al-Mu'izz Nizār al-Aziz Mansur al-Hākim Ali
Ali
az-Zāhir Ma'ādd al-Mustansir Ahmad al-Mustāʿli Mansur al-Amir Abu'l-Qāsim at-Tāyyib

Nizari

Ali Husayn ibn Ali Ali ibn Husayn
Ali ibn Husayn
Zayn al-Abidin Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Ja'far al-Sadiq Isma'il ibn Jafar Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Isma'il Ahmad al-Wafi Muhammad
Muhammad
at-Taqi Abdullah ar-Radi Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah al-Qa'im bi-Amr Allah al-Mansur Billah Al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah Al-Aziz Billah Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah Ali
Ali
az-Zahir al-Mustansir Billah Nizar al-Hādī al-Mutadī al-Qāhir Hassan II Nur al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
II Jalaluddin Hasan ‘Alā’ ad-Dīn Muḥammad III Rukn al-Din Khurshah Shamsu-d-Dīn Muḥammad Qāsim Shāh Islām Shāh Muḥammad ibn Islām Shāh al-Mustanṣir billāh II ʿAbdu s-Salām Shāh Gharīb Mīrzā Abū Dharr ʻAlī Murād Mīrzā Dhū-l-Fiqār ʻAlī Nūru d-Dīn ʻAlī Khalīlullāh II ʻAlī Nizār II as-Sayyid ʻAlī Ḥasan ʻAlī Qāsim ʻAlī Abū-l-Hasan ʻAlī Shāh Khalīlullāh III Aga Khan I Aga Khan II Aga Khan III Aga Khan IV

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Islamic theology

Fields Theologians Books

Fields

Aqidah ‘aql Astronomy Cosmology Eschatology Ethics Kalam Fiqh Logic in philosophy Peace in philosophy Philosophy Physics Philosophy of education

Theologians

Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani Abdul Hosein Amini Abdulhakim Arvasi Abū Ḥanīfa Abu l-A‘la Mawdudi Abu Yusuf Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ahmad Sirhindi Ahmad Yasavi Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi Akhtar Raza Khan al-Ash‘ari al-Ballūṭī al-Baydawi al-Dhahabi al-Ghazali al-Hilli al-Jahiz al-Jubba'i al-Kindi al-Masudi al-Maturidi al-Mufid Al-Qasim al-Qushayri al-Razi Al-Shafi‘i al-Shahrastani al-Shirazi al-Tirmidhi Allameh Majlesi Amr ibn Ubayd Dawud al-Zahiri Fazlur Rahman Malik Hasan of Basra Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Haji Bektash Veli Hüseyin Hilmi Işık ibn ‘Arabī ibn al-Jawzi ibn ‘Aqil ibn Hazm ibn Qudamah Ibn Taymiyyah Ja’far al-Sadiq Jalal al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
Rumi Malik ibn Anas Mahmud Hudayi Morteza Motahhari Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Nafs al-Zakiyya Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir al-Sadr Muhammed Hamdi Yazır Muhammad
Muhammad
Hamidullah Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah Muhammad
Muhammad
Tahir-ul-Qadri Muhammad
Muhammad
Taqi Usmani Nasir Khusraw Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi Said Nursî Shaykh Tusi Sheikh Bedreddin Wasil ibn Ata Zayd ibn Ali Zayn al-Abidin

Key books

Crucial Sunni books

al-Irshad al- Aqidah
Aqidah
al-Tahawiyyah

Buyruks Kitab al Majmu Masnavi Nahj al-Balagha Epistles of Wisdom Risale-i Nur

Schools

Sunni

Ash'ari Maturidi Traditionalism

Shia

Kaysanites

Mukhtar

Abu Muslim Sunpadh Ishaq al-Turk

Muhammerah

Khurramites

Babak Mazyar Ismail I / Pir Sultan Abdal
Pir Sultan Abdal
– Qizilbash / Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam

al-Muqanna

Zaidiyyah

Jarudi Batriyya Alid dynasties of northern Iran

Hasan al-Utrush

List of extinct Shia sects

Dukayniyya Khalafiyya Khashabiyya

Imami Isma'ilism

Batiniyyah

Sevener Qarmatians Hamza / al-Muqtana Baha'uddin / ad-Darazi – Druzes

Musta'li

Hafizi Taiyabi

Nizari

Assassins Nizaris

Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
Badakhshan
Badakhshan
Alevism

Imami Twelver

Theology of Twelvers

Ja'fari

Akhbari Shaykhi Usuli

Alevism

Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
– Qalandariyya Baba Ishak
Baba Ishak
– Babai Revolt Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
– Rifa'i-Galibi Order

Ghulat

al-Khaṣībī / ibn Nusayr – Alawites Fazlallah Astarabadi (Naimi) / Imadaddin Nasimi
Imadaddin Nasimi
– Hurufism / Bektashism and folk religion

Independent

Ibadi

ibn Ibāḍ Jābir ibn Zayd

Jabriyyah

Ibn Safwan

Murji'ah Karramiyya Qadariyah

Ma'bad al-Juhani Muʿtazila Bahshamiyya

Khawarij

Azariqa Najdat Sufri

Abu Qurra

Nakkariyyah

Abu Yazid

Haruriyyah

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 69206913 LCCN: n88287630 ISNI: 0000 0000 5858 8311 GND: 119463857 SUDOC: 135405947 BNF:

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