MUHAMMAD ZIA-UL-HAQ (Urdu : محمد ضياء الحق; 12 August
1924 – 17 August 1988) was a four-star rank general who served as
President of Pakistan from 1978 until his death in 1988 ,
after declaring martial law in 1977. He was Pakistan's longest-serving
head of state .
Delhi University , Zia saw action in
World War II
World War II as a
British Indian Army officer, before opting for
Pakistan in 1947 and
fighting in the war against
India in 1965. In 1970, he led the
Pakistan military\'s training mission in
Jordan , proving instrumental
to putting down the
Black September insurgency against King Hussein .
In recognition, Prime Minister
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto approved Zia's
four-star appointment and elevated him as the Chief of Army Staff in
1976. Following civil disorder, Zia deposed Bhutto in a military coup
and declared martial law on 5 July 1977. Bhutto was controversially
tried by the Supreme Court and executed less than two years later, for
authorising the murder of a political opponent .
Assuming the presidency in 1978, Zia played a major role in the
Soviet war in Afghanistan . Aided by the
United States and Saudi
Arabia , Zia systematically coordinated the
Afghan mujahideen against
the Soviet occupation throughout the 1980s. This culminated in the
Soviet Union 's withdrawal in 1989, but also led to the proliferation
of millions of refugees , with heroin and weaponry into Pakistan's
frontier province . On the foreign front, Zia also bolstered ties with
China , the
European Economic Community , the United States, and
emphasised Pakistan's role in the
Islamic world , while relations with
India worsened amid the
Siachen conflict and accusations that Pakistan
was aiding the
Khalistan movement . Domestically, Zia passed
broad-ranging legislation as part of Pakistan\'s
Islamization , acts
criticised for fomenting religious intolerance . He also escalated
Pakistan's atomic bomb project , and instituted industrialisation and
deregulation , helping Pakistan's economy become among the
fastest-growing in South Asia. Averaged over Zia's rule, GDP growth
was the highest in the country's history.
After lifting martial law and holding non-partisan elections in 1985,
Muhammad Khan Junejo as the Prime Minister but
accumulated more presidential powers via the Eighth Amendment to the
Constitution . After Junejo signed the Geneva Accords in 1988 against
Zia's wishes, and called for an inquiry into the
Ojhri Camp disaster ,
Zia dismissed Junejo's government and announced fresh elections in
November 1988. He was killed along with several of his top military
officials and two American diplomats in a mysterious plane crash near
Bahawalpur on 17 August 1988. To this day, Zia remains a polarising
figure in Pakistan's history , credited for preventing wider Soviet
incursions into the region as well as economic prosperity, but decried
for weakening democratic institutions and passing laws encouraging
* 1 Early life
* 2 Military service
* 3 Planning of coup
* 3.1 Civil disorders against Bhutto
* 3.2 1977 Parliamentary elections
* 3.3 Coup d\'état
United States sponsorship
* 3.5 Postponement of elections and call for accountability
* 4 Reign as Chief Martial Law Administrator
* 4.1 The Doctrine of Necessity
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Trial
* 4.3 Appointment of Martial Law Administrators
Martial law judges
Martial law governors
* 5 Reign as
President of Pakistan
* 5.1 Assumption of the post of
President of Pakistan
* 5.2 Political structural changes
* 5.2.1 Formation of Majlis-e-Shoora
* 5.2.2 Referendum of 1984
* 5.2.3 1985 elections and constitutional amendments
* 5.2.4 Economic policy
* 5.3 Soviet-Afghan War and Strategic initiatives
* 5.3.1 Soviet invasion and Soviet-Afghan War
* 5.3.2 Consolidation of atomic bomb programme
* 5.3.3 Nuclear diplomacy
* 5.3.5 Expansion
* 5.3.6 International standing enhancement and resumption of aid
* 5.3.7 Fighting the war by proxy
* 5.3.8 The war legacy
* 5.4 \'Sharization\' of
* 5.4.2 Other sharia laws
* 5.4.4 Madrassa Expansions
* 5.4.5 Cultural policies
* 5.4.6 Welfare of the people with disabilities
* 5.5 Dismissal of the Junejo government and call for new elections
* 6 Death
* 7 Legacy
* 7.1 Funeral and aftermath
* 7.2 Public image
* 7.3 Removal of name from the Constitution of
* 8 Honours
* 9 Portrayals in popular culture
* 10 See also
* 11 References
* 12 Bibliography
* 13 Further reading
* 14 External links
Zia-ul-Haq was born in a Punjabi
Arain family in
Punjab State of the
British India , on 12 August 1924 as the second
Muhammad Akbar, who worked as a staff clerk in the Army GHQ
India Command of
British Armed Forces in
Delhi and Simla, prior to
the independence of
Pakistan from British colonial rule in 1947.
He completed his initial education in Simla and then attended St.
Stephen\'s College of the
University of Delhi for his BA degree in
History, which he graduated with highest marks in the college in 1943.
Prior to his graduation, Zia joined the
British Indian Army in 1943.
During his collegiate years, he was noted as an extraordinary talent.
He married Shafiq Jahan in 1950. Begum Shafiq Zia died on 6 January
1996. Zia is survived by his sons,
Muhammad Ijaz-ul-Haq , (born
1953), who went into politics and became a cabinet minister in the
Nawaz Sharif , and Anwar-ul-Haq (born 1960) and his
daughters, Zain (born 1972), a special needs child, Rubina Saleem,
who is married to a
Pakistani banker and has been living in the United
States since 1980, and Quratulain Zia who currently lives in London,
and is married to
Pakistani doctor, Adnan Majid.
Zia was commissioned in the
British Indian Army in the Guides Cavalry
on 12 May 1943 after graduating from the Officer Training School Mhow
and fought against Japanese forces in Burma in
World War II
World War II . After
Pakistan gained its independence through a partition in 1947, Zia
joined the newly formed
Pakistan Army as a
Captain in the Guides
Frontier Force Regiment . He also served in
13th Lancers and 6
Lancers . He was trained in the
United States during 1962–1964 at
the US Army Command and General Staff College at
Fort Leavenworth ,
Kansas . After that, he returned to take over as Directing Staff (DS)
Command and Staff College ,
Quetta . During the Indo-
of 1965 , Zia is said to have been the Assistant
Quartermaster of the
101st Infantry Brigade.
In 1966 Zia took over command of 22 Cavalry and later was Col Staff
of 1st Armoured Division. He was stationed in
Jordan from 1969 to 1970
Brigadier , helping in the training of Jordanian soldiers, as
well as leading them into battle during the
Black September operations
Palestine Liberation Organization as commander of
Jordanian 2nd Division, a strategy that proved crucial to King Hussein
's remaining in power in Jordan.In 1972 he took over command of 9
Armoured Brigade, 6th Armoured Division By 1973, then Major General
Zia was commanding the 1st Armoured Division at
He was then promoted as
Lieutenant General and was appointed
commander of the _II Strike Corps_ at
Multan in 1975. It was during
this time that Zia invited Prime Minister
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as the
Colonel-in-Chief of the Armoured Corps at Multan, using his tailor to
stitch the Blue Patrols of his size. The next day, Bhutto was
requested to climb a tank and engage a target, where the target was
quite obviously hit. After the function, Zia met Bhutto and expressed
his loyalty to him .
On 1 March 1976, Prime Minister
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto approved
then-three star rank general
Lieutenant-General Zia as Chief of Army
Staff and to be elevated to four-star rank.
This promotion was ahead of a number of more senior officers. This
promotion was highly controversial but had political motives for
Bhutto, who saw Zia as firmly religious and an apolitical military
figure who had distaste of politics. This was the same motives and
move made by future Prime minister
Nawaz Sharif who promoted Pervez
Musharraf based on his political ambitious, as Chief of Army Staff,
but met the same fate as Bhutto in 1999 (although he was not
At the time of his nominating the successor to the outgoing Chief of
Army Staff General
Tikka Khan , the Lieutenant Generals in order of
Muhammad Shariff , Akbar Khan , Aftab Ahmed , Azmat
Baksh Awan, Ibrahim Akram , Abdul Majeed Malik,
Ghulam Jilani Khan ,
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. But, Bhutto chose the most junior,
superseding seven more senior lieutenant-generals. However, the
senior most at that time,
Lieutenant-General Mohammad Shariff, though
promoted to General, was made the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of
Staff Committee , a constitutional post akin to President Fazal Ilahi
Chaudhry . Zia never called Bhutto "Mr. Prime Minister", instead he
called him _sir_ when speaking to him.
PLANNING OF COUP
Part of a series on:
Islamic Golden Age
Islamization (of knowledge )
* Gerakan Mujahidin
* Indonesian Mujahedeen
Islamic Courts Union
* Islamic Defenders
* Islamic democratic political parties
Islamic Liberation Front of Patani
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
* Jamaah Ansharut
Jamaat al Muslimeen
* _Reconstruction of Religious Thought in
(Iqbal 1930s )
* _Principles of State and Government _
(Asad 1961 )
* _Ma\'alim fi al-Tariq_ ("Milestones")
(Qutb 1965 )
* _Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist_ ("Velayat-e faqih")
(Khomeini 1970 )
Heads of state
* Mohammad Omar
House of Saud
House of Thani
House of Thani
* Zia ul Haq
* Abul A\'la Maududi
Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani
Ata Abu Rashta
Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī
Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani
Qazi Hussain Ahmad
* Criticism of
Islam and other religions
* Reform movements
* Modernity (Modernism )
Prime Minister Bhutto began facing considerable criticism and
increasing unpopularity as his term progressed, the democratic
socialists alliance who had previously allied with Bhutto began to
diminish as time progresses. Initially targeting leader of the
opposition Vali Khan and his opposition
National Awami Party (NAP),
also a socialist party. Despite the ideological similarity of the two
parties, the clash of egos both inside and outside the National
Assembly became increasingly fierce, starting with the Federal
governments decision to oust the NAP provincial government in
Balochistan Province for alleged secessionist activities and
culminating in the banning of the party and arrest of much of its
leadership after the death of a close lieutenant of Bhutto's, Hayat
Sherpao , in a bomb blast in the frontier town of
CIVIL DISORDERS AGAINST BHUTTO
Dissidence also increased within the
Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP),
and the murder of leading dissident
Ahmed Raza Kasuri 's father led to
public outrage and intra-party hostility as Bhutto was accused of
masterminding the crime. PPP leaders such as Ghulam Mustafa Khar
openly condemned Bhutto and called for protests against his regime.
The political crisis in the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP now
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa ) and Balochistan intensified as civil liberties
remained suspended, and an estimated 100,000 troops deployed there
were accused of abusing human rights and killing large numbers of
1977 PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS
On 8 January 1977 a large number of opposition political parties
grouped to form the
Pakistan National Alliance (PNA). Bhutto called
fresh elections , and PNA participated fully in those elections. They
managed to contest the elections jointly even though there were grave
splits on opinions and views within the party. The PNA faced defeat
but did not accept the results, alleging that the election was rigged.
They proceeded to boycott the provincial elections. Despite this,
there was a high voter turnout in the national elections; however, as
provincial elections were held amidst low voter turnout and an
opposition boycott, the PNA declared the newly elected Bhutto
government as illegitimate.
Operation Fair Play
Soon, all the opposition leaders called for the overthrow of Bhutto's
regime. Political and civil disorder intensified, which led to more
unrest. On 21 April 1977, Bhutto imposed martial law in the major
Lahore and Hyderabad . However, a compromise
agreement between Bhutto and opposition was ultimately reported. Zia
planned the Coup d'état carefully, as he knew Bhutto had integral
intelligence in the
Pakistan Armed Forces, and many officers,
including Chief of Air Staff
Zulfiqar Ali Khan and
Tajammul Hussain Malik , GOC of 23rd Mountain Division,
Naseerullah Babar , DG of Directorate-General for the
Military Intelligence (DGMI) and
Vice-Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan ,
were loyal to Bhutto.
The coup, (called "
Operation Fair Play ") transpired in the small
hours of 5 July 1977. Before the announcement of any agreement, Bhutto
and members of his cabinet were arrested by troops of Military Police
under the order of Zia. Bhutto tried to call Zia but all telephone
lines were disconnected. When Zia spoke to him later, he reportedly
told Bhutto that he was sorry that he had been forced to perform such
an "unpleasant task".
Zia and his military government portrayed the coup as a "spontaneous
response to a difficult situation", but his response was a complete
contradiction. Soon after the coup, Zia told the British journalist
Edward Behr of _
I am the only man who took this decision and I did so on 1700 Hrs
on 4 July after hearing the press statement which indicated that the
talks between Mr. Bhutto and the opposition had broken down. Had an
agreement been reached between them, I would certainly never had done
what I did. — General Zia-ul-Haq, statement given to _Newsweek_,
However, Zia's Chief of Army Staff General Khalid Mahmud Arif
contradicted Zia's statement when Arif noted that the coup had already
been planned, and the senior leadership of
Pakistan Armed Forces had
solid information. Therefore, Arif met with Bhutto on an emergency
basis, stressing and urging Bhutto to "rush negotiations with the
opposition". By Arif's and independent expert's accounts, the talks
had not broken down even though the coup was very much in the offing.
Zia further argued that _Fair Play_ against Bhutto had been
necessitated by the prospect of a civil war that Bhutto had been
planning, by distributing weapons to his supporters. However, Arif
strongly rejected Zia's remarks on Bhutto, and citing no evidence that
weapons were found or recovered at any of the party's election
offices, the military junta did not prosecute Bhutto on the charge of
planning civil war.
Immediately, the Chief of Naval Staff
Admiral Mohammad Shariff
announced his and the navy's strong support for Zia and his military
government. But, the Chief of Air Staff General Zulfikar Ali Khan
remains unsupported while the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee
Muhammad Shariff remains neutral, while he silently expressed
his support to Prime minister Zulfikar Bhutto. In 1978, Zia pressured
Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry to appoint General
Anwar Shamim as
Chief of Air Staff; and
Karamat Rahman Niazi as Chief of Naval
Staff in 1979. On Zia's recommendation, President Illahi appointed
Mohammad Shariff as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff,
hence making the
Admiral the highest ranking officer and principal
military adviser overlooking all of the inter-services, including the
Chiefs of Staff of the respected forces. In 1979, the Chiefs of Army,
Navy, and the Air Force, including the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of
Staff validated the coup as constitutional and legal under the
war-torn circumstances, pledging their support to Zia as well.
UNITED STATES SPONSORSHIP
Ronald Reagan and Bill Clark meeting with President
The United States, notably the
Reagan Administration , was an ardent
supporter of Zia's military regime and a close ally of Pakistan's
conservative-leaning ruling military establishment. The Reagan
administration declared Zia's regime as the "front line" ally of the
United States in the fight against the threat of Communism. American
legislators and senior officials most notable were Zbigniew Brzezinski
Henry Kissinger , Charlie Wilson ,
Joanne Herring , and the civilian
Michael Pillsbury and
Gust Avrakotos , and
senior US military officials General John William Vessey , and General
Herbert M. Wassom, had been long associated with the Zia military
regime where they had made frequent trips to
Pakistan advising on
expanding the idea of establishment in the political circle of
Pakistan. Nominally, the
American conservatism of
Ronald Reagan 's
Republican Party influenced Zia to adopt his idea of Islamic Islamic
conservatism as the primary line of his military government,
forcefully enforcing the Islamic and other religious practices in the
The socialist orientation had greatly alarmed the capitalist forces
Pakistan and as well as brought a clinging bell tolls alarm to the
United States who feared the loss of
Pakistan as an ally in the cold
war. Many of Pakistan's political scientists and historians widely
suspected that the riots and coup against
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was
orchestrated with help of the US
Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and
United States Government because
United States growing fear of
Bhutto's socialist policies which were seen as sympathetic towards the
Soviet Union and had built a bridge that allowed
Soviet Union to be
involved in Pakistan, and had access through Pakistan's warm water
port; something that the
United States was unable to gain access since
the establishment of
Pakistan in 1947. Former US Attorney General
Ramsey Clark widely suspected the United States' involvement in
bringing down the Bhutto's government, and publicly accused the United
States' Government after attending the trial. On the other hand, the
United States refused any involvement in Bhutto's fall, and argued
that it was Bhutto who had alienated himself over the five years.
While witnessing the dramatic fall of Bhutto, one US diplomat in
American Embassy in
Islamabad wrote that:
During Bhutto's five years in Pakistan's helm, Bhutto had retained an
emotional hold on the poor masses who had voted him overwhelmingly in
1970s general elections. At the same time, however, Bhutto had many
enemies. The socialist economics and nationalization of major private
industries during his first two years on office had badly upsets the
Business circles.... An ill-considered decision to take over the
wheat-milling, rice-husking, sugar mills, and cotton-gaining,
industries in July of 1976 had angered the small business owners and
traders. Both leftists—socialists and communists, intellectuals,
students, and trade unionists—felt betrayed by Bhutto's shift to
centre-right wing conservative economics policies and by his growing
collaboration with powerful feudal lords, Pakistan's traditional power
brokers. After 1976, Bhutto's aggressive authoritarian personal style
and often high-handed way of dealing with political rivals,
dissidents, and opponents had also alienated many....
POSTPONEMENT OF ELECTIONS AND CALL FOR ACCOUNTABILITY
After assuming power as Chief Martial Law Administrator, Zia shortly
appeared on national television, PTV promising to hold new and neutral
parliamentary elections within the next 90 days
My sole aim is to organise free and fair elections which would be
held in October this year. Soon after the polls, power will be
transferred to the elected representatives of the people. I give a
solemn assurance that I will not deviate from this schedule.
He also stated that the Constitution of
Pakistan had not been
abrogated, but temporarily suspended. Zia did not trust the civilian
institutions and legislators to ensure the country's integrity and
sovereignty therefore, in October 1977, he announced the postponement
of the electoral plan and decided to start an accountability process
for the politicians. On television, Zia strongly defended his
decision for postponing the elections and demanded that "scrutiny of
political leaders who had engaged in malpractice in the past". Thus,
the PNA adopted its policy of "retribution first, elections later".
Zia's policy severely tainted his credibility as many saw the broken
promise as malicious. Another motive was that Zia widely suspected
that once out of power the size of the
Pakistan Peoples Party rallies
would swell and better performance in elections was possible. This
led to request for postponement of elections by the right-wing
Islamists as well as left-wing socialists, formerly allied with
Bhutto, which displaced Bhutto in the first place. Zia dispatched an
intelligence unit, known as _ISI's_ Political Wing, sending
Brigadier-General Taffazul Hussain Siddiqiui, to Bhutto's native
Sindh , to assess whether people would accept martial law.
The _Political Wing_ also contacted the several right-wing Islamists
and conservatives, promising an election, with PNA power-sharing the
government with Zia. Zia successfully divided and separated the
secular forces from right-wing Islamists and conservatives, and later
purged each member of the secular front.
A Disqualification Tribunal was formed, and several individuals who
had been members of parliament were charged with malpractice and
disqualified from participating in politics at any level for the next
seven years. A white paper document was issued, incriminating the
deposed Bhutto government on several counts.
It is reported by senior officers that when Zia met federal
secretaries for the first time as leader of the country after martial
law, he said that "He does not possess the charisma of Bhutto,
personality of Ayub Khan or the legitimacy of
Liaquat Ali Khan
Liaquat Ali Khan "
thereby implying how can he be marketed.
REIGN AS CHIEF MARTIAL LAW ADMINISTRATOR
After deposing Prime Minister Bhutto on 5 July 1977, Zia-ul-Haq
declared martial law, and appointed himself Chief Martial Law
Administrator, which he remained until becoming president on 16
THE DOCTRINE OF NECESSITY
Main article: Zia-ul-Haq\'s
Nusrat Bhutto , the wife of the deposed Prime Minister, filed a suit
against Zia's military regime , challenging the validity of the July
1977 military coup. The Supreme Court of
Pakistan ruled, in what would
later be known as the _Doctrine of Necessity_ (not to be confused with
Doctrine of necessity ) that, given the dangerously unstable
political situation of the time, Zia's overthrowing of the Bhutto
government was legal on the grounds of necessity . The judgement
tightened the general's hold on the government. When Bhutto appeared
personally to argue his appeal in the supreme court, he almost
affirmed his concurrence with the judges present for not letting off a
judgement without imposing some conditions on ruling military
ZULFIKAR ALI BHUTTO TRIAL
Former elected Prime Minister
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was arrested during
the coup but released shortly afterwards. Upon his release, Bhutto
travelled the country amid adulatory crowds of PPP supporters. On 3
September 1977, he was arrested again by the Army on charges of
authorising the murder of a political opponent in March 1974. The
trial proceedings began 24 October 1977 and lasted five months. On 18
March 1978, Bhutto was declared guilty of murder and was sentenced to
In the words of Aftab Kazie and
Roedad Khan , Zia hated Bhutto and
had used inappropriate language and insults to describe Bhutto and his
colleagues. The Supreme Court ruled four to three in favour of
execution. The High Court had given him the death sentence on charges
of the murder of the father of Ahmed Raza Kasuri, a dissident PPP
politician. Despite many clemency appeals from foreign leaders
requesting Zia to commute Bhutto's death sentence, Zia dismissed the
appeals and upheld the death sentence. On 4 April 1979, Bhutto was
hanged, after the Supreme Court upheld the death sentence as passed by
Lahore High Court .
The hanging of an elected prime minister by a military was condemned
by the international community and by lawyers and jurists across
Pakistan. Bhutto's trial was highly controversial.
Bhutto's last personal appearance and utterances in the supreme court
were not merely a long defence of his conduct; he also made some
matters clear. He mentioned the words of "heir" for his son "Mir
Murtaza Bhutto". He made some remark which indicated that he has views
similar to a Sunni, though he was
Shia albeit a non-practicing one. He
also effectively cast doubt on the reliability of star witnesses
against him i.e. Masood Mahmood who was a UK-trained lawyer and not
merely a police officer and FSF chief. He mentioned repeatedly Lahori
Ahmedi connection of Masood Mahmood in his testimony. He repeatedly
brought the subject of his maltreatment in the death cell. Bhutto made
it abundantly clear, even though indirectly that he wanted either
freedom or death, not some thing in between, and appreciated Khar and
his lawyer Yahya Bakhtiar.
APPOINTMENT OF MARTIAL LAW ADMINISTRATORS
Martial Law Judges
Main article: Supreme Court of
The _Ad hoc_ appointments of senior justices at the Supreme Court of
Pakistan was one of the earliest and major steps were taken out by the
military government under General Zia-ul-Haq. Zia had recognised the
fact that since, Bhutto had good equations with the governments of the
Soviet Union , China , and all the important western countries ,
United States . Still, it was a formidable array of
sovereigns, presidents and prime ministers and the PPP can be forgiven
for making a massive political miscalculations.
After calling for martial law, Zia pressured President Fazal Illahi
to appoint Justice
Sheikh Anwarul Haq to Chief Justice of
23 September 1977. Immediately, chief justice Yaqub Ali was
forcefully removed from the office after the latter agreed to re-hear
the petition filed at the supreme court by the peoples party's
Nusrat Bhutto on 20 September 1977. After Justice Yaqub
Ali's removal, Bhutto objected to the inclusion of the new Chief
Justice, Sheikh Anwar-ul-Haq, as a chief justice of the Bench on the
grounds that by accepting the office of acting president during the
Zia-ul-Haq from the country, he had compromised his
impartial status. Bhutto also stated that the Chief Justice in his
public statements had been critical of his government in the recent
The objection was over-ruled by the Chief Justice Anwarul Haq, and
the case of Bhutto was again heard by the Chief Justice Anwar-ul-Haq
as the bench's lead judge, and presided the whole case of Zulfikar Ali
Bhutto while forcing the martial law throughout
Pakistan . Shortly,
after Zia's return, another judge Mushtak Ahmad also gained Zia and
Anwar-ul-Haq's support and elevated as the _ad hoc_ Chief Justice of
Lahore High Court ; he was too part of the bench who retained the
death sentence of
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto even though Bhutto was not
declared guilty of the murder of the political opponent. In 1979,
when Zia departed for
Saudi Arabia , Justice Haq served as interim
president of Pakistan.
Martial Law Governors
Martial Law Administrator of Balochistan Zia
Shamim Alam Khan
Shamim Alam Khan .
Zia regime largely made use of installing high-profile military
generals to carte blanche provincial administration under martial law.
Guides Cavalry comrade and foul-mouth
Haque was appointed Martial Law Administrator of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa
Lieutenant-General Fazle Haque was considered a strong
vocal General and a strong man. General Haque was the commander of the
XI Corps , and commanding-general officer of the Army elements
responsible for fighting a secret war against Soviet Union.
The second appointment was of
Lieutenant-General S.M. Abbasi who was
appointed Martial Law Administrator of
Sindh Province ; his tenure too
saw civil disorder amid student riots. By contrast, third martial law
administrator appointment of
Ghulam Jilani Khan to
the Punjab Province made much headway in beautifying
infrastructure, and muting political opposition. The ascent of Navaz
Sharif to Chief Minister of Punjab was largely due to General Jilani's
sponsorship. Perhaps most crucially, final and fourth martial law
administrator appointment was then-
Lieutenant-General Rahimuddin Khan
Rahimuddin Khan was appointed to the post of
Martial Law Administrator of Balochistan Province saw the disbanding
of the Baloch insurgency , the containment of Afghan Mujahideen, as
well as the construction of nuclear test sites in the Chagai District
Zia's tenure saw the influx of heroin, sophisticated weaponry, and
countless refugees in from neighbouring
Afghanistan . Law and order
deterioration was worse after he appointed Mr. Junejo as Prime
minister in 1985. The government did not locate evidence of Zia
having a relationship in the heroin trade, but has been considered.
Zia benefited from the extremely capable martial law administrators
who previously had worked with the military governments of former
Yahya Khan and Ayub Khan in the 1960s. One of the notable
officers that had worked with him were General Khalid Arief , Chief of
Army Staff , and
Mohammad Shariff , Chairman Joint Chiefs .
Both were noted by Western governments as highly capable and had wide
experience from the military government of the East-
remained General Zia' confidential members.
Admiral Sharif and General Arif handled the matters efficiently
if the matters were out of control by Zia. In 1979, Zia influenced the
Navy's Promotion Board several times after he succeeded first in the
Admiral Caramatt Nazi as Chief of Naval Staff in 1979,
Admiral Tarik Kamal Khan , also chief of naval staff, in 1983. On
his request, then-President Fazal Illahi approved the appointment of
Anwar Shamim as Chief of Air Staff and following President's
resignation, Zia appointed Shamim as the Deputy Chief Martial Law
Administrator. In the matters of serious national security, General
Zia had taken the chief of air staff and chief of naval staff in
confidence after he discussed the matters with the respected chiefs of
Staff. Zia's appointment in inter-services were highly crucial for
his military government and pre-emptive measure to ensure the
continuous loyalty of Navy and Air Force to himself and his new
REIGN AS PRESIDENT OF PAKISTAN
ASSUMPTION OF THE POST OF PRESIDENT OF PAKISTAN
Zia-ul-Haq during a meeting with United States
Despite the dismissal of most of the Bhutto government, President
Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry was persuaded to continue in office as a
figurehead . After completing his term, and despite Zia's insistence
to accept an extension as President, Chaudhry resigned, and Zia took
the office of
President of Pakistan on 16 September 1978. Thus his
position was cemented as the undisputed ruler of the country. Over the
next six years, Zia issued several decrees which amended the
constitution and greatly expanded his power. Most significantly, the
Revival of Constitution of 1973 Order granted Zia the power to
dissolve the National Assembly virtually at will.
THE MILITARY GOVERNMENT OF GENERAL ZIA-UL-HAQ
GENERAL MUHAMMAD ZIA-UL-HAQ
Mohammad Khan Junejo
Lt.General Yaqub Khan 1977–1982
Ghulam Ishaq Khan
Dr. Mahbub-ul-Haq 1977–1985
Law , Justice
Air Mshl Inamul Haq Khan
Lt.General Farooq Lodhi
Wasim Sajjad 1977–1978
Lt.General Ghulam Jilani Khan
Maj.General Rahim Khan 1977–1980
Lt.General Zahid Ali Akbar
Munir Ahmad Khan 1977–1983
Lt.General Vajid Ali Khan
Adm Mohammad Sharif
Tariq Kamal Khan
Karamat Rahman Niazi
Rao Farman Ali
POLITICAL STRUCTURAL CHANGES
Formation Of Majlis-e-Shoora
Main articles: Parliament of
Technocracy , and Bureaucracy
Although ostensibly only holding office until free elections could be
held, General Zia, like the previous military governments, disproved
of the lack of discipline and orderliness that often accompanies
multiparty "parliamentary democracy ." He preferred a "presidential"
form of government and a system of decision making by technical
experts, or "technocracy ". His first replacement for the parliament
or National Assembly was a _Majlis-e-Shoora_, or "consultative
council." After banning all political parties in 1979 he disbanded
Parliament and at the end of 1981 set up the majlis, which was to act
as a sort of board of advisors to the President and assist with the
process of Islamization. The 350 members of the _Shoora_ were to be
nominated by the President and possessed only the power to consult
with him, and in reality served only to endorse decisions already
taken by the government. Most members of the _Shoora_ were
intellectuals, scholars , ulema , journalists, economists, and
professionals in different fields.
Zia's parliament and his military government reflect the idea of
"military-bureaucratic technocracy" (MBT) where professionals,
engineers, and high-profile military officers were initially part of
his military government. His antipathy for the politicians led the
promotion of bureaucratic-technocracy which was seen a strong weapon
of countering the politicians and their political strongholds. Senior
statesman and technocrats were included physicist-turned diplomat Agha
Shahi , jurist Sharifuddin Perzada , corporate leader
Nawaz Sharif ,
Mahbub ul Haq , and senior statesman Aftab Kazie , Roedad
Khan , and chemist-turned diplomat
Ghulam Ishaq Khan were a few of the
leading technocratic figures in his military government.
Referendum Of 1984
After Bhutto's execution, momentum to hold elections began to mount
both internationally and within Pakistan. But before handing over
power to elected representatives,
Zia-ul-Haq attempted to secure his
position as the head of state. A referendum was held on 19 December
1984 with the option being to elect or reject the General as the
future President, the wording of the referendum making a vote against
Zia appear to be a vote against Islam. According to official figures
95% of votes were cast in favour of Zia, however only 10% of the
electorate participated in the referendum.
1985 Elections And Constitutional Amendments
Main articles: Eighth Amendment to the Constitution of
Pakistani general election, 1985
After holding the 1984 referendum , Zia succumbed to international
pressure and gave permission to election commission to hold national
wide general elections but without political parties in February 1985.
Most of the major opposing political parties decided to boycott the
elections but election results showed that many victors belonged to
one party or the other. Critics complained that ethnic and sectarian
mobilisation filled the void left by banning political parties (or
making elections "non-partisan"), to the detriment of national
The General worked to give himself the power to dismiss the Prime
Minister dissolve the National Assembly, appoint provincial governors
and the chief of the armed forces. His prime minister
Junejo was known as unassuming and soft-spoken but was a Sindhi.
Before handing over the power to the new government and lifting the
martial law, Zia got the new legislature to retroactively accept all
of Zia's actions of the past eight years, including his coup of 1977.
He also managed to get several amendments passed, most notably the
Eighth Amendment , which granted "_reserve power _s" to the president
to dissolve the Parliament. However, this amendment considerably
reduced the power he'd previously granted himself to dissolve the
legislature, at least on paper. The text of the amendment permitted
Zia to dissolve the Parliament only if the government had been toppled
by a vote of no confidence and it was obvious that no one could form a
government or the government could not function in a constitutional
Main article: Market Corporatization in
Pakistan See also: Fifth
Five-Year Plans of
In general Zia gave economic development and policy a fairly low
priority (aside from Islamization) and delegating its management to
technocrats such as Ghulam Ishaq Khan, Aftab Qazi and Vaseem Jaffrey.
However, between 1977 and 1986, the country experienced an average
annual growth in the GNP of 6.8%—the highest in the world at that
time—thanks in large part to remittances from the overseas workers,
rather than government policy. The first year of Zia's government
coincided with a dramatic rise in remittances, which totalled $3.2
billion/year for most of the 1980s, accounted for 10 percent of
Pakistans's GDP; 45 percent of its current account receipts, and 40
percent of total foreign exchange earnings.
By the time General Zia had initiated the coup against Prime Minister
Zulfikar Bhutto , the economic cycle process of nationalisation
program was completed. The socialist orientation and nationalisation
program was slowly reversed; the idea of corporatisation was heavily
favoured by President
Zia-ul-Haq to direct the authoritarianism in the
nationalised industries. One of his well-known and earliest
initiatives were aimed to Islamized the national economy which
featured the Interest-free economic cycle . No actions towards
privatising the industries were ordered by President Zia; only three
steel mill industries were returned to its previous owners.
By the end of 1987, the Finance ministry had begun studying the
process of engaging the gradual privatisation and economic
SOVIET-AFGHAN WAR AND STRATEGIC INITIATIVES
Soviet Invasion And Soviet-Afghan War
Soviet war in Afghanistan
On 25 December 1979, the
Soviet Union (USSR) intervened in
Afghanistan . Following this invasion, Zia chaired a meeting and was
asked by several cabinet members to refrain from interfering in the
war, owing to the vastly superior military power of the
however, was ideologically opposed to the idea of communism taking
over a neighbouring country, supported by the fear of Soviet
advancement into Pakistan, particularly Balochistan, in search of warm
waters, and made no secret about his intentions of monetarily and
militarily aiding the Afghan resistance (the Mujahideen) with major
assistance from the United States.
During this meeting, the
Director-General of the Directorate for
Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) then-
Lieutenant-General Akhtar Abdur
Rahman advocated for a covert operation in
Afghanistan by arming
Islamic extremists. During this meeting, General Rahman was heard
saying: "_Kabul must burn! Kabul must burn!_", and mastered the idea
of a proxy war in
Afghanistan . After this meeting, Zia authorised
this operation under General Rahman, and it was later merged with
Operation Cyclone , a programme funded by the
United States and the
Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
In November 1982, Zia travelled to Moscow to attend the funeral of
Leonid Brezhnev , the late General Secretary of the Communist Party of
Soviet Union . Soviet Foreign Minister
Andrei Gromyko and new
Yuri Andropov met with Zia there. Andropov expressed
indignation over Pakistan's support of the Afghan resistance against
Soviet Union and her satellite state, Soviet
Afghanistan . Zia
took his hand and assured him, "General Secretary, believe me,
Pakistan wants nothing but very good relations with the Soviet Union".
According to Gromyko, Zia's sincerity convinced them, but Zia's
actions didn't live up to his words.
Zia reversed many of Bhutto's foreign policy initiatives by first
establishing stronger links with the United States, Japan, and the
Western world. Zia broken off relations with the
Socialist state and
State capitalism became his major economic policy. US politician
Charlie Wilson claims that Zia directly dealt with the
working to build covert relations with them, allowing the country to
actively participate in the Soviet war in Afghanistan. Helped by ISI,
Mossad channelled Soviet reversed engineered weapons to
Afghanistan. In Wilson's own word, Zia is reported to have remarked
to the Israeli intelligence service: "Just don't put any stars of
David on the boxes".
Consolidation Of Atomic Bomb Programme
One of the earliest initiatives taken by Zia in 1977, was to
militarise the integrated atomic energy programme which was founded by
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1972. During the first stages, the programme
was under the control of Bhutto and the Directorate for Science ,
under Science Advisor Dr.
Mubashir Hassan , who was heading the
civilian committee that supervised the construction of the facilities
and laboratories. This atomic bomb project had no boundaries with
Munir Ahmad Khan and Dr.
Abdul Qadeer Khan leading their efforts
separately and reported to Bhutto and his science adviser Dr. Hassan
who had little interest in the atomic bomb project. Major-General
Zahid Ali Akbar , an engineering officer, had little role in the
atomic project; Zia responded by taking over the programme under
military control and disbanded the civilian directorate when he
ordered the arrest of Hassan. This whole giant nuclear energy project
was transferred into the administrative hands of
who was soon made the
Lieutenant-General and Engineer-in-Chief of the
Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers to deal with the authorities whose
co-operation was required. Akbar consolidated the entire project by
placing the scientific research under military control, setting
boundaries and goals. Akbar proved to be an extremely capable officer
in the matters of science and technology when he aggressively led the
development of nuclear weapons under
Munir Ahmad Khan and Abdul Qadeer
Khan in a matter of five years.
By the time, Zia assumed control, the research facilities became
fully functional and 90% of the work on atom bomb project was
completed. Both the
Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) and the
Khan Research Laboratories (KRL) had built the extensive research
infrastructure started by Bhutto. Akbar's office was shifted to Army
Combatant General Headquarters (GHQ) and Akbar guided Zia on key
matters of nuclear science and atomic bomb production. He became the
first engineering officer to have acknowledge Zia about the success of
this energy project into a fully matured programme. On the
recommendation of Akbar, Zia approved the appointment of Munir Ahmad
Khan as the scientific director of the atomic bomb project, as Zia was
convinced by Akbar that civilian scientists under Munir Khan's
directorship were at their best to counter international pressure.
This was proved when the PAEC conducted the cold-fission test of a
fission device, codename _
Kirana-I _ on 11 March 1983 at the
Weapon-Testing Laboratories-I , under the leadership of weapon-testing
laboratory's director Dr.
Ishfaq Ahmad .
Akbar went to GHQ and notified Zia about the success of this test. The
PAEC responded by conducting several cold-tests throughout the 1980s,
a policy also continued by
Benazir Bhutto in the 1990s. According to
the reference in the book, "_Eating Grass_", Zia was so deeply
convinced of the infiltration of Western and American moles and spies
into the project, that he extended his role in the atomic bomb, which
reflected extreme "paranoia ", in both his personal and professional
life. He virtually had PAEC and KRL separated from each other and
made critical administrative decisions rather than putting scientists
in charge of the aspects of the atomic programmes. His actions
spurred innovation in the atomic bomb project and an intense secrecy
and security culture permeated PAEC and KRL.
Unlike Bhutto, who faced rogue criticism and a heated diplomatic war
United States throughout the 1970s, Zia took different
diplomatic approaches to counter the international pressure. From
1979 to 1983, the country was made a subject of attack by
international organisation for not signing the Nuclear
Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT); Zia deftly neutralised international
pressure by tagging Pakistan's nuclear weapons programme to the
nuclear designs of the neighbouring Indian nuclear programme . Zia,
with the help of
Munir Ahmad Khan and
Agha Shahi , Foreign Minister ,
drew a five-point proposal as a practical rejoinder to world pressure
Pakistan to sign the NPT; the points including the renouncing of
the use of nuclear weapons.
(sic)...Either General Zia did not know the facts about country's
atomic bomb project ... Or General Zia was the "most superb and
patriotic liar I have ever met...."
Vernon Walters , 1981,
Following the success of _
Operation Opera _— in which an Israeli
Air Force strike took place to destroy the Iraqi nuclear programme in
1981— suspicion grew in
Pakistan that the
Indian Air Force had
similar plans for Pakistan. In a private meeting with General Anwar
Shamim , then-Chief of Air Staff , Zia had notified General Shamim
Indian Air Force had plans to infiltrate Pakistan's nuclear
energy project, citing solid evidence. Shamim felt that the Air Force
was unable to divert such attacks, therefore, he advised Zia to use
Munir Ahmad Khan to divert the attacks. At Vienna,
Munir Ahmad Khan met with Indian physicist
Raja Ramanna and notified
him that such an attack would provoke a nuclear war between the two
countries. In the meantime, Shamim decided to start the programme to
acquire the F-16 Falcons and A-5 Fanton jets for the
Force . Shamim launched _Operation Sentinel_ - a counter operation
that thwarted the
Israeli Air Force attempt to sabotage Pakistan's
nuclear energy project— forced Indian Premier
Indira Gandhi to held
Pakistan on nuclear issues and directed a high delegation
Pakistan where both countries pledged not to assist or attack each
other's facilities. In 1985, following the induction of the F-16
Falcons and A-5 Fantons, Shamim commissioned the Air Force Strategic
Command to protect and battle the weapons of mass destruction.
In 1977, Zia ultimately adopted the policy of "
Nuclear opacity " to
deliberately deny the atomic bomb programmes. This policy of nuclear
ambiguity was adopted after witnessing the success of Israel\'s
nuclear programme and on multiple occasions Zia broke his words and
promises concerning the nature of the country's atomic bomb project.
On nuclear policy issues, Zia deliberately misguided the United States
and concealed classified information from the outside world. The
United States trusted Zia's sincerity and his promises made to the
United States; Zia gave assurances to the
United States not to produce
weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) above a 5%
level. However, the Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence
Agency, Vernon Walter, confronted Zia on his secret trip to Pakistan
in October 1981. Confronted with the evidence, Zia acknowledged that
the information "must be true," but then denied everything, leading
Walters to conclude that: "either Zia "did not know the facts" or was
the "most superb and patriotic liar I have ever met...".
Soon after the coup, the clandestine nuclear energy project was no
longer a secret to the outside world. Part of his strategy was the
promotion of nuclear proliferation in anti-western states (such as
North Korea , Iran, and communist China ) to aid their own nuclear
ambitions, to divert international attention which was difficult. In
1981, Zia contracted with China when he sent weapon-grade uranium to
China and also built the centrifuge laboratory which increasingly
enhanced the Chinese nuclear programme . This act encouraged Abdul
Qadeer Khan, who allegedly tried to aid the Libyan nuclear programme
but because Libya–
Pakistan relations were strained, Khan was warned
of serious consequences. This policy envisaged that this would
deflect international pressure onto these countries, and Pakistan
would be spared the international community's wrath.
After Zia's death, his successor General
Mirza Aslam Beg , as Chief
of Army Staff, encouraged
Abdul Qadeer Khan and gave him a free hand
to work with some like-minded nations such as North Korea,
Libya which also wanted to pursue their nuclear ambitions for a
variety of reasons. In 2004, Abdul Khan's dismissal from the nuclear
weapons programme was considered a face saving exercise by the
Pakistan Armed Forces and political establishment under the then Chief
of Army Staff and President General
Pervez Musharraf . Zia's nuclear
proliferation policy had a deep impact on the world, especially
anti-western states, most nominally
North Korea and Iran. In the 2000s
North Korea would soon follow the same suit after it was
targeted by the international community for its on-going nuclear
programme . In the 2000s (decade),
North Korea attempted to aid the
Syrian and Iranian nuclear programmes in the 1990s. The North Korean
connection to the Syrian nuclear programme was exposed in 2007 by
Israel in its successful strategic operation, _Orchard_ , which
resulted in them sabotaging the Syrian nuclear programme as well as
the deaths of 10 senior North-Korean scientists who were aiding the
Even though Zia had removed the Bhutto sentiment in the nuclear
energy project, Zia did not completely disband Bhutto's policy on
nuclear weapons. After the retirement of Zahid Ali Akbar, Zia
transferred control of the nuclear weapons programme to Bhutto's close
aide Munir Ahmad Khan, Chairman of the
Pakistan Atomic Energy
Commission. Soon, Zia promoted Khan as the technical director of the
entire programme as well as appointing Khan as his Science Adviser.
With the support of handpicked civilian Prime Minister Muhammad
Juneijo , Zia sanctioned the launch of the 50
Megawatt (MW) heavy
water plutonium production reactor, known as _Khushab-I_ , at Khushab
in 1985. Zia also took initiatives to launched the space projects as
spin-off to nuclear project. Zia appointed nuclear engineer Salim
Mehmud as the Administrator of the Space Research Commission . Zia
also launched the work on the country's first satellite, _
Badr-1 _, a
military satellite. In 1987, Zia launched the clandestine aerospace
project, the Integrated Missile Research Programme under General Anwar
Shamim in 1985, and later under
Talat Masood in
International Standing Enhancement And Resumption Of Aid
Zia's international standing greatly rose after his declaration to
fight the Soviet invaders. Pakistan–
United States relations took a
much more positive turn. US President
Jimmy Carter and his Secretary
Cyrus Vance , cut off US aid to
Pakistan on the grounds that
Pakistan had not made sufficient progress on the nuclear issue. Then,
on 25 December 1979, the Soviets invaded Afghanistan, and Carter
Pakistan $325 million in aid over three years. Zia rejected
this as "peanuts." Carter also signed the finding in 1980 that
allowed less than $50 million a year to go to the Mujahideen. After
Ronald Reagan came to office, defeating Carter for the US Presidency
in 1980, all this changed, due to President Reagan's new priorities
and the unlikely and remarkably effective effort by Congressman
Charles Wilson aided by
Joanne Herring , and CIA Afghan Desk Chief
Gust Avrakotos to increase the funding for
Operation Cyclone . Aid to
the Afghan resistance, and to Pakistan, increased substantially,
finally reaching $1 billion. The United States, faced with a rival
superpower looking as if it were to create another Communist bloc, now
engaged Zia to fight a US-aided war by proxy in
Fighting The War By Proxy
Zia now found himself in a position to demand billions of dollars in
aid for the mujahideen from the Western states, famously dismissing a
United States proposed $325 million aid package as "peanuts".
Inter-Services Intelligence and
Special Service Group now
became actively involved in the conflict, and in co-operation with the
Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency and the
United States Army
supported the armed struggle against the Soviets.
Ronald Reagan succeeded
Jimmy Carter as President of the
United States. Reagan was completely against the
Soviet Union and its
communist satellites , dubbing it "the evil empire ". Reagan now
increased financial aid heading for Pakistan. In 1981, the Reagan
Administration sent the first of 40 F-16 jet fighters to the
Pakistanis. But the Soviets kept control of the Afghan skies until the
mujahideen received Stinger missiles in 1986. From that moment on, the
mujahideen's strategic position steadily improved.
The Soviets declared a policy of national reconciliation. In January
they announced that a Soviet withdrawal was no longer linked to the
makeup of the Afghan government remaining behind. Pakistan, with the
massive extra-governmental and covert backing from the largest
operation ever mounted by the CIA and financial support of Saudi
Arabia , therefore, played a large part in the eventual withdrawal of
Soviet troops from
Afghanistan in 1988.
The War Legacy
The rise of the illicit drug trade and its spread through
the rest of the world increased tremendously during the Soviet-Afghan
war. Afghanistan's drug industry began to take off after the Soviet
invasion in 1979. Desperate for cash with which to buy weapons,
various elements in the anti-Communist resistance turned to the drug
trade. This was tolerated if not condoned by their American sponsors
such as the CIA.
\'SHARIZATION\' OF PAKISTAN
The "primary" policy, or "centerpiece" of Zia's government was
"Sharization" or "Islamization".
In 1977, prior to the coup, the drinking and selling of wine by
Muslims, along with nightclubs, and horse racing was banned by Prime
Minister Bhutto in an effort to stem the tide of street Islamization.
Zia went much further, committing himself to enforce
_Nizam-e-Mustafa_ ("Rule of the prophet" or Islamic System, i.e.
Islamic state and sharia law ), a significant turn
from Pakistan's predominantly secular law , inherited from the
In his first televised speech to the country as head of state Zia
Pakistan which was created in the name of
Islam will continue to
survive only if it sticks to Islam. That is why I consider the
introduction of Islamic system as an essential prerequisite for the
In the past he complained, "Many a ruler did what they pleased in the
name of Islam."
Zia established "
Sharia Benches" in each High Court (later the
Sharia Court) to judge legal cases using the teachings of
the Quran and the Sunna, and to bring Pakistan's legal statutes into
alignment with Islamic doctrine. Zia bolstered the influence of the
_ulama _ (Islamic clergy) and the Islamic parties. 10,000s of
activists from the
Jamaat-e-Islami party were appointed to government
posts to ensure the continuation of his agenda after his passing.
Conservative _ulama _ (Islamic scholars) were added to the Council of
Islamisation was a sharp change from Bhutto's original philosophical
rationale captured in the slogan, "_Food, clothing, and shelter_" .
In Zia's view, socialist economics and a secular-socialist orientation
served only to upset Pakistan's natural order and weaken its moral
fibre. General Zia defended his policies in an interview in 1979
given to British journalist Ian Stephens:
The basis of
Pakistan was Islam. ... Muslims of the subcontinent are
a separate culture. It was on the Two-Nation Theory that this part was
carved out of the Subcontinent as Pakistan.... Mr. Bhutto's way of
flourishing in this Society was by eroding its moral fiber. ... by
pitching students against teachers, children against their parents,
landlord against tenants, workers against mill owners. because
Pakistanis have been made to believe that one can earn without
working. ... We are going back to
Islam not by choice but by the force
of circumstances. It is not I or my government that is imposing Islam.
It was what 99 percent of people wanted; the street violence against
Bhutto reflected the people's desire ... — General Zia-ul-Haq,
How much of Zia's motivation came from piety and how much from
political calculation is disputed. One author points out that Zia was
conspicuously silent on the dispute between the heterodox Zikri and
Ulama in Balochistan where he needed stability. Secular and
leftist forces accused Zia of manipulating
Islam for political ends.
According to Nusrat Bhutto, former First Lady of Pakistan:
The ... horrors of 1971 war ... are (still) alive and vivid in the
hearts and the minds of people of ...Therefore, General Zia insanely
Islam ... to ensure the survival of his own regime....
— Nusrat Bhutto,
How much success Zia had using state-sponsored Islamisation to
strengthen national cohesion is also disputed. Religious riots broke
out in 1983 and 1984. Sectarian divisions between Sunnis and Shia
worsened over the issue of the 1979 _
Zakat _ ordinance, but
differences in fiqh jurisprudence also arose in marriage and divorce,
inheritance and wills and imposition of hadd punishments.
Sunni Muslims, Deobandis and Barelvis also had disputes. Zia
Deobandi doctrine and the Sufi pirs of
Sindh (who were
Barelvi) joined the anti-Zia Movement for the Restoration of Democracy
In one of his first and most controversial measures to Islamize
Pakistani society was the replacement of parts of the
Code (PPC) with the 1979 "
Hudood Ordinance ." (Hudood meaning limits
or restrictions, as in limits of acceptable behaviour in Islamic law.)
The Ordinance added new criminal offences of adultery and fornication
Pakistani law, and new punishments of whipping , amputation , and
stoning to death .
For theft or robbery, the PPC punishments of imprisonment or fine, or
both, were replaced by amputation of the right hand of the offender
for theft, and amputation of the right hand and left foot for robbery.
For _Zina _ (extramarital sex) the provisions relating to adultery
were replaced by the Ordinance with punishments of flogged 100 lashes
for those unmarried offenders, and stoning to death for married
All these punishments were dependent on proof required for _hadd_
being met. In practice the Hudd requirement—four Muslim men of good
repute testifying as witness to the crime—was seldom met. As of
2014, no one offenders have been stoned or had limbs amputated by the
Pakistani judicial system. To be found guilty of theft, _zina_, or
drinking alcohol by less strict _tazir_ standards—where the
punishment was flogging and/or imprisonment—was common, and there
have been many floggings.
More worrisome for human rights and women's rights advocates, lawyers
and politicians was the incarceration of thousands of rape victims on
charges of _zina_. The onus of providing proof in a rape case rests
with the woman herself. Uncorroborated testimony by women was
inadmissible in hudood crimes. If the victim/accuser was unable to
prove her allegation, bringing the case to court was considered
equivalent to a confession of sexual intercourse outside of lawful
marriage. Despite this the ordinance remained in force until the
Women\'s Protection Bill was passed in 2006.
Sharia punishments were imposed, the due process,
witnesses, law of evidence, and prosecution system remained
The hybridisation of
Pakistan penal code with Islamic laws was
difficult because of the difference in the underlying logic of the two
legal systems. PPC was kingly law, _Haddood_ is a religious and
Under Zia, the order for women to cover their heads while in public
was implemented in public schools, colleges and state television.
Women's participation in sports and the performing arts was severely
Sharia law, women's legal testimony was given
half the weight of a man's, according to critics. Unlike men, women
entering into legal contracts were required to have their signature
witness by another person.
In 1980 the "
Zakat and Ushr Ordinance, 1980" was implemented. The
measure called for a 2.5% annual deduction from personal bank accounts
on the first day of
Ramadan , with Zia stating that the revenues would
be used for poverty relief.
Zakat committees were established to
oversee distribution of the funds.
In 1981 interest payments were replaced by "profit and loss" accounts
(though profit was thought to be simply interest by another name).
Textbooks were overhauled to remove un-Islamic material, and
un-Islamic books were removed from libraries. Eating and drinking
Ramadan was outlawed, attempts were made to enforce praying of
salat five times a day.
To outlaw blasphemy , the
Pakistan Penal Code (PPC) and the Criminal
Procedure Code (CrPC) were amended through ordinances in 1980, 1982
and 1986. The 1980 law prohibited derogatory remarks against Islamic
personages, and carried a three-year prison sentence. In 1982 the
Ahmadiyya religious minority were prohibited from saying or
implying they were Muslims. In 1986 declaring anything implying
disrespect to the Islamic prophet
Muhammad , _
Ahl al-Bayt _ (family
members of Muhammad), _
Sahabah _ (companions of Muhammad) or
Islam _ (Islamic symbols) was made a cognisable offence ,
punishable with imprisonment or fine, or both.
Traditional religious madrassass in
Pakistan received state
sponsorship for the first time, under the General Zia-ul-Haq's
administration, Their number grew from 893 to 2,801. Most were
Deobandi in doctrinal orientation, while one quarter of them were
Barelvi . They received funding from
Zakat councils and provided free
religious training, room and board to impoverished Pakistanis. The
schools, which banned televisions and radios, have been criticised by
authors for stoking sectarian hatred both between Muslim sects and
Main article: New wave of rock music in
In a 1979 address to the nation, Zia decried the
Western culture and
music in the country. Soon afterwards, PTV , the national television
network ceased playing music videos and only patriotic songs were
broadcast. New taxes were levied on the film industry and most of the
Lahore were shut down. New tax rates were introduced,
further decreasing cinema attendances.
This was despite strong support from the largest Western country, the
United States, and warm meetings between Zia and President Ronald
Reagan . It was under Zia and the economic prosperity of his era that
the country's urban middle and lower-middle-classes expanded and
Western 1980s fashion wear and hairstyle spread in popularity, and
rock music bands gained momentum, according to leftist cultural critic
Nadeem F. Paracha .
Welfare Of The People With Disabilities
During his tenure, he oversaw passing of an ordinance for the welfare
of people with disabilities. The ordinance is called "The Disabled
Persons (Employment and Rehabilitation) Ordinance, 1981" and it was
passed into law on 29 December 1981. It provides the measures for the
employment, rehabilitation and welfare of the people with
DISMISSAL OF THE JUNEJO GOVERNMENT AND CALL FOR NEW ELECTIONS
As time passed, the legislature wanted to have more freedom and power
and by the beginning of 1988, rumours about the differences between
Muhammad Khan Junejo and Zia were rife.
It is said by some that Zia-Junejo rift was encouraged by late
Mahboob-ul-Haq and Junejo's insistence on signing Geneva pact without
deciding the composition of next government of
Soviet withdrawal. Junejo also gave Benazir a seat next to him in
parleys before that. Junejo did not strengthen the
and rather weakened it. His era led to serious disturbances in Karachi
Karachi went into the secular control of MQM from the
clutches of Sunnis Jamaat-e-Islami.
Ojhri Camp blast had irreversibly weakened Zia.
On 29 May 1988, Zia dissolved the National Assembly and removed the
Prime Minister under article 58(2)b of the amended Constitution. Apart
from many other reasons, Prime Minister Junejo's decision to sign the
Geneva Accord against the wishes of Zia, and his open declarations of
removing any military personnel found responsible for an explosion at
a munitions dump at
Ojhri Camp , on the outskirts of army headquarters
Rawalpindi , earlier in the year, proved to be some of the major
factors responsible for his removal.
Zia promised to hold elections in 1988 after the dismissal of Junejo
government. He said that he would hold elections within the next 90
days. The late Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's daughter
Benazir Bhutto had
returned from exile earlier in 1986, and had announced that she would
be contesting the elections. With Bhutto's popularity somewhat
growing, and a decrease in international aid following the Soviet
withdrawal from Afghanistan, Zia was in an increasingly difficult
Main article: Death and state funeral of
Zia died in a plane crash on 17 August 1988. After witnessing a US M1
Abrams tank demonstration in Bahawalpur, Zia had left the small town
in the Punjab province by C-130B Hercules aircraft. The aircraft
Bahawalpur Airport and was expected to reach Islamabad
International Airport . Shortly after a smooth takeoff , the control
tower lost contact with the aircraft. Witnesses who saw the plane in
the air afterward claim it was flying erratically, then nosedived and
exploded on impact. In addition to Zia, 31 others died in the plane
crash, including chairman
Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee General
Akhtar Abdur Rahman , close associate of Zia,
Brigadier Siddique Salik
, the American Ambassador to
Arnold Lewis Raphel and General
Herbert M. Wassom, the head of the US Military aid mission to
Ghulam Ishaq Khan , the Senate chairman announced Zia's
death on radio and TV. Conditions surrounding his death have given
rise to many conspiracy theories. There is speculation that the
United States, India, the
Soviet Union (in retaliation for Pakistani
support of the mujahideen in
Afghanistan ) or an alliance of them and
internal groups within Zia's military were behind the incident.
A board of inquiry was set up to investigate the crash. It concluded
'the most probable cause of the crash was a criminal act of sabotage
perpetrated in the aircraft'. It also suggested that poisonous gases
were released which incapacitated the passengers and crew, which would
explain why no _Mayday _ signal was given. There was also speculation
into other facts involving the details of the investigation. A flight
recorder (black box) was not located after the crash and previous
C-130 aircraft did have them installed.
Maj. Gen. (retd)
Mahmud Ali Durrani , who was suspected by many
Pakistan and also by the then
United States Ambassador
to India, John Gunther Dean, for being _extraordinarily insistent_
with President Zia to visit the demonstration, is considered to be the
prime suspect in the incident. He claimed later that reports of
Israeli and Indian involvement in Zia's plane-crash were only
speculations and he rejected the statement that was given by former
Ghulam Ishaq Khan that the presidential plane was blown up
in the air. Durrani stated that Zia's plane was destroyed while
Hameed Gul , the head of Pakistan’s Inter Services
Intelligence agency at the time, suggested that the United States
might be responsible, even though the U.S. Ambassador and military
attaché were also killed. He told _
The Times _ that the Pakistani
President was killed in a conspiracy involving a "foreign power".
FUNERAL AND AFTERMATH
Well, he was a great loss...He is _a_ martyr, and was a great man.
George P. Shultz , 1988,
Grave stone of Zia's grave
His funeral was held on 19 August 1988 in
Islamabad . As a 21-gun
salute of light artillery resounded off the lush Margalla Hills,
nearly 1 million mourners joined in chants of "Zia ul-Haq, you will
live as long as the sun and moon remain above." His remains were laid
to rest in a 4-by-10-foot dirt grave in front of the huge, modern
Faisal Mosque that Zia had built as a symbol of Pakistani-Saudi
friendship. Also in attendance was his successor President Ghulam
Ishaq Khan chiefs of staff of armed forces, chairman joint chiefs, and
other high military and civil officials. Former US Secretary of State
George P. Shultz also laid a floral wreath at Zia's grave.
Even after his death,
Zia-ul-Haq remained a highly polarizing and
widely discussed figure in the country's intellectual and political
circles. Out of the country\'s short history , Zia-ul-Haq's legacy
remains a most toxic, enduring, and tamper-proof legacy, according to
the editorial written in _Dawn_ . Historians and political scientists
widely discussed and studied his policy making skills, some authors
noting him as "_The Ringmaster_", "_Master of Illusion_" and
"_Master Tactician_". However, his most remembered and enduring
legacy was his indirect involvement and military strategies, by proxy
Mujahideen , against the
USSR 's war in
His reign also helped the conservatives to rise at the national
politics against Benazir Bhutto. He is also noted as being one of
Pakistan's most successful generals, placing the armed forces in
charge of the country's affairs. During his regime, western styles in
hair, clothing, and music flooded the country. The 1980s gave birth
Pakistani rock music, which expressed
Pakistani nationalism in the
REMOVAL OF NAME FROM THE CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN
With the passing of Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution of
Pakistan , General Zia's name was permanently deleted from the
Constitution of Pakistan.
* Knight of the
Order of Chula Chom Klao (
PORTRAYALS IN POPULAR CULTURE
Zia has been portrayed in English language popular culture a number
of times including:
* In the comic _
Shattered Visage _, it is implied that Zia's death
was orchestrated by the same intelligence agency that ran The Village
from the show _
The Prisoner _.
* Zia was portrayed by Indian actor
Om Puri in the 2007 film
_Charlie Wilson\'s War _.
* Zia is caricatured as one of the main protagonists in Mohammed
Hanif 's 2008 satirical novel _
A Case of Exploding Mangoes _ which is
loosely based around the events of his death.
* Zia is the basis for the character General Hyder in Salman Rushdie
's novel _Shame _ (1983), which describes Zia's long-lasting
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (here known as Iskander
Harrapa), the president whom he would later overthrow and "put to
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's takeover of
Pakistan and circumstances of
his death were referenced in the _
Star Trek _ novel _The Rise and Fall
of Khan Noonien Singh, Volume One _. In a prelude to the fictional
Eugenics Wars , it is implied that genetically engineered "superman"
Khan Noonien Singh arranged the crash.
* The oppressive regime of
Zia-ul-Haq and the execution of Zulfikar
Ali Bhutto was referenced in the book _
Songs of Blood and Sword _, a
non-fiction memoir by Murtaza Bhutto's daughter
Fatima Bhutto .
* Biography portal
* Politics portal
* Human Rights in
Pakistan under General
* Politics of
* Line of succession to the
President of Pakistan
List of Presidents of Pakistan
* Oppression under the regime of General
* Corporate capitalisation
Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 12 February
2017. Missing or empty title= (help )
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_
_Q_ _R_ _S_ Haqqani, Hussain (2005). _Pakistan:Between Mosque and
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Great". _Interview with
Major-General baber_. Defence Journal of
Pakistan. Archived from the original on 28 April 2016. Retrieved 2011.
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* ^ Rafiq Dossani (2005). Prospects for Peace in South Asia.
Stanford University Press. pp. 46–50. ISBN 978-0-8047-5085-1 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Story of Pakistan. "Ouster of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto"
(PHP). Retrieved 7 November 2006.
* ^ Wynbrandt, James (2009). _A Brief History of Pakistan_. Facts
on File. p. 216. In his first speech to the nation, Zia pledged the
government would work to create a true Islamic society.
* ^ Haqqani 2010 , p. 131: "Zia ul-Haq is often identified as the
person most responsible for turning
Pakistan into a global center for
political Islam. Undoubtedly, Zia went farthest in defining Pakistan
as an Islamic state, and he nurtured the jihadist ideology."
* ^ Talbot, Ian (1998). _Pakistan, a Modern History_. NY:
St.Martin's Press. p. 245.
Pakistan during the period 1977–1988 ...
aspired to be an ideological state... the goal of an
Islamic state was
deemed to be its main basis.
* ^ Khanna, Sushil Khanna. "The Crisis in the
Sushil Khanna. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
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Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq". Nndb.com. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
* ^ Zaeef 2011 , p. 275
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* ^ "Zia\'s daughter is here". _The Tribune_. Chandigarh. Retrieved
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* ^ "Shatrughan reminisces ties with Zia". _The Tribune_.
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* ^ "Umeed-e-Noor\'s efforts for special children lauded".
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* ^ In the summer of 1976, General Zia, who had superseded seven
senior senior lieutenant-generals, told Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali
Bhutto: "Sir, I am so grateful to you for appointing me Chief of Army
Staff. Not only myself, but may future generations will be eternally
grateful to you for singling me out for such a great honor, and this
is a favour which I can never forget." The Herald, July 1992
* ^ Haqqani 2010 , p. 111
* ^ Cowasjee, Ardeshir (29 June 1995). "The general\'s generals".
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* ^ Mazari, Sherbaz(2000) A Journey into disillusionment
* ^ Hyman, Ghayur & Kaushik 1989 , p. 23
* ^ Hyman, Ghayur & Kaushik 1989 , p. 29
* ^ Hyman, Ghayur & Kaushik 1989 , p. 30
* ^ Haqqani 2010 , p. 126
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ Institute for Defense
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dictatorship_. University of California: Institute for Defense Studies
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* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Coll, Steve (2004). _Ghost Wars: The Secret
History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet
Invasion to September 10, 2001_. Penguin Press. pp. 695 pages. ISBN
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* ^ _A_ _B_ Panhwar, Member of
Sindh Provincial Assembly., Sani H.
(5 April 1979). "CIA Sent Bhutto to the Gallows". The New York Time.
Retrieved 23 August 2011 – via sixhour.com. "I do not believe in
conspiracy theories in general, but the similarities in the staging of
riots in Chile (where the CIA allegedly helped overthrow President
Salvador Allende ) and in
Pakistan are just too close, Bhutto was
removed from power in
Pakistan by force on 5 July, after the usual
party on the 4th at the U.S. Embassy in
Islamabad , with U.S.
approval, if not more, by Zia. Bhutto was falsely accused and
subjected to brutality for months during proceedings that corrupted
the Judiciary of
Pakistan before being murdered, then hanged. As
Americans, we must ask ourselves this: Is it possible that a rational
military leader under the circumstances in
Pakistan could have
overthrown a constitutional government, without at least the tacit
approval of the United States?".
* ^ Talbot, Ian (1998). _Pakistan, a Modern History_. NY:
St.Martin's Press. p. 256.
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Pakistan Muslim League". _PML Public
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* ^ Hyman, Ghayur & Kaushik 1989 , pp. 38, 40: "In the first week
of October 1977, the General abruptly postponed the election ...
Perhaps now some political leaders sensed that the General's game was
different ... Many people now believe that the General had his plan
ready when he took over the reins of government, and had been astutely
following the plan when he announced the postponement of the
* ^ Khan, Roedad. "Pakistan- A Dream Gone Sour". _Colonel Athar
Hussain Ansari, PAF _. Roedad Khan. Retrieved 16 November 2011. "What
is a constitution? It is a booklet with twelve or ten pages. I can
tear them away and say that tomorrow we shall live under a different
system. Today, the people will follow wherever I lead. All the
politicians including the once mighty Mr. Bhutto and his friends will
follow me with tails wagging...." General
Zia-ul-Haq in 1977
* ^ "Zia describing Bhutto.". _Saudi Press Agency_. Saudi Press
Agency. Retrieved 16 November 2011. "I hate anybody projecting as a
leader ... if you want to serve the Islamic
Ummah and Humanity, do it
as a humble person. Amongst Muslims we are all Muslim brothers ... not
* ^ Khan, Roedad. "Zia's attitude towards Bhutto and his friends".
"It is either his neck or mine! ... I have not convicted him or his
friend , and if they hold him guilty, my God, I am not going to let
him off! Missing or empty url= (help ); access-date= requires url=
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Nawaz Sharif Profile on WikiMir source of original citation
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History_. NY: St.Martin's Press. pp. 260–1.
* ^ Many Islamists have pointed out that while the Quran makes no
mention of elections, parliaments, etc., the Quran did urge Muhammad
– the first ruler of Muslims, and the one who Muslim should emulate
– to consult his companions. (see The Need for Consultation
Muhammad Haq Archived 9 December 2014 at the Wayback
Machine . 3 January 2013)
* ^ _Al-Mushir_ 24, n.2 (1982), p.85
* ^ Talbot, Ian (1998). _Pakistan, a Modern History_. NY:
St.Martin's Press. pp. 284–5. Partyless elections encouraged
sectarian and ethnic mobilisation to the detriment of national
integration. C. Rakisits points out that '.... Ethnic identification
has increasingly replaced the
Pakistan 'nation' as a symbol of
* ^ _A_ _B_ Talbot, Ian (1998). _Pakistan, a Modern History_. NY:
St.Martin's Press. pp. 246, 7. ... the period of rapid economic growth
during the 1980s also dampened threats to Zia's power, although it was
based more on the bounty of remittances from overseas' workers than on
economic policies. ... per capita income by 34% but the economy also
benefited in this period from overseas remittances of $25 billion.
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Handbook_. ABC-CLIO. p. 110. Retrieved 4 December 2014. The dramatic
rise in remittances coincided with the first year of the Zia
government and is considered the most significant economic development
during his era. These remittances totaling $3.2 billion per year for
most of the 1980s, were substantial, particular in relation to the
size of the economy. They accounted for 10 percent of GDP; 45 percent
of current account receipts, and 40 percent of total foreign exchange
* ^ Hussain, Ishrat (1999). _Pakistan: The Economy of an Elitist
State_. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
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1991. pp. 106 pages.
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Pakistan : eye of the
storm_. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. pp. 16–7. ...
Zia rewarded the only political party to offer him consistent support,
Jamaat-e-Islami. Tens of thousands of Jamaat activists and
sympathisers were given jobs in the judiciary, the civil service and
other state institutions. These appointments meant Zia's Islamic
agenda lived on long after he died.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ Michael Heng Siam-Heng; Ten
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St.Martin's Press. p. 252. The need for stability in the strategic
region of Balochistan during the Afghan war led Zia to distance
himself from the sectarian conflict between the heterodox Zikri
community and the _ulama_. ... Significantly standing aside from the
issue, Zia lent credence to critics' claim that his call for
Islamisation was just a cover for his undemocratic regime rather than
a genuine desire.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Talbot, Ian (1998). _Pakistan, a Modern History_.
NY: St.Martin's Press. p. 251. The state sponsored process of
Islamisation dramatically increased sectarian divisions not only
between Sunnis and
Shia over the issue of the 1979 _Zakat_ Ordinance,
but also between Deobandis and Barelvis .
* ^ Talbot, Ian (1998). _Pakistan, a Modern History_. NY:
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Perhaps The Israelis, The US, Moscow; He Implemented
Sharia Law And
His Murder Remains Unsolved 25 Years Later". _International Business
Times_. IBT Media Inc. Retrieved 2014-11-22.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Fineman, Mark (21 August 1988). "Million Mourn at
Funeral for Pakistan\'s Zia". _The Los Angeles Times_. Retrieved 2
* ^ There is also still a lot of controversy on who or what
actually lies buried in Zia's supposed grave. Some people claim only
his jawbone was found and identified, and is buried there; whilst
others claim that bits and pieces of a number of the aircrash victims
were put in together. See SAH Rizvi in his article in 'The Pakistan
Observer' Islamabad, 27 August 1988
* ^ The
Faisal Mosque is named after the late Saudi Arabian king
Faisal, and was partially constructed with Saudi funds
* ^ _A_ _B_ Nasir, Abbas (7 July 2012). "Zia\'s Long Shadow". _Dawn
Newspapers_. Dawn Newspapers. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
* ^ Hyman, Ghayur & Kaushik 1989 , p. 35
* ^ Rehman, I A (September 1988). "Ziaul Haq: Master of illusion".
Islamabad: Dawn Newspapers, Rehman. Dawn Newspapers. Retrieved 18
* ^ Shah, Mehtab Ali (1997). _The foreign policy of Pakistan:
ethnic impacts on diplomacy, 1971–1994_. London : Tauris. ISBN
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Election Commission of
Pakistan on Zia-ul-Haq".
Election Commission of
Pakistan on Zia-ul-Haq. Retrieved 2 December
* ^ Kapur, Ashok (1991). "Zia ul Haq's legacy". _
crisis_ (1. ed.). London: Routledge. pp. 146–190. ISBN 0-415-00062-9
. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
* ^ "18th Amendment Bill, Pakistan". _Council on Foreign
Relations_. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
* ^ "GeoTV Geo News Latest News Breaking News
Videos". _geo.tv_. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
Mohammed Hanif (May 2008). _A Case of Exploding Mangoes_.
Knopf. ISBN 0-307-26807-1 .
* ^ Greg Cox (July 2001). _The Rise and Fall of Khan Noonien Singh,
Volume One_. Pocket Books. ISBN 0-671-02127-3 .
* Haqqani, Husain (2010), _Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military_,
Carnegie Endowment, ISBN 978-0-87003-285-1
* Hyman, Anthony; Ghayur, Muhammed; Kaushik, Naresh (1989),
_Pakistan, Zia and After--_, New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, ISBN
* Zaeef, Abdul Salam (2011), _My Life with the Taliban_, Hurst, ISBN
Books about Haq's time period
* _The Leopard and the Fox_ by
Tariq Ali (2007)
* _Breaking the Curfew_ by Emma Duncan (1989) ISBN 0-7181-2989-X
* _Working with Zia_ by General
Khalid Mahmud Arif
* _Khaki Shadows_ by General Khalid Mahmud Arif
* _Desperately Seeking Paradise_ by
* _Waiting for Allah_ by
* _Ayub, Bhutto, and Zia_ by Hassan Iftikhar
* _Journey to Disillusionment_ by
Sherbaz Khan Mazari
* _Ghost Wars_ by
Zia-ul-Haq Shaheed: A Compilation_ by various
* _Charlie Wilson\'s War: The Extraordinary Story of the Largest
Covert Operation in History _ by
George Crile III
* _The Bear Trap: Afghanistan's Untold Story_ by Mohammed Yousaf,
Mark Adkin (1992) ISBN 0-85052-267-6
A Case of Exploding Mangoes _ by
* _Pakistan's Politics: The Zia Years_ by
Mushahid Hussain Syed
Pakistan Under Martial Law 1977–1985_ by
* _Songs of Blood and Sword_ by