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Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad Shah[1] (born Roshan Akhtar)[1] (7 August 1702 – 26 April 1748)[1] was Mughal emperor
Mughal emperor
from 1719 to 1748.[3] He was son of Khujista Akhtar, the fourth son of Bahadur Shah I. With the help of the Sayyid brothers, he ascended the throne at the young age of 17. He later got rid of them with the help of Asaf Jah I
Asaf Jah I
– Syed Hussain Ali Khan was murdered at Fatehpur Sikri in 1720 and Syed Hassan Ali Khan Barha was fatally poisoned in 1722.[4] Muhammad Shah was a great patron of the arts, including musical, cultural and administrative developments. His pen-name was Sada Rangila ("ever joyous") and he is often referred to as " Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
Rangila".[5] Although he was a patron of the arts, Muhammad Shah's reign was marked by rapid and irreversible decline of the Mughal Empire. The Mughal Empire was already decaying, but the invasion by Nader Shah
Nader Shah
of Persia and the subsequent sacking of Delhi, the Mughal capital, greatly accelerated the pace. The course of events not only shocked and mortified the Mughals themselves, but also foreign invaders, including the British.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Reign

2.1 Courtiers and Subahdars 2.2 Administrative and Cultural developments 2.3 Scientific developments

3 Later Mughal- Maratha
Maratha
wars 4 Mughal Army 5 Invasion of Nader Shah

5.1 Causes 5.2 Invasion of the Mughal Empire 5.3 Aftermath

6 Foreign relations 7 Marriages 8 Death 9 Gallery 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

Early life[edit] Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
was born in 1702 in Ghazna
Ghazna
(in modern-day Afghanistan) to Prince Khujista Akhtar, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. His grandfather Bahadur Shah I
Bahadur Shah I
defeated and eliminated his own brother Muhammad Azam Shah
Muhammad Azam Shah
on 19 June 1707 at the Battle of Jajau. During another war of succession, following the death of Bahadur Shah, his father was killed, and the 12-year-old prince and his mother were imprisoned by his uncle Jahandar Shah
Jahandar Shah
but spared from death. The prince was handsome and quick to learn, and his mother took good care of his education, while his father enhanced his administrative abilities. After the overthrow of Farrukhsiyar
Farrukhsiyar
in 1719, several Mughal Emperors briefly ascended the throne, but the Sayyid Brothers eventually chose 17-year-old Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
as emperor. Reign[edit] On 29 September 1719, Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
was given the title Abu Al-Fatah Nasir-ud-Din Roshan Akhtar Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
and enthroned in the Red Fort. His mother was given an allowance of 15 thousand rupees monthly for her needs, but the Sayyid Brothers
Sayyid Brothers
kept the new emperor under strict supervision. The Mughal Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
Syed Hassan Ali Khan Barha and his brother the Mughal commander and chief Syed Hussain Ali Khan Barha were well aware that Asaf Jah I
Asaf Jah I
and his companions Qamaruddin Khan, Zain ud-din Ahmad Khan intended to dissolve their administration. The Sayyid Brothers quickly nominated an amateur, Prince Muhammad Ibrahim, who proclaimed himself Mughal Emperor, but he was quickly defeated by the new loyalists of the young Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
on 13 November 1720.

The Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
with his Falcon
Falcon
visits the imperial garden at sunset on a palanquin.

On 9 October 1720, Syed Hussain Ali Khan Barha, the commander and chief of the most elite Mughal Army, was assassinated in his encampment in Toba Bhim. The Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
took direct command of his forces. Asaf Jah I
Asaf Jah I
was then dispatched to gain complete control of six Mughal provinces in the Deccan, and Muhammad Amin Khan Turani was assigned as the Mansabdar of 8,000. He was sent to pursue the Mughal Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
Syed Hassan Ali Khan Barha, who was defeated at the Battle of Hasanpur by Turani, Mir Muhammad Amin Irani and Muhammad Haider Beg. He was captured by Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
on 15 November 1720 and executed two years later. Previously the emperor had to fight Muhammad Ibrahim, but young Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
defeated him on 13 November 1720. The fall of the Sayyid Brothers
Sayyid Brothers
marked the beginning of the end of the Mughal Empire's direct control over its dominions in the Deccan. In the year 1721, young Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
married the daughter of the previously deposed Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Farrukhsiyar. On 21 February 1722, Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
appointed the Asaf Jah I
Asaf Jah I
as Grand Vizier. He advised Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
to be "as cautious as Akbar
Akbar
and as brave as Aurangzeb". Asaf Jah I
Asaf Jah I
resigned his post as the Grand Vizier when Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
expressed negligence towards his administration. Asaf Jah I
Asaf Jah I
appointed commander Ewaz Khan as the master of the garrison at Aurangabad, and much of his logistical duties were carried out by Inayatullah Kashmiri.[6] Asaf Jah I
Asaf Jah I
left the imperial court in disgust and appointed his deputy Qamaruddin Khan
Qamaruddin Khan
as the next Grand Vizier. In 1723 he set out on an expedition to the Deccan, where he fought Mubariz Khan, the Mughal Subedar
Subedar
of the Deccan, who kept the ravaging Marathas
Marathas
at bay. Taking advantage of Mubariz Khan's conventional weaknesses, Asaf Jah I
Asaf Jah I
defeated and eliminated his opponent during the Battle of Shakarkhelda. Asaf Jah I
Asaf Jah I
then established the Nizam of Hyderabad in 1725.

The imperial Diwan of the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Muhammad Shah

During this time, the Mughal- Maratha
Maratha
Wars (1728–1763)[7] would cause irreparable devastation to the inhabitants of the ill-administered Mughal Empire. Despite efforts to counter the rise of rebellions in 1724, by the Nawab of Awadh
Nawab of Awadh
Saadat Ali Khan and the Mughal Subedar
Subedar
in Bangalore, Dilawar Khan (r.1726–1756), who established a well-protected bastion in the Malabar Coast. Muhammad Ali Khan the Mughal Faujdar
Faujdar
of Rangpur and his stern ally Deena Narayan were ambushed out of Koch Bihar
Koch Bihar
by Upendra Narayan a Hindu
Hindu
Bihari and Mipham Wangpo (r.1729–1736) the ruler of Bhutan. Ali Muhammad Khan Rohilla had established the barons of Rohilakhand. The Nawab
Nawab
of Bhopal, Yar Muhammad Khan Bahadur, also ratified by the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
in 1728, countered ceaseless raids by the Marathas
Marathas
in Malwa
Malwa
and nearly began to lose half of his territories in the year 1742. Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
eventually learned the skills of statesmanship after removing his three incompetent Viziers, namely Koki Jee (his foster sister), Roshan-ud-Daula (his mercantile friend) and Sufi Abdul Ghafur of Thatta
Thatta
(his spiritual teacher). In the Punjab region, the Sikhs
Sikhs
were at war with Mughal Subedars, and the hit-and-run tactics of the Sikh
Sikh
warriors caused devastation. In Ajmer, Ajit Singh carved out a vast territory and allied himself with the renegade Marathas. While in the Deccan the Marathas
Marathas
had ruined Mughal fortifications and were already on the warpath. All this greatly contributed to the decline of the Mughal Empire. In 1737, the Marathas
Marathas
under Baji Rao I
Baji Rao I
annexed Gujarat, Malwa
Malwa
and Bundelkhand, and raided the Mughal capital Delhi. In 1739, Nader Shah
Nader Shah
of Persia, lured by the wealth and weakness of the Mughals, took advantage of a rebellion on his eastern borders near Kandahar
Kandahar
and initiated a campaign against the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
capturing Ghazni, Kabul, Lahore, and Sindh. He then advanced against Muhammad Shah and defeated him at the Battle of Karnal. The Persians, having crushed the Mughal armies in less than three hours,[8] marched upon and sacked Delhi, hoarding priceless treasures that were taken back to Persia. This event weakened the Mughals significantly, paving the path for more invaders and eventually the British Raj. In 1748, Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
invaded the Mughal Empire. Heir apparent Ahmad Shah Bahadur, Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
Qamaruddin Khan
Qamaruddin Khan
and his son Muin ul-Mulk, Intizam-ud-Daula and Safdarjung
Safdarjung
were sent with 75,000 men after the defeat of Shahnawaz Khan in Lahore. At the Battle of Manipur (1748), Durrani's 12,000 men were defeated, and he was forced to retreat. There was a great rejoicing for this event throughout the Mughal Empire. Courtiers and Subahdars[edit]

Muhammad Amin Khan Turani
Muhammad Amin Khan Turani
was the commander and chief of the Mughal Army, his forces dissolved the administration of Sayyid Brothers.

Asaf Jah I
Asaf Jah I
was instated as the Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
on 21 February 1722.

The Nawab
Nawab
of Awadh, Saadat Ali Khan commanded and trained most of the Mughal Army.

Alivardi Khan, the wealthy and trustworthy Nawab
Nawab
of Bengal.

Muhammad Khan Bangash, was the Nawab
Nawab
of Farrukhabad.

Jai Singh II
Jai Singh II
patronised a Zij in honour of Muhammad Shah.

Dost Mohammad Khan, the founder of the Nawab
Nawab
of Bhopal.

Anwaruddin Khan
Anwaruddin Khan
was Nawab
Nawab
of the Carnatic

Administrative and Cultural developments[edit]

The phrase Zuban-i Urdū-yi Muʿallá (literally "Language of the exalted Horde", contextually the exalted Urdu
Urdu
Language) written in Nastaʿlīq script

Baagh e Naazir
Baagh e Naazir
was built by Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
the year 1748.

While Urdu
Urdu
was already in use before Muhammad Shah's reign, it was during his reign that it became more popular among the people and he declared it as the court language, replacing Persian. However, many writers say it was the British who made Urdu
Urdu
the Official Language and that Urdu
Urdu
was never court language during Mughal Rule. During Muhammad Shah's reign, Qawwali
Qawwali
was reintroduced into the Mughal imperial court and it quickly spread throughout South Asia. Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
is also known to have introduced religious institutions for education such as Maktabs. During his reign, the Quran
Quran
was translated for the first time in simple Persian and Urdu. Also, during his reign, the formal Turkic dress, normally worn by the high Mughal nobility since Mughals originally hailed from Samarqand, was replaced by the Sherwani. Mohammad Shah was a patron of the performing arts, almost at the cost of administrative priorities, paving the way for the disintegration of governance. While Mughal political power did decline in his reign, the Emperor encouraged the arts, employing master artists such as Nidha Mal (active 1735–75) and Chitarman, whose vivacious paintings depict scenes of court life, such as Holi
Holi
celebrations, hunting and hawking.[9] The Mughal court of the time had musicians such as Niyamat Khan, also known as Sadarang, and his nephew Firoz Khan (Adarang), whose compositions popularised the musical form of Khyal.Naimat Khan composed Khyal for his disciples and he never performed Khyal.[10] This key component of Indian classical music
Indian classical music
evolved, ascended and received princely patronage at the court of Muhammad Shah.[11] Scientific developments[edit] During the reign of Muhammad Shah, a significant scientific work known as the Zij-i Muhammad Shahi was completed by Jai Singh II
Jai Singh II
of Amber between the year 1727 and 1735; it consisted of 400 pages.[12] Later Mughal- Maratha
Maratha
wars[edit]

Elephants pushing Mughal artillery
Mughal artillery
cannons drawn also by bullocks.[13]

After Asaf Jah I
Asaf Jah I
left Delhi, the Marathas, who had already expanded up to the river Narmada, invaded the rich province of Malwa
Malwa
in the beginning of 1723. The Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
entrusted its defence to its governor, who failed him. By winter of the same year, they reached Ujjain, the capital of Malwa. In 1725, the governorship of Gujarat
Gujarat
was transferred to Sarbuland Khan. Enraged by the authority of the Mughal Emperor, the Marathas
Marathas
invaded Gujarat
Gujarat
but were routed by Sarbuland Khan and his forces. This was mainly because most of the Maratha forces, including their leader Baji Rao I, were at the time fighting the Asaf Jah I
Asaf Jah I
in Hyderabad. The war with Hyderabad, however, proceeded favourably for the Marathas. In 1728, during February, the Asaf Jah I
Asaf Jah I
was decisively defeated at the Battle of Palkhed. In the year 1728, the Marathas
Marathas
led by Baji Rao I and his brother Chimnaji Appa
Chimnaji Appa
invaded the Mughal province of Malwa and challenged the Mughal Subedar
Subedar
Girdihar Bahadur, who led a fairly large Mughal Army
Mughal Army
during the Battle of Amjhera. Both Girdihar Bahadur and his trusted cousin Daya Bahadur were defeated and killed. On 29 November, Chimnaji Appa
Chimnaji Appa
went on to besiege the remnants of the Mughal Army of Malwa
Malwa
during a failed Siege of Ujjain.[14] In the year 1731, Asaf Jah I
Asaf Jah I
the Nizam of Hyderabad
Nizam of Hyderabad
had managed to secure the defections of influential Maratha
Maratha
leaders, such as Trimbak Rao Dabhade and Sanbhoji who threatened to abandon the Marathas
Marathas
and join the forces with the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
instead. This move was considered unacceptable by Baji Rao I
Baji Rao I
and his brother Chimnaji Appa
Chimnaji Appa
who led a large well armed Forces of Marathas
Marathas
to intercept Trimbak Rao Dabhade and Sanbhoji during the Battle of Dabhoi, where the defecting factions were all defeated, overrun and killed.[14] Baji Rao I
Baji Rao I
then attacked Gujarat
Gujarat
with full force and finally drove out Sarbuland Khan by 1735.

An elephant and its mahout in service of the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Muhammad Shah.

In the year 1736, Siddi's of Murud-Janjira
Murud-Janjira
set out to recapture Raigarh
Raigarh
from the forces of Baji Rao, on 19 April 1736, Chimnaji attacked the gathering forces in the encampments of the Siddi's during a battle near Riwas, when the confrontation ended, 1500 Siddi's including their leader Siddi
Siddi
Sat were killed. Peace was concluded in September 1736, but the Siddi's were confined to Janjira, Gowalkot and Anjanvel. In the year 1737, Asaf Jah I
Asaf Jah I
the Nizam of Hyderabad
Nizam of Hyderabad
led a large Mughal Army to assist the Nawab of Bhopal
Nawab of Bhopal
Yar Muhammad Khan Bahadur but was instead besieged inside the city of Bhopal
Bhopal
by 80,000 Marathas
Marathas
led by Baji Rao I. The Battle of Bhopal
Bhopal
continued until Safdarjung
Safdarjung
and his relief forces were driven away by Malhar Rao Holkar. With the following peace negotiations, Asaf Jah I
Asaf Jah I
agreed to the peace treaty ratified by the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
that granted Malwa
Malwa
to the Marathas.[14] In the year 1737 the Maratha
Maratha
chieftain Baji Rao I attacked the Mughal imperial capital at Delhi, and defeated a well trained Mughal Army
Mughal Army
led by Amir Khan Bahadur, but was forced to withdraw when the Mughal Vizier
Vizier
Qamaruddin Khan
Qamaruddin Khan
and his substantially well armed reinforcements fought major skirmishes with the Marathas
Marathas
on the outskirts of Delhi. Baji Rao I
Baji Rao I
and his Marathas
Marathas
fled southeast to Badshshpur, where he corresponded with the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Muhammad Shah, who ratified peace by agreeing the handover of Malwa
Malwa
to the Marathas.[14] Among the loyal tributaries of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
was Meenakshi, the queen of the Madurai Nayaks
Madurai Nayaks
in Dindigul Fort, she had assisted Mughal forces in the Carnatic several times against the Marathas.

v t e

Later Mughal- Maratha
Maratha
Wars

Battle of Amjhera (1728) Battle of Palkhed Battle of Jaitpur (1729) Battle of Delhi
Delhi
(1737) Battle of Bhopal Battle of Damalcherry Pass (1740) Siege of Trichinopoly (1741) First Battle of Katwa (1742) Siege of Trichinopoly (1743) Second Battle of Katwa (1745) Battle of Burdwan (1747) Battle of Malthan (1751) First Battle of Sikandarabad (1754) Battle of Sindkhed (1757) Battle of Mangrol (1761) Battle of Rakshasbhuvan

In the year 1740, Dost Ali Khan to Nawab
Nawab
of the Carnatic and Chanda Sahib faced the task of expelling the Marathas
Marathas
under Raghoji I Bhonsle, authorised by Shahu. Dost Ali Khan lost his life on 20 May 1740 at the Battle of Damalcherry in defence of Arcot
Arcot
and its populace, which was eventually looted and plundered. Chanda Sahib along with his garrison was captured and imprisoned in Satara. Chanda Sahib and his forces ferociously defended their rightful reams during the Siege of Trichinopoly and almost all the territories of the Nawab of the Carnatic despite being outnumbered substantially by the Marathas, their daunting efforts soon attracted the attention of the curious French East India
India
Company official named Joseph François Dupleix.[15] dissatisfied by the Maratha
Maratha
occupation of the territories of the Nawab
Nawab
of the Carnatic, Asaf Jah I
Asaf Jah I
led an expedition to liberate the Carnatic he was joined by Sadatullah Khan II and Anwaruddin Muhammed Khan together they recaptured Arcot
Arcot
and initiated the Siege of Trichinopoly (1743), which lasted five months and forced the Marathas
Marathas
led by Murari Rao Ghorpade to evacuate the Carnatic.[15] In the year 1747, the Marathas
Marathas
led by Raghoji I Bhonsle, began to raid, pillage and annex the territories of the Nawab
Nawab
of Bengal Alivardi Khan. During the Maratha
Maratha
invasion of Orissa, its Subedar
Subedar
Mir Jafar completely withdrew all forces until the arrival of Alivardi Khan and the Mughal Army
Mughal Army
at the Battle of Burdwan where Raghoji I Bhonsle and his Maratha
Maratha
forces were completely routed. The enraged Nawab
Nawab
of Bengal
Bengal
Alivardi Khan
Alivardi Khan
then dismissed the shamed Mir Jafar. However, four years later Orissa was ceded over to the Marathas
Marathas
by the Mughal Emperor.[14] Mughal Army[edit]

Jaivana
Jaivana
Cannon
Cannon
– World's largest Cannon
Cannon
on wheels, was cast during the reign of the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
by his vassal, Sawai Raja Jai Singh II.

The Mughal Army
Mughal Army
before the year 1739 comprised 200,000 cavalry and 1,500 elephants, the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
used eight thousand pieces of artillery, which were drawn by elephants and oxen.[16] Invasion of Nader Shah[edit]

Nader Shah
Nader Shah
finds his troops had been killed in rioting. From Surridge, Victor (1909). Romance of Empire: India. 

On 13 February 1739 the Persians under the military genius Nader Shah, the commander of the Afsharids, had deposed the former Safavid dynasty, and defeated Persia's arch rival, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
several times, and had therefore secured the western front. Now his eyes turned upon the wealthy but weakened Mughal Empire. In the year 1739, Nader Shah
Nader Shah
invaded the Mughal Empire, and defeated the Muhammad Shah during the Battle of Karnal
Battle of Karnal
in less than three hours,[8] and then marched upon the Mughal capital Delhi, and after a chain of events, he completely sacked and looted it, and occupied much of the northern regions of the Mughal Empire. Causes[edit] Nader Shah
Nader Shah
wanted to subdue Afghan rebels led by the Ghilzai
Ghilzai
tribe particularly in the region around Kandahar.[17][verification needed] He therefore requested the assistance of the Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
to close the frontiers around Kabul
Kabul
and the Indus
Indus
Valley so that the rebels may not flee or seek refuge. Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
gave a confirming reply to Nader Shah
Nader Shah
but didn't do any thing practically, because the local Subedars and Faujdars sympathised with the Afghan and rejected Persian rule. The Afghan rebels eventually did flee to the Mughals. Outraged by this, Nader Shah
Nader Shah
sent an ambassador to Muhammad Shah, demanding deliverance of the fugitives. The Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
did not provide a positive response and kept the Persians marginalised from Delhi
Delhi
for an entire year. Nader Shah
Nader Shah
became furious with Muhammad Shah. He had now found himself two reasons of why to invade the Mughal Empire; one, that the Mughals didn't deliver the Afghan rebels to him, and two, he knew that the Mughals were weak, but still extremely wealthy. Invasion of the Mughal Empire[edit] On the basis of the above reasons, Nader Shah
Nader Shah
decided to invade the Mughal Empire, by starting to attack from Afghanistan. In May 1738 he attacked Northern Afghanistan. In the same month, he captured Ghazni, in June he captured Kabul
Kabul
and in September Jalalabad
Jalalabad
also fell to him. In November he surrounded the fortress of Peshawar
Peshawar
and razed it to the ground after the Battle of Khyber pass. Finally in January 1739, he captured Lahore, after completely subduing the forces of the Mughal viceroy, Zakariya Khan Bahadur
Zakariya Khan Bahadur
and his 25,000 elite Sowars,[18] by the river Chenab
Chenab
the Afsharid
Afsharid
forces soon encountered bands of Sikh
Sikh
rebels whom Nader Shah
Nader Shah
predicted would clearly benefit after his invasion.[18]

Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
with the Persian invader Nader Shah

Now Nader Shah
Nader Shah
had captured territory all the way up to Attock, and Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
and his courtiers could not close their eyes from further danger. They finally understood that the Persian emperor was not the sort of enemy that could be bought off with the loot of a province. Furthermore, he had devastated the area he just conquered. The cities of Wazirabad, Emanabad and Gujrat were not only sacked but razed to the ground. Near Larkana
Larkana
the Afsharid
Afsharid
forces completely routed the Mughal Army
Mughal Army
of the Nawab
Nawab
of Sindh, Main Noor Mohammad Kalhoro, and later captured him and his two sons. In February 1739, Nader Shah
Nader Shah
captured Sirhind
Sirhind
and moved towards the field of Karnal, a battle destined to be fateful to the Mughal rulers. On 13 February, the battle of Karnal
Karnal
was fought. Emperor Muhammad Shah had over a hundred thousand force against Nader Shah's 55,000 men but was still decisively defeated in less than three hours. In the event, the Khan Douran died and wrote a will that the Mughal and Afsharid emperors should not meet, but Nader Shah
Nader Shah
should be turned back from there at all costs. But the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
believed that he had no other choice but to surrender to Nader Shah
Nader Shah
on 26 February in the Afsharid
Afsharid
encampments, thirteen days after the Battle of Karnal. The Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
handed over the keys of the Delhi gate and marched as a captive with Nader Shah
Nader Shah
to Delhi, which was then completely plundered. After entering Delhi, Nader Shah
Nader Shah
claimed to occupy the Mughal Empire out of religious devotion and that if "the wretched Marathas
Marathas
of the Deccan" moved towards Delhi, he might "send an army of victorious Qizilbash
Qizilbash
to drive them to the abyss of Hell". In fact Nader Shah
Nader Shah
had delivered catastrophe from which the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
itself never recovered and the subjects of the emperor were outraged by the ascendancy of the Afsharids.[19][20]

Provinces of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
in the year 1740

At first, things were cordial among the two emperors. However rumours spread throughout Delhi
Delhi
that Nader Shah
Nader Shah
was assassinated. The masses attacked the Persian force and killed some soldiers. Nader Shah, furious, ordered to massacre the populace, and at least 30,000 people died. The Emperor, Asaf Jah I
Asaf Jah I
and Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
Qamaruddin Khan
Qamaruddin Khan
all had to beg Nader Shah
Nader Shah
for mercy and thus he stopped the massacre and turned to looting the Mughal treasury.[21] The famous Peacock Throne, the Daria-i-Noor
Daria-i-Noor
diamond and unimaginable wealth was looted. In addition, elephants, horses and everything that was liked was taken. Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
also had to hand over his daughter Jahan Afruz Banu Begum as a bride for Nader Shah's youngest son. Asaf Jah I
Asaf Jah I
retired to Deccan after installing his eldest son Intizam-ud-Daula as a major commander in the Mughal Army
Mughal Army
and a trustworthy follower Qamaruddin Khan as the Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
of Muhammad Shah[22] After the whole event, Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
was crowned as emperor by Nader Shah himself on 12 May, and he ceded the area west of river Indus
Indus
to Nader Shah, although the Kalhora
Kalhora
Nawabs of Sindh
Sindh
continued to fight the invading Afsharids. Nader Shah
Nader Shah
then took the Koh-i-Noor
Koh-i-Noor
diamond and the other aforementioned famous treasures, and he and his Persian forces started to return to Persia. Aftermath[edit] Nader Shah's invasion destroyed what was left of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
and neared it to its end. After the invasion, the Mughals rapidly disintegrated. The weakness of the Mughal Army
Mughal Army
was clearly elaborated after this invasion. The Nawabs clearly could not even relieve their captured city of Delhi, which was the seat of their authority. The Mughals were completely looted of their wealth, and rebellions and disloyalty became commonplace. Foreign relations[edit] Following Nader Shah's invasion, Persia's arch rival the Ottoman Empire, quickly exploited the void that was created at their Eastern borders as almost all Persian units were deployed in the Mughal Empire. During that period Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
closely observed the actions of the Ottomans, and also cooperated with the Ottoman ambassador Haji Yusuf Agha until the emperor's death in 1748 after the victory of the Mughal Army
Mughal Army
at the Battle of Manupur (1748) against yet another foe (Ahmad Shah Durrani).[17] Marriages[edit]

The Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
and his family

Mughal princesses learning Islamic calligraphy

Emperor Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
had four wives. His first wife and chief consort was his first-cousin, Princess Badshah Begum, the daughter of Emperor Farrukhsiyar
Farrukhsiyar
and his first wife, Gauhar-un-Nissa Begum.[23] He married her after his accession on 8 December 1721 at Delhi,[24] and gave her the title Malika-uz-Zamani (Queen of the Age)[25] by which she was popularly known. On this occasion there was a great ceremony lasting for weeks. She bore him his first son, Shahriyar Shah Bahadur, who died young in 1726.[26] She was his most influential wife and exercised her opinions on him. Later, Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
took a second wife, Sahiba Mahal. His third wife was a dancing girl, Udham Bai, who bore him his future successor, Ahmad Shah Bahadur
Ahmad Shah Bahadur
on 23 December 1725. Upon his birth, he was taken from her and was lovingly brought up by Badshah Begum, who considered him her own son. It was through Badshah Begum's efforts that Ahmad Shah was able to ascend the throne upon Muhammad Shah's death in 1748.[27] Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
married his fourth (and last) wife, Safiya Sultan Begum later on. Badshah Begum
Badshah Begum
died on 14 December 1789 Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
had three sons and three daughters. In 1748 when Ahmad Shah Abdali attacked and deposed Muhammad Shah, his son Anwer Ali escaped to his grand aunt Princess Jahanara Begum
Jahanara Begum
& hid in a place in Arrah, Bihar which was infested with bears which was later named as Bhaluhipur. Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
married Hazrat Begum the daughter of the deceased Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
and Sahiba Mahal
Sahiba Mahal
in the year 1757.[28] Death[edit]

Funeral.

The victory of the Mughal Army
Mughal Army
during the Battle of Manipur (1748) came with a heavy price as the Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
Qamaruddin Khan
Qamaruddin Khan
fell in battle after being struck by a stray artillery shell on the battlefield. Initially this was kept a secret. However, when the news reached the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Muhammad Shah, he could not speak, suddenly became sick, and did not come out of his apartments for three days. During this period he fasted. His guards could hear him crying out loud and saying: "How could I bring about anyone as faithful as he Qamaruddin". He died due to grief on 26 April 1748, his funeral was attended by visiting Imams from Mecca.[29][30] Gallery[edit]

A silver coin minted during the reign of the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Muhammad Shah.

A silver coin minted during the reign of the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Muhammad Shah from Bombay.

French-issued rupee in the name of Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
(1719-1748) for Northern India
India
trade, cast in Pondichéry.

Koh-i-Noor

Darya-e-Noor

See also[edit]

Mughal Empire Battle of Karnal Koh-i-Noor Peacock Throne

References[edit]

^ a b c d "Muhammad Shah". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 18 September 2017.  ^ a b c Malik, Zahir Uddin (1977). The reign of Muhammad Shah, 1719-1748. London: Asia Pub. House. p. 407. ISBN 9780210405987.  ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. p. 193. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.  ^ Shaharyar M. Khan (2000). The Begums of Bhopal
Bhopal
(illustrated ed.). I.B.Tauris. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-86064-528-0.  ^ "Sitar - Google Search". google.com.pk. Retrieved 17 January 2014.  ^ Mehta, J.L. (2005). Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707-1813. New Dawn Press, Incorporated. ISBN 9781932705546.  ^ Tony Jaques (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A-E. Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A Guide to 8,500 Battles from Antiquity Through the Twenty-first Century. 1. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. xxxix. ISBN 0313335370.  ^ a b Later Mughal. Retrieved 26 May 2014.  ^ Princes and Painters in Mughal Delhi, 1707–1857, Asia Society exhibition ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=utw9AAAAMAAJ&q=sadarang+never+performed+khyal&dq=sadarang+never+performed+khyal&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CBwQ6AEwAGoVChMI7p7ziuGOxwIVFAeOCh2qVgrF ^ The life of music in north India: the organization of an artistic tradition, Daniel M. Neuman ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=740AqMUW8WQC&pg=PA278&dq=zij-i-muhammad+shahi&hl=en&sa=X&ei=AlEtVOzBB83natiygZgL&ved=0CCUQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=zij-i-muhammad%20shahi&f=false ^ Unknown (mid-18th century). "Elephants pushing cannons drawn by bullocks, Kota".  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ a b c d e Jaques, T. (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A-E. Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313335372.  ^ a b Jaques, T. (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: P-Z. Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313335396.  ^ https://www.google.ca/search?q=size+of+the+mughal+army+during+the+battle+of+karnal&oq=size+of+the+mughal+army+during+the+battle+of+karnal&aqs=chrome..69i57.11006j0j4&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8#q=size+of+the+mughal+army+during+the+battle+of+karnal&tbm=bks ^ a b Farooqi, Naimur Rahman (1989). Mughal-Ottoman relations: a study of political & diplomatic relations between Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
and the Ottoman Empire, 1556–1748. Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli.  ASIN: B0006ETWB8. See Google Books search. ^ a b Chhabra, G.S. (2005). Advance Study in the History of Modern India
India
(Volume-1: 1707-1803). Lotus Press. ISBN 9788189093068.  ^ Frances Pritchett. "part2_19". columbia.edu. Retrieved 17 January 2014.  ^ Muhammad Latif, The History of the Panjab (Calcutta, 1891), p. 200. ^ Soul and Structure of Governance in India. Retrieved 26 May 2014.  ^ H. G. Keene (1866). Moghul Empire. Allen &co Waterloo Place Pall Mall.  Digital Library of India
India
Archived 21 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 7 January 2012 ^ Sarkar, Jadunath (1997). Fall of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
(4th ed.). Hyderabad: Orient Longman. p. 169. ISBN 9788125011491.  ^ Awrangābādī, Shāhnavāz Khān; Prashad, Baini; Shāhnavāz, ʻAbd al-Ḥayy ibn (1979). The Maāthir-ul-umarā: being biographies of the Muḥammadan and Hindu
Hindu
officers of the Timurid sovereigns of India
India
from 1500 to about 1780 A.D. Janaki Prakashan. p. 652.  ^ Malik, Zahir Uddin (1977). The reign of Muhammad Shah, 1719-1748. London: Asia Pub. House. p. 407. ISBN 9780210405987.  ^ Malik, Zahir Uddin (1977). The reign of Muhammad Shah, 1719-1748. London: Asia Pub. House. p. 407. ISBN 9780210405987.  ^ Latif, Bilkees I. (2010). Forgotten. Penguin Books. p. 49. ISBN 9780143064541.  ^ Hoiberg, D.; Ramchandani, I. (2000). Students' Britannica India. Encyclopædia Britannica (India). ISBN 9780852297605.  ^ name="Mughal-Ottoman relations Sharif of Mecca" ^ Farooqi, N.R. (1989). Mughal-Ottoman relations: a study of political & diplomatic relations between Mughal India
India
and the Ottoman Empire, 1556-1748. Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli. 

External links[edit] Media related to Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
at Wikimedia Commons

Preceded by Shah Jahan II Mughal Emperor 1719–1748 Succeeded by Ahmad Shah Bahadur

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 45680638 LCCN: n83158

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