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Mohamed Naguib (Egyptian Arabic: محمد نجيب‎, Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [mæˈħæmmæd næˈɡiːb]; 19 February 1901 – 28 August 1984) was the first President of Egypt, serving from the declaration of the Republic on 18 June 1953 to 14 November 1954. Along with Gamal Abdel Nasser, he was the primary leader of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, which ended the rule of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan.

Contents

1 Early years 2 Military career 3 Free Officers Movement 4 Revolution of 1952 5 Presidency 6 After the Presidency 7 See also 8 Further reading 9 External links 10 References

Early years[edit] Naguib's full name was Mohamed Naguib Yousef Qotp Elkashlan; he was born on 19 February 1901 in Khartoum, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
where his father who was a notable Egyptian officer used to work.[3] Sudan
Sudan
was united with Egypt
Egypt
under British occupation at the time. He was the eldest of nine children, the son of an Egyptian Army
Egyptian Army
officer, Youssef Naguib, and a Sudanese Arab woman Zohra Ahmed Othman. His family name, "Elkashlan," was very popular in Egypt
Egypt
at that time, due to well-known scientific personalities such as Saad Elkashlan and Abdulsamad Elkashlan. He came from a long line of army officers; his father and uncles all served in the Egyptian Army. As a result, Naguib first studied to become a translator, and later in his life earned a law degree, a Master of Arts degree (MA) in political science and another MA in civil law. He never completed his doctorate because his career in the army, undertaken in defiance of his father's wishes, by then had begun to take off. Nevertheless, he found the time to polish his language skills, learning English, French, Italian and German. Naguib also began to study the revived Hebrew language
Hebrew language
in the 1950s, and soon after the Revolution he ordered that Hebrew be taught at military college and at Cairo
Cairo
and Alexandria universities, realising that the Egyptian Army
Egyptian Army
had been handicapped during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War
1948 Arab-Israeli War
by the fact that very few soldiers could interpret Israeli military communications.[citation needed] While studying in Khartoum, Naguib had often been censured and sometimes even whipped by his British tutors for criticizing Britain's occupation of Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan. At this time, Naguib chose French Emperor Napoleon
Napoleon
as a role model, even deciding to sleep on the floor instead of on a bed to imitate the great French general. Soon, however, Napoleon
Napoleon
was replaced in Naguib's affections by Mustafa Kamil, the founder of the National Democratic Party, and later he found another mirror in Saad Zaghlul. Some years after he was ousted from power, Naguib also came to somewhat admire Mohandas Gandhi
Gandhi
of India. After the death of his father in 1916, the family moved to Cairo, while Naguib and Ali finished their studies in Sudan. Military career[edit] Naguib worked as a guard in Cairo, but in 1924, he was moved again because of a political association deemed unacceptable by the authorities. He married in 1927, pursuing his legal studies while continuing a career in the army. By 1931, he was ready to resign from the army, but as a result of an unexpected promotion he decided to turn his attention to his military career once again. In 1934, he remarried and was transferred to the Egyptian Coast Guard, where he was employed to chase smugglers across the Sinai
Sinai
desert, mixing with the bedouin and helping treat their illnesses. In 1940, he was again promoted. However, despite generally favorable relations between Naguib and King Farouk, Naguib refused to kiss the king's hand. A brisk hand shake was the best Naguib could offer. Meanwhile, Naguib had continued to climb the military ladder, serving in Palestine during the First Arab-Israeli War in the British Mandate of Palestine in 1948.[3] While on active service in Palestine, Naguib would dedicate 30 minutes every morning to reading the Qur'an, the holy scriptures of Islam, a habit he picked up in childhood, to strengthen his resolve in times of adversity. Free Officers Movement[edit] In 1949, Naguib secretly joined the Free Officers movement, and a year later he was promoted to the rank of Major-General. The general is considered one of Egypt's few heroes from the war in Palestine and enjoyed wide respect in the country. The Free Officers, led by Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
were young members of the military – all under thirty-five and all from peasant or lower-middle-class backgrounds. Nasser's goal was to overthrow King Farouk and end the British domination of Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan. Knowing that officers of such youth would not be taken seriously, he asked General Naguib to assume leadership of the movement. While this proved successful in strengthening the Free Officers, it would later cause great friction between the two men. Despite his disapproval of his fellow military top brass, Naguib remained in the army in order for the Free Officers not to lose their highest-ranking officer and most influential member, although many today argue that his position on the top was merely a figurehead leader to the revolutionary Free Officers Movement to lend credibility to the group. Revolution of 1952[edit] Main article: Egyptian Revolution of 1952

President Mohamed Naguib with Chinese Muslim Kuomintang
Kuomintang
National Revolutionary Army General Ma Bufang

On 23 July 1952, the Free Officers commenced the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 with a coup d'état to depose King Farouk. Naguib was appointed, first as Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of Army, in order to keep the armed forces firmly behind the junior officers' coup. In September, Naguib was appointed Prime Minister of Egypt
Prime Minister of Egypt
and a member of the Royal Regent Council, with Nasser serving in the background as Minister of the Interior. Naguib was at the forefront of the Free Officer's movement, lending it legitimacy in the eyes of the people, the army, politicians and foreign powers. Within 24 hours of the beginning of the revolution, the newly formed Revolution Command Council (RCC) had asserted that their movement's peaceful intentions, with Naguib as its leader. Naguib's was a familiar name at the time, unlike those of the other Free Officers, who were too young and too junior in rank to have made a name for themselves. The succession of Fuad II was designed to deny the British a pretext for intervention, allowing the revolutionaries to maintain that they were opposed only to the corrupt regime of Farouk, not to the monarchy itself. However, after consolidating their power, they quickly moved to implement their long-held plans for abolishing the monarchy and the aristocracy. Ali Maher's government resigned on 17 September 1952 and Naguib was appointed Prime Minister. On 18 June 1953, almost 11 months after the revolution, Naguib declared the end of the Egyptian and Sudanese monarchy and the establishment of the Republic of Egypt. Presidency[edit] With the declaration of the Republic, Naguib was sworn in as its President. At this time, Naguib had become simultaneously the president, the prime minister and chairman of the RCC and forming a government mostly composed of army officers. Nasser became deputy prime minister, and it was already apparent that he had a strong grip on domestic affairs. However, Naguib remained the most senior officer in the government and the national leader of the country and of the RCC, even as a struggle for power was brewing. In late 1953, however, Nasser accused Naguib of supporting the recently outlawed Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
and of harbouring dictatorial ambitions.[citation needed] A brief power struggle broke out between Naguib and Nasser for control of the military and of Egypt. Nasser ultimately won the struggle and managed to force Naguib to resign from the presidency of Egypt
Egypt
in November 1954.[citation needed]

Naguib (left) and Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
during celebrations for the second anniversary of the revolution, July 1954

Naguib, in front of his portrait, in the last days of his life

Last declaration by Mohamed Naguib before his arrest 1954

After the Presidency[edit]

Mohamed Naguib Metro Station in Cairo

Following his resignation, Naguib was then isolated by President Nasser in a suburban Cairo
Cairo
villa owned by Zienab Al-Wakil, wife of Mustafa an-Nahhas Pasha, ex-Prime Minister of Egypt.[citation needed] Naguib was released from his isolation in 1972 by President Anwar Sadat. He died on 28 August 1984 at the age of 83 and he had a military funeral that was attended by President Mubarak. In the same year, his memoirs were published under the title I was a President of Egypt. The book was reprinted several times and was also translated into English under the title The Fate of Egypt. A station of the Cairo Metro is named in his honour. A major road in the Al Amarat
Al Amarat
District of Khartoum
Khartoum
is also named after him. In December 2013, interim Egyptian president Adly Mansour
Adly Mansour
awarded the Order of the Nile, the highest state honour; to the name of the late President Mohamed Naguib. The award was received by Mohamed Yusuf Mohamed Naguib. See also[edit]

List of rulers of Egypt Egyptian Revolution of 1952 Gamal Abdel Nasser

Further reading[edit]

Muhammad Naguib, Egypt's Destiny (London, 1955)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mohammed Naguib.

The forgotten President

References[edit]

^ "ذاكرة مصر المعاصرة - السيرة الذاتية". Modern Egypt. Retrieved 22 December 2012.  ^ Nissim Rejwan, Arabs Face the Modern World: Religious, Cultural, and Political Responses to the West, First edition, (University Press of Florida: 1998), p.74 ^ a b "Muḥammad Naguib". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 

Political offices

Preceded by Fouad II as King of Egypt
Egypt
and the Sudan Head of state of Egypt 1953–1954 Succeeded by Gamal Abdel Nasser

New title Republic proclaimed

President of Egypt 1953–1954 Succeeded by Gamal Abdel Nasser

Preceded by Ali Maher Prime Minister of Egypt 1952–1954 Succeeded by Gamal Abdel Nasser

v t e

Egyptian Revolutionary Command Council

Mohamed Naguib Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Latif Boghdadi Abdel Hakim Amer Gamal Salem Salah Salem Zakaria Mohieddin Khaled Mohieddin Anwar Sadat Hussein el-Shafei Hassan Ibrahim Kamal el-Din Hussein Abdel Moneim Amin Youssef Seddik Ahmed Anwar Kamal el-Din Rifaat Ahmed Shawqi Lutfi Wahid

v t e

Presidents of Egypt
Egypt
(List)

Mohamed Naguib Gamal Abdel Nasser Anwar Sadat Sufi Abu Taleb Hosni Mubarak Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Mohamed Morsi Adly Mansour Abdel Fattah el-Sisi

Italic: acting or interim president

v t e

Prime Ministers of Egypt
Egypt
(List)

Khedivate (1878–1914)

Nobar Isma'il1 Tewfik Sherif Tewfik1 Riaz Sherif Baroudy Raghib2 Sherif Nobar Riaz Fahmy Fakhry Riaz Nobar Fahmy Ghaly Said Roshdy

Sultanate (1914–1922)

Roshdy Said Wahba Naseem Yakan

Kingdom (1922–1953)

Sarwat Naseem Y. Ibrahim Zaghlul Zeiwar Yakan Sarwat Nahas Mahmoud Yakan Nahas Sedky A. Yahya Naseem Aly Maher Nahas Mahmoud Aly Maher H. Sabry Serry Nahas Ahmed Maher Nokrashy Sedky Nokrashy Hady Serry Nahas Aly Maher Hilaly Serry Hilaly Aly Maher Naguib3

Republic (1953–present)

Naguib3 Nasser3 Naguib3 Nasser3,4 A. Sabry4 Z. Mohieddin4 Sulayman4 Nasser4 Fawzi4 A. Sedky Sadat Hegazy Salem Khalil Sadat Mubarak A. F. Mohieddin Aly Lotfy A. M. N. Sedky Ganzouri Ebeid Nazif Shafik Sharaf Ganzouri Qandil Beblawi1 Mahlab Ismail

Notes ^1 interim ^2 Orabi ^3 headed a government in rebellion, July–September 1882, beginning during Raghib's term ^4 UAR period

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 64265967 LCCN: n82211806 ISNI: 0000 0001 1877 1223 GND: 124828450 SUDOC: 103533826 BNF: cb146457957 (da

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