The Info List - Muhammad Ali Dynasty

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The Muhammad Ali dynasty
Muhammad Ali dynasty
was the ruling dynasty of Egypt
and Sudan from the 19th to the mid-20th century. It is named after its progenitor, Muhammad Ali Pasha, regarded as the founder of modern Egypt. It was also more formally known as the Alawiyya dynasty (Arabic: الأسرة العلوية‎ al-Usra al-'Alawiyya). Because a majority of the rulers from this dynasty bore the title Khedive, it was often referred to by contemporaries as the 'Khedival dynasty'.


1 Introduction 2 Khedivate and British occupation 3 Sultanate and Kingdom 4 Dissolution 5 Reigning members (1805–1952) 6 Non-ruling members 7 See also 8 Bibliography 9 References 10 External links


under Muhammad Ali Dynasty

Muhammad Ali was a commander in the Ottoman army that was sent to drive Napoleon's forces out of Egypt, but upon the French withdrawal, seized power himself and forced the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II
Mahmud II
to recognize him as Wāli, or Governor of Egypt
in 1805. He traced his ancestry back to Ibrahim Aga from Korca, who had moved to Kavala. Demonstrating his grander ambitions, he took the title of Khedive; however, this was not sanctioned by the Sublime Porte. Muhammad Ali transformed Egypt
into a regional power which he saw as the natural successor to the decaying Ottoman Empire. He constructed a military state with around four percent of the populace serving the army to raise Egypt
to a powerful positioning in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in a way showing various similarities to the Soviet strategies (without communism) conducted in the 20th century.[1] Muhammad Ali summed up his vision for Egypt
in this way:

I am well aware that the [Ottoman] Empire is heading by the day toward destruction. ... On her ruins I will build a vast kingdom ... up to the Euphrates and the Tigris. — Georges Douin, ed., Une Mission militaire française auprès de Mohamed Aly, correspondance des Généraux Belliard et Boyer (Cairo: Société Royale de Géographie d'Égypte, 1923), p.50

Portrait of Muhammad Ali Pasha in the Cairo Citadel
Cairo Citadel

At the height of his power, Muhammad Ali and his son Ibrahim Pasha's military strength did indeed threaten the very existence of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
as he sought to supplant the Osman Dynasty with his own. Ultimately, the intervention of the Great Powers
Great Powers
prevented Egyptian forces from marching on Constantinople, and henceforth, his dynasty's rule would be limited to Africa, and Sinai. Muhammad Ali had conquered Sudan
in the first half of his reign and Egyptian control would be consolidated and expanded under his successors, most notably Ibrahim Pasha's son Isma'il I. Khedivate and British occupation[edit] Further information: Khedivate of Egypt Though Muhammad Ali and his descendants used the title of Khedive
in preference to the lesser Wāli, this was not recognized by the Porte until 1867 when Sultan Abdul-Aziz officially sanctioned its use by Isma'il Pasha
Isma'il Pasha
and his successors. In contrast to his grandfather's policy of war against the Porte, Isma'il sought to strengthen the position of Egypt
and Sudan
and his dynasty using less confrontational means, and through a mixture of flattery and bribery, Isma'il secured official Ottoman recognition of Egypt
and Sudan's virtual independence. This freedom was severely undermined in 1879 when the Sultan colluded with the Great Powers
Great Powers
to depose Isma'il in favor of his son Tewfik. Three years later, Egypt
and Sudan's freedom became little more than symbolic when the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
invaded and occupied the country, ostensibly to support Khedive
Tewfik against his opponents in Ahmed Orabi's nationalist government. While the Khedive would continue to rule over Egypt
and Sudan
in name, in reality, ultimate power resided with the British High Commissioner.


In defiance of the Egyptians, the British proclaimed Sudan
to be an Anglo-Egyptian Condominium, a territory under joint British and Egyptian rule rather than an integral part of Egypt. This was continually rejected by Egyptians, both in government and in the public at large, who insisted on the "unity of the Nile Valley", and would remain an issue of controversy and enmity between Egypt
and Britain until Sudan's independence in 1956. Sultanate and Kingdom[edit] Further information: Sultanate of Egypt
and Kingdom of Egypt In 1914, Khedive
Abbas II sided with the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
which had joined the Central Powers
Central Powers
in the World War I, and was promptly deposed by the British in favor of his uncle Hussein Kamel. The legal fiction of Ottoman sovereignty over Egypt
and Sudan, which had for all intents and purposes ended in 1805, was officially terminated, Hussein Kamel was declared Sultan of Egypt
Sultan of Egypt
and Sudan, and the country became a British Protectorate. With nationalist sentiment rising, as evidenced by the revolution of 1919, Britain formally recognized Egyptian independence in 1922, and Hussein Kamel's successor, Sultan Fuad I, substituted the title of King for Sultan. However, British occupation and interference in Egyptian and Sudanese affairs persisted. Of particular concern to Egypt
was Britain's continual efforts to divest Egypt
of all control in Sudan. To both the King and the nationalist movement, this was intolerable, and the Egyptian Government made a point of stressing that Fuad and his son King Farouk I were "King of Egypt
and Sudan". Dissolution[edit] The reign of Farouk was characterized by ever increasing nationalist discontent over the British occupation, royal corruption and incompetence, and the disastrous 1948 Arab–Israeli War. All these factors served to terminally undermine Farouk's position and paved the way for the revolution of 1952. Farouk was forced to abdicate in favor of his infant son Ahmed-Fuad who became King Fuad II, while administration of the country passed to the Free Officers Movement under Muhammad Naguib
Muhammad Naguib
and Gamal Abdel Nasser. The infant king's reign lasted less than a year and on June 18, 1953, the revolutionaries abolished the monarchy and declared Egypt
a republic, ending a century and a half of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty's rule. Reigning members (1805–1952)[edit]

King Farouk I

Wālis, self-declared as Khedives (1805–1867)

Muhammad Ali (9 July 1805 – 1 September 1849) Ibrahim (reigned as Wāli
briefly during his father's incapacity) (1 September 1849 – 10 November 1849) Abbas I (10 November 1849 – 13 July 1854) Sa‘id (13 July 1854 – 18 January 1863) Isma'il (18 January 1863 – 8 June 1867)

Khedives (1867–1914)

Isma'il (8 June 1867 – 26 June 1879) Tewfik (26 June 1879 – 7 January 1892) Abbas II (8 January 1892 – 19 December 1914)

Sultans (1914–1922)

Hussein Kamel (19 December 1914 – 9 October 1917) Fuad I (9 October 1917 – 16 March 1922)

Kings (1922–1952)

Fuad I (16 March 1922 – 28 April 1936) Farouk (28 April 1936 – 26 July 1952)

Prince Mohammed Ali Tewfik
Mohammed Ali Tewfik
(Chairman Council of Regency during Farouk I's minority) (28 April 1936 – 29 July 1937)

Fuad II (26 July 1952 – 18 June 1953)

Prince Muhammad Abdel Moneim
Muhammad Abdel Moneim
(Chairman Council of Regency during Fuad II's minority) (26 July 1952 – 18 June 1953)

Non-ruling members[edit]

Egyptian royal family

HM The King

HRH The Prince of the Sa'id HRH The Princess of the Sa'id

HRH Prince Fouad HRH Princess Farah-Noor

HRH Princess Fawzia-Latifa HRH Prince Fakhruddin

Extended family

HH Prince Abbas Hilmi HH Princess Mediha

Princess Sabiha Fatma Prince Daoud Abdel Moneim

HH Princess İkbal Hilmi

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Prince Mustafa Fazl Pasha Prince Mohammed Ali Tewfik Prince Muhammad Abdul Moneim Princess Nazli Fazl Princess Fawzia Fuad Muhammad Ali, Prince of the Sa'id Narriman Sadek Nazli Sabri Mahmud Dramali Pasha

See also[edit]

Muhammad Ali Dynasty
Muhammad Ali Dynasty
family tree List of monarchs of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty History of Egypt
under the Muhammad Ali dynasty History of Sudan
under Muhammad Ali and his successors List of Sunni Muslim dynasties


Hassan, H. (2000). In the House of Muhammad Ali: A Family Album, 1805–1952. American University in Cairo Press. ISBN 978-977-424-554-1. OCLC 45016821. 


^ Baten, Jörg (2016). A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 217. ISBN 9781107507180. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Muhammad Ali Dynasty.

The Genealogy of the Egyptian Royal family at Genealogical Gleanings "The Royal House of Mehmet Ali". Archived from the original on 2007-10-24. Retrieved 2008-08-19.  "Family tree of the House of Mohammed Aly". Archived from the original on 2008-05-16. Retrieved 2008-08-19.  "The Royal Order of the Crown of Egypt" (in German). Archived from the original on August 20, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-19. 

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Monarchs of Egypt

Under Muhammad Ali dynasty

Mohamed Aly Pasha Ibrahim Pasha Abbas Helmy I Pasha Mohamed Sa'id Pasha Isma'il Pasha Mohamed Tewfik Pasha Abbas Helmy II Pasha Hussein Kamel Ahmed Fuad I Farouk I Ahmed Fuad II

Category Commons

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Islamic dynasties in Mashriq

Umayyads (661–750) Abbasids (750–1258) Tulunids
(868–905) Hamdanids (890-1004) Hadhabani
(10th-11th century) Fatimids (909-1171) Ikhsidids (935–969) Jarrahids
(970-11th/12th century) Numayrids (990-1081) Marwanids
(990-1085) Uqaylids (990-1096) Mirdasids (1024-1080) Artuqids
(11th–12th century) Burids (1104–1154) Zengids (1127–1250) Ayyubids (1171–1341) Lu'lu'ids (1234-1262) Bahri (1250–1382) Bahdinan (1376-1843) Burji (1382–1517) Harfush (15th-19th century) Soran (16th-19th century) Ridwan (1560s-1690) Baban
(1649–1850) Shihabs (1697-1842) Mamluks (1704-1831) Jalilis (1726-1834) Alawiyya (1805–1952) Hashemites
of Iraq (1921–1958) Hashemites
of Jorda