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‘Imād ad-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Qāsim ath-Thaqafī (Arabic: عماد الدين محمد بن القاسم الثقفي‎; c. 695 – 715[citation needed]) was an Umayyad
Umayyad
general who conquered the Sindh and Multan
Multan
regions along the Indus River
Indus River
(now a part of Pakistan) for the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate. He was born and raised in the city of Ta'if
Ta'if
(in modern-day Saudi Arabia). Qasim's conquest of Sindh
Sindh
and southern-most parts of Multan
Multan
enabled further Muslim
Muslim
conquests on the Indian subcontinent. A member of the Thaqif tribe of the Ta'if
Ta'if
region, Muhammad bin Qasim's father was Qasim bin Yusuf, who died when Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
was young, leaving his mother in charge of his education and care. Umayyad governor Al-Hajjaj Ibn Yusuf Al-Thaqafi, Muhammad bin Qasim's paternal uncle, was instrumental in teaching Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
about warfare and governance. Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
married his cousin Zubaidah, Al-Hajjaj's daughter, shortly before going to Sindh. Due to his close relationship with Al-Hajjaj, Bin Qasim was executed after the accession of Caliph
Caliph
Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik.

Contents

1 Umayyad
Umayyad
interest in Sindh 2 The campaign 3 Military and political strategy

3.1 Reasons for success

4 Administration by Muhammad bin Qasim

4.1 Incorporation of ruling elite into administration 4.2 Jat
Jat
clashes with Muhammad bin Qasim 4.3 Treatment of Jats 4.4 Religion

5 Death 6 Controversy 7 Legacy 8 See also 9 Footnotes 10 References 11 External links

Umayyad
Umayyad
interest in Sindh[edit]

Map of expansion of Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate

According to Berzin, Umayyad
Umayyad
interest in the region occurred because of attacks from Sindh
Sindh
Raja Dahir
Raja Dahir
on ships of Muslims and their imprisonment of Muslim
Muslim
men and women.[1] They had earlier unsuccessfully sought to gain control of the route, via the Khyber Pass, from the Kabul Shahi
Kabul Shahi
of Gandhara.[1] But by taking Sindh, Gandhara's southern neighbour, they were able to open a second front against Gandhara; a feat they had, on one occasion, attempted before.[1] According to Wink, Umayyad
Umayyad
interest in the region was galvanized by the operation of the Meds (a tribe of Scythians living in Sindh) and others.[2] Meds had pirated upon Sassanid
Sassanid
shipping in the past, from the mouth of the Tigris
Tigris
to the Sri Lankan coast, in their bawarij and now were able to prey on Arab shipping from their bases at Kutch, Debal
Debal
and Kathiawar.[2] At the time, Sindh
Sindh
was the wild frontier region of al-Hind, inhabited mostly by semi-nomadic tribes whose activities disturbed much of the Western Indian Ocean.[2] Muslim sources insist that it was these persistent activities along increasingly important Indian trade routes by Debal
Debal
pirates and others which forced the Arabs to subjugate the area, in order to control the seaports and maritime routes of which Sindh
Sindh
was the nucleus, as well as, the overland passage.[3] During Hajjaj's governorship, the Meds of Debal
Debal
in one of their raids had kidnapped Muslim
Muslim
women travelling from Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
to Arabia, thus providing a casus belli to the rising power of the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate that enabled them to gain a foothold in the Makran, Balochistan and Sindh
Sindh
regions.[2][4]

The Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate on the eve of the invasions of Spain and Sindh in 710.

Also cited as a reason for this campaign was the policy of providing refuge to Sassanids fleeing the Arab advance and to Arab rebels from the Umayyad
Umayyad
consolidation of their rule. These Arabs were imprisoned later on by the Governor
Governor
Deebal Partaab Raye. A letter written by an Arab girl who escaped from the prison of Partab Raye asked Hajjaj Bin Yusuf for help. When Hajjaj asked Dahir for the release of prisoners and compensation, the latter refused on the ground that he had no control over those. Al-Hajjaj sent Muhammad Bin Qasim for action against the Sindh
Sindh
in 711.[citation needed] The mawali; new non-Arab converts; who were usually allied with Al-Hajjaj's political opponents and thus were frequently forced to participate in battles on the frontier of the Umayyad Caliphate — such as Kabul, Sindh
Sindh
and Transoxania.[5] An actual push into the region had been out of favor as an Arab policy since the time of the Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph
Caliph
Umar bin Khattab, who upon receipt of reports of it being an inhospitable and poor land, had stopped further expeditionary ventures into the region.[citation needed] The campaign[edit]

A map of Muhammad bin Qasim's expedition into Sindh
Sindh
in 711 AD.

Hajjaj had put more care and planning into this campaign than the second campaign [5] under Badil bin Tuhfa.[citation needed] Hajjaj superintended this campaign from Kufa
Kufa
by maintaining close contact with Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
in the form of regular reports for which purpose special messengers were deputed between Basra
Basra
and Sindh.[5] The army which departed from Shiraz
Shiraz
in 710 CE under Muhammad bin Qasim was 6,000 Syrian cavalry and detachments of mawali from Iraq.[5] At the borders of Sindh
Sindh
he was joined by an advance guard and six thousand camel riders and later reinforcements from the governor of Makran
Makran
transferred directly to Debal
Debal
by sea along with five catapults[5] ("manjaniks"). The army that eventually captured Sindh would later be swelled by the Gurjars and Meds as well as other irregulars that heard of successes in Sindh.[5] When Muhammad bin Qasim passed through Makran
Makran
while raising forces, he had to re-subdue the restive Umayyad
Umayyad
towns of Fannazbur and Arman Belah (Lasbela)[6] The first town assaulted was Debal
Debal
and upon the orders of Al-Hajjaj, he exacted a bloody retribution on Debal
Debal
by giving no quarter to its residents or priests and destroying its great temple.[5]

Extent and expansion of Umayyad
Umayyad
rule under Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
in medieval India (modern state boundaries shown in red).

From Debal
Debal
the Arab army then marched north taking towns such as Nerun and Sadusan (Sehwan) peacefully.[5] often using their components; additionally one-fifth of the booty including slaves were dispatched to Hajjaj and the Caliph.[5] The conquest of these towns was accomplished easily; however, Raja Dahir's armies being prepared on the other side of the Indus[7] were yet to be fought.[5] In preparation to meet them, Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
moved back to Nerun to resupply and receive reinforcements sent by Hajjaj.[5] Camped on the east bank of the Indus, Qasim sent emissaries and bargained with the river Jats
Jats
and boatmen.[5] Upon securing the aid of Mokah Basayah, "the King of the island of Bet", Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
crossed over the river where he was joined by the forces of the Thakore of Bhatta and the western Jats.[5] At Ar-rur (Rohri) he was met by Dahir's forces and the eastern Jats
Jats
in battle.[5] Dahir died in the battle, his forces were defeated and a triumphant Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
took control of Sindh.[5] In the wake of the battle enemy soldiers were put to death — but not artisans, merchants or farmers — and Dahir and his chiefs, the "daughters of princes" and the usual fifth of the booty and slaves was sent on to Hajjaj.[5] Soon the capitals of the other provinces, Brahmanabad, Alor (Aror) and Multan, were captured alongside other in-between towns with only light Muslim
Muslim
casualties.[5] Usually after a siege of a few weeks or months the Arabs gained a city through the intervention of heads of mercantile houses with whom subsequent treaties and agreements would be settled.[5] After battles all fighting men were executed and their wives and children enslaved in considerable numbers and the usual fifth of the booty and slaves were sent to Hajjaj.[5] The general populace was encouraged to carry on with their trades and taxes and tributes settled.[5] The conquest of Sindh, in modern-day Pakistan, although costly, was major gain for the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate. However, further gains were halted by Hindu kingdoms during the Caliphate campaigns in India. The Arabs tried to invade India but they were defeated by the north Indian king Nagabhata of the Gurjara Pratihara Dynasty and by the south Indian Emperor Vikramaditya II of the Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
in the early 8th century. After the failure of further expeditions on Kathiawar, the Arab chroniclers admit that the Caliph
Caliph
Mahdi "gave up the project of conquering any part of India."[8] Military and political strategy[edit] The military strategy had been outlined by Al-Hajjaj in a letter sent to Muhammad bin Qasim:[9]

My ruling is given: Kill anyone belonging to the ahl-i-harb (combatants); arrest their sons and daughters for hostages and imprison them. Whoever does not fight against us...grant them aman (safety) and settle their tribute [amwal] as dhimmah (protected person)...

The Arabs' first concern was to facilitate the conquest of Sindh
Sindh
with the fewest casualties while also trying to preserve the economic infrastructure.[9] Towns were given two options: submit to Islamic authority peacefully or be attacked by force (anwattan), with the choice governing their treatment upon capture.[9] The capture of towns was usually accomplished by means of a treaty with a party from among the enemy, who were then extended special privileges and material rewards.[10] There were two types of such treaties, "Sulh" or "ahd-e-wasiq (capitulation)" and "aman (surrender/ peace)".[10] Among towns and fortresses that were captured through force of arms, Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
performed executions as part of his military strategy, but they were limited to the ahl-i-harb (fighting men), whose surviving dependents were also enslaved.[10] Where resistance was strong, prolonged and intensive, often resulting in considerable Arab casualties, Muhammad bin Qasim's response was dramatic, inflicting 6,000 deaths at Rawar, between 6,000 and 26,000 at Brahmanabad, 4,000 at Iskalandah and 6,000 at Multan.[11] Conversely, in areas taken by sulh, such as Armabil, Nirun, and Aror, resistance was light and few casualties occurred.[11] Sulh appeared to be Muhammad bin Qasim's preferred mode of conquest, the method used for more than 60% of the towns and tribes recorded by Baladhuri and the Chach Nama.[11] At one point, he was actually berated by Al-Hajjaj for being too lenient.[11] Meanwhile, the common folk were often pardoned and encouraged to continue working;[10] Al-Hajjaj ordered that this option not be granted to any inhabitant of Debal, yet Qasim still bestowed it upon certain groups and individuals.[11] After each major phase of his conquest, Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
attempted to establish law and order in the newly conquered territory by showing religious tolerance and incorporating the ruling class – the Brahmins
Brahmins
and Shramanas – into his administration.[10] Reasons for success[edit] Muhammad bin Qasim's success has been partly ascribed to Dahir being an unpopular Hindu king ruling over a Buddhist majority who saw Chach of Alor and his kin as usurpers of the Rai Dynasty.[4] This is attributed to having resulted in support being provided by Buddhists and inclusion of rebel soldiers serving as valuable infantry in his cavalry-heavy force from the Jat
Jat
and Meds.[12] Brahman, Buddhist, Greek, and Arab testimony however can be found that attests towards amicable relations between the adherents of the two religions up to the 7th century.[13] Along with this were:

Superior military equipment; such as siege engines and the Mongol bow.[4][14] Troop discipline and leadership.[4] The concept of Jihad as a morale booster.[4] Religion; the widespread belief in the prophecy of Muslim success.[4][13] The Samanis being persuaded to submit and not take up arms because the majority of the population was Buddhist who were dissatisfied with their rulers, who were Hindu.[13] The laboring under disabilities of the Lohana Jats.[13] Defections from among Dahirs chiefs and nobles.[13]

Administration by Muhammad bin Qasim[edit] After the conquest, Muhammad bin Qasim's task was to set up an administrative structure for a stable Muslim
Muslim
state that incorporated a newly conquered alien land, inhabited by non-Muslims.[15] He adopted a conciliatory policy, asking for acceptance of Muslim
Muslim
rule by the natives in return for non-interference in their religious practice,[15] so long as the natives paid their taxes and tribute.[4] In return, the state provided protection to non- Muslim
Muslim
from any foreign attacks and enemies. He established Islamic Sharia
Sharia
law over the people of the region; however, Hindus were allowed to rule their villages and settle their disputes according to their own laws,[4] and traditional hierarchical institutions, including the Village Headmen (Rais) and Chieftains (dihqans) were maintained.[15] A Muslim
Muslim
officer called an amil was stationed with a troop of cavalry to manage each town on a hereditary basis [15] Everywhere taxes (mal) and tribute (kharaj) were settled and hostages taken — occasionally this also meant the custodians of temples.[10] Non- Muslim
Muslim
natives were excused from military service and from payment of the religiously mandated tax system levied upon Muslims called Zakat,[15] the tax system levied upon them instead was the jizya - a progressive tax, being heavier on the upper classes and light for the poor.[15] In addition, three percent of government revenue was allocated to the Brahmins.[4] Incorporation of ruling elite into administration[edit] During his administration, Hindus and Buddhists were inducted into the administration as trusted advisors and governors.[4] A Hindu, Kaksa, was at one point the second most important member of his administration.[16] Dahir's prime minister and various chieftains were also incorporated into the administration.[17] Jat
Jat
clashes with Muhammad bin Qasim[edit]

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Significant medieval Muslim
Muslim
chronicles such as the Chachnama, Zainul-Akhbar and Tarikh-I-Baihaqi have recorded battles between the Jats
Jats
and forces of Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
.[18] Treatment of Jats[edit] When Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
invaded Sindh, he encountered Jats
Jats
and all Hindus were termed Jats
Jats
by the foreign invaders.[19] The narrative in the Chach Nama
Chach Nama
conveys that Chach of Alor
Chach of Alor
humiliated the Jats
Jats
and Lohanas. He compelled them to agree to only carry sham swords, to wear no undergarments of shawl, velvet or silk; only wear silk outer garments provided they were red or black in color, to put no saddles on their horses, to take their dogs when they went out, to furnish guides and spies and carry firewood for the royal kitchen. Qasim maintained these regulations, declaring that the Jats
Jats
resembled the savages of Persia and the mountains. He also fixed their tribute. Jats of Ghasul who had submitted to the Arab rule garrisoned the Ságara and the island of Bait.[20][unreliable source?] Religion[edit] There are conflicting views regarding religious policy in his reign. According to some historians, no mass conversions were attempted and the destruction of temples such as the Sun Temple
Temple
of Multan
Multan
was forbidden.[21] Lane-Poole writes that, " as a rule Muslim
Muslim
government was at once tolerant and economic".[22] But other historians like Elliot, Cousens, Majumdar and Vaidya have held the view that there was coercive conversion during his reign and destruction of temples was a reflection of the more basic, religiously motivated intolerance.[11] A small minority who converted to Islam were granted exemption from Jizya
Jizya
in lieu of paying the Muslim
Muslim
mandated Zakat.[15] Hindus and Buddhists were given the status of Dhimmi (protected people).[4] An eccelastical office, "sadru-I-Islam al affal", was created to oversee the secular governors.[15] While some proselytization occurred, the social dynamics of Sindh
Sindh
were no different from other regions newly conquered by Muslim
Muslim
forces such as Egypt, where conversion to Islam was slow and took centuries.[15] Death[edit] Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
had begun preparations for further expansions when Hajjaj died, as did Caliph
Caliph
Al-Walid I, who was succeeded by Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik, who then took revenge against all who had been close to Hajjaj. Sulayman owed political support to opponents of Hajjaj and so recalled both of Hajjaj's successful generals Qutaibah bin Muslim and Qasim. He also appointed Yazid ibn al-Muhallab, once tortured by Hajjaj and a son of Al Muhallab ibn Abi Suffrah, as the governor of Fars, Kirman, Makran, and Sindh; he immediately placed Qasim in chains.[23] There are two different accounts regarding the details of Qasim's fate:

According to Al-Baladhuri, a 9th-century Persian historian, Qasim was killed due to a family feud with the governor of Iraq. After the death of the caliph Al-Walid I, his brother Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik
Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik
became the new caliph. Sulayman became hostile against Qasim because apparently he had followed the order of Hajjaj to declare Sulayman's right of succession void in all territories conquered by him. When Qasim received the news of the death of Hajjaj he returned to Aror. Qasim was later arrested under the orders of the caliph by the successor governor of Sindh, Yazid ibn Kabsha as-Sasaki, who worked under the new governor of Iraq, Yazid ibn al-Muhallab, and the new fiscal manager, Salih ibn Abd ar-Rahman. Salih, whose brother was executed by Hajjaj, tortured Qasim and his relatives to death. The account of his death by Al- Baladhuri is very brief compared to the one in Chachanama.[4][24][25] The Chachnama
Chachnama
narrates a tale in which Qasim's demise is attributed to the daughters of King Dahir who had been taken captive during the campaign. Upon capture they had been sent on as presents to the Khalifa for his harem in the capital Baghdad
Baghdad
(however Baghdad
Baghdad
wasn't built yet and the actual capital was Damascus). The account relates that they then tricked the caliph into believing that Muhammad bin Qasim had violated them before sending them on and as a result of this subterfuge, Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
was wrapped and stitched in oxen hides,[26] and returned to Syria, which resulted in his death en route from suffocation.[27] This narrative attributes their motive for this subterfuge to securing vengeance for their father's death. Upon discovering this subterfuge, the Khalifa is recorded to have been filled with remorse and ordered the sisters buried alive in a wall.[13][24][28]

Controversy[edit] There is controversy regarding the conquest and subsequent conversion of Sindh. This is usually voiced in two antagonistic perspectives viewing Qasim's actions:[11] His conquest, as described by Stanley Lane-Poole, in Medieval India (Published in 1970 by Haskell House Publishers Ltd), was "liberal". He imposed the customary poll tax, took hostages for good conduct and spared peoples' lives and lands. He even left their shrines undesecrated: 'The temples;' he proclaimed, 'shall be inviolate, like the churches of the Christians, the synagogues of the Jews and altars of the Magians'.[29] In the same text, however, it is mentioned that "Occasional desecration of Hindu fanes took place... but such demonstrations were probably rare sops to the official conscience..."

Coercive conversion
Coercive conversion
has been attributed to early historians such as Elliot, Cousens, Majumdar and Vaidya.[11] They hold the view that the conversion of Sindh
Sindh
was necessitated. Qasim's numerical inferiority is said to explain any instances of apparent religious toleration, with the destruction of temples seen as a reflection of the more basic, religiously motivated intolerance.[11] Voluntary conversion has been attributed to Thomas W. Arnold and modern Muslim
Muslim
historians such as Habib and Qureishi. They believe that the conquest was largely peaceful, and the conversion entirely so, and that the Arab forces enacted liberal, generous and tolerant policies.[11] These historians mention the "praiseworthy conduct of Arab Muslims" and attribute their actions to a "superior civilizational complex".[30]

Various polemical perceptions of Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism
Buddhism
are also reflected in this debate.[30] Elliot perceived Islam as a religion of "terror, devastation, murder and rapine" where the conquering Arabs were characterized as "ruthless bigots" and "furious zealots" motivated by "plunder and proselytism".[11] The period of Qasim's rule has been called by U.T. Thakkur "the darkest period in Sind history", with the records speaking of massive forced conversions, temple destruction, slaughters and genocides; the people of Sindh, described as inherently pacifist due to their Hindu/Buddhist religious inclinations, had to adjust to the conditions of "barbarian inroad".[31] On one extreme, the Arab Muslims
Arab Muslims
are seen as being compelled by religious stricture to conquer and forcibly convert Sindh, but on the other hand, they can be seen as being respectful and tolerant of non-Muslims as part of their religious duty, with conversion being facilitated by the vitality, equality and morals of the Islamic religion.[30] Citations of towns taken either violently or bloodlessly, reading back into Arab Sindh
Sindh
information belonging to a later date and dubious accounts such as those of the forcible circumcision of Brahmins
Brahmins
at Debal
Debal
or Qasims consideration of Hindu sentiment in forbidding the slaughter of cows are used as examples for one particular view or the other.[30] Some historians strike a middle ground, saying that Qasim was torn between the political expediency of making peace with the Hindus and Buddhists; having to call upon non-Muslims to serve under him as part of his mandate to administer newly conquered land; and orthodoxy by refraining from seeking the co-operation of "infidels". It is contended that Qasim may have struck a middle ground, conferring the status of Dhimmi upon the native Sindhis
Sindhis
and permitting them to participate in his administration, but treating them as "noncitizens" (i.e. in the Khilafat, but not of it).[15] Legacy[edit]

Qasim's presence and rule was very brief. His conquest for the Umayyads brought Sindh
Sindh
into the orbit of the Muslim
Muslim
world.[32] After the conquest of Sindh, Qasim adopted the Hanafi
Hanafi
school of Sharia law which regarded polytheists such as Hindus, Buddhists and Jains as "dhimmis" and "People of the Book", allowing them religious freedom as long as they continued to pay the tax known as "jizya". This approach would prove critical to the way Muslim
Muslim
rulers ruled in India over the next centuries.[4] During the troubles between the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
and the Umayyad Caliphate the local emirs shook off all allegiance to the caliphs and by the 10th century the region the Umayyad
Umayyad
control was destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni. The Abbasids took this opportunity to set up their own government in Sindh. The Soomra dynasty ruled Sindh
Sindh
as the functionary of the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
until the Siege of Baghdad (1258). Mansurah was the capital of the Soomra Dynasty.[33] Coastal trade and a Muslim
Muslim
colony in Sindh
Sindh
allowed for cultural exchanges and the arrival of Sufi
Sufi
missionaries to expand Muslim influence.[34] From Debal, which remained an important port until the 12th century, commercial links with the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and the Middle East intensified as Sindh
Sindh
became the "hinge of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Trade and overland passway."[32] Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
is often referred to as the first Pakistani according to Pakistan
Pakistan
Studies curriculum.[35] Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
also acclaimed Muhammad Bin Qasim and claimed that the Pakistan
Pakistan
movement started when the first Muslim
Muslim
put his foot on the soil of Sindh, the Gateway of Islam
Gateway of Islam
in India.[36] Yom-e Bab ul-Islam is observed in Pakistan, in honor of Muhammad bin Qasim.[37] Port Qasim, Pakistan's second major port is named in honor of Muhammad bin Qasim.[38] Bagh Ibne Qasim
Bagh Ibne Qasim
is the largest park in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan
Pakistan
named in honor of Muhammad bin Qasim. Ibn-e-Qasim Bagh Stadium, Multan
Multan
is a multi-use stadium named after Muhammad bin Qasim. The Pakistan
Pakistan
Naval Station Qasim, or PNS Qasim, is the major naval special operations base for the Amphibious Special
Special
Operations Forces in the Pakistan
Pakistan
Navy named after Muhammad bin Qasim. Bin Qasim Town
Bin Qasim Town
in Karachi
Karachi
is named after Muhammad bin Qasim. Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
Road/avenue in Karachi
Karachi
is named after Muhammad bin Qasim. Mohammad Bin Qasim Library in Sujawal, Thatta
Thatta
is named after Muhammad bin Qasim.

See also[edit]

Jat
Jat
people in Islamic history Muslim
Muslim
conquests on the Indian subcontinent Caliphate campaigns in India Qutaibah bin Muslim Abdullah Shah Ghazi Shaikh Habib Al-Raee

Footnotes[edit]

^ a b c Alexander Berzin, "Part I: The Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate (661 - 750 CE), The First Muslim
Muslim
Incursion into the Indian Subcontinent", The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire Last accessed September 11, 2007 ^ a b c d Wink (2002), pg.164 ^ Wink (2002), 51-52 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Nicholas F. Gier, FROM MONGOLS TO MUGHALS: RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE IN INDIA 9TH-18TH CENTURIES, Presented at the Pacific Northwest Regional Meeting American Academy of Religion, Gonzaga University, May, 2006 [1] ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Wink (2004) pg 201-205 ^ Wink (2004) pg 131 ^ The Indus River
Indus River
during this time flowed to the east of Nerun, but a 10th-century earthquake caused the river to change to its course. ^ Sailendra Nath Sen (1999-01-01), Ancient Indian History and Civilization, New Age International, pp. 343–, ISBN 978-81-224-1198-0  ^ a b c Derryl pg. 37-39 ^ a b c d e f Wink (2002) pg. 204-206 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Derryl pg.22-29 ^ "The fall of Multan
Multan
laid the Indus valley at the feet of the conqueror. The tribes came in, 'ringing bells and beating drums and dancing,' in token of welcome. The Hindu rulers had oppressed them heavily, and the Jats
Jats
and Meds and other tribes were on the side of the invaders. The work of conquest, as often happened in India, was thus aided by the disunion of the inhabitants, and jealousies of race and creed conspired to help the Muslims. To such suppliants Mohammad Kasim gave the liberal terms that the Arabs usually offered to all but inveterate foes. He imposed the customary poll-tax, took hostages for good conduct, and spared the people's lands and lives. He even left their shrines undesecrated: 'The temples,' he proclaimed, 'shall be inviolate, like the churches of the Christians, the synagogues of the Jews, and the altars of the Magians.'" Stanley Lane-Poole, Medieval India under Mohammedan Rule, 712-1764, G.P. Putnam's Sons. New York, 1970. p. 9-10 ^ a b c d e f The Chachnamah, An Ancient History of Sind, Giving the Hindu period down to the Arab Conquest. (1900). Translated from the Persian by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg. Karachi: Commissioners Press. ^ The Evolution of the Artillery in India quoting Ibid 342 ^ a b c d e f g h i j Appleby. pg. 291-292 ^ H. M. Elliot and John Dowson, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians, (London, 1867-1877), vol. 1, p. 203. "Kaksa took precedence in the army before all the nobles and commanders. He collected the revenue of the country and the treasury was placed under his seal. He assisted Muhammad ibn Qasim in all of his undertakings..." ^ The Chach-Nama. English translation by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg. Delhi Reprint, 1979. Online version, last accessed 3 October 2006 ^ Chapter by S Jabir Raza Passages in the Chachnama, Zainul-Akhbar And Tarikh-i-Baihaqi, Text and Translation, from the book The Jats, Their Role and contribution to the socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North-West India, Volume 2, pp. 43–52 ^ Valour and Sacrifice: Famous Regiments of the Indian Army, page 152. ^ page 358 Volume 11 A Glossary of the Tribes and castes of the Punjab and North -West Frontier
Frontier
Province compiled by H. A. Rose and based on the Census Report for the Punjab 1883. Published By the Asian Educational Services ^ Schimmel pg.4 ^ Medieval India by Stanly Lane-Poole, Pub 1970, Page 10. ^ Wink (2002) pg. 53 ^ a b Keay, pg. 185 ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=g2m7_R5P2oAC&pg=PA207&lpg=PA207&focus=viewport&dq=al+baladhuri+qasim&output=html_text ^ Pakistan, the cultural heritage by Aḥmad Shujāʻ Pāshā Sang-e-Meel Publications, 1998, Page 43 ^ BALOUCH, AKHTAR (16 September 2015). "Muhammad Bin Qasim: Predator or preacher?". DAWN. Retrieved 10 January 2017.  ^ Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi (2010). "Indo-Persian Historiography Up to the Thirteenth Century". Primus Books. p. 32. ISBN 9788190891806.  ^ Medieval India by Stanley Lane-Poole, Published by Haskell House Publishers Ltd. NY 1970. Page 10 ^ a b c d Derryl pg.31-33 ^ Sindhi Culture by U.T. Thakkur, University of Bombay 1959 ^ a b Markovits, Claude The Global World of Indian Merchants, 1750-1947: Traders of Sind from Bukhara to Panama, Cambridge University Press, June 22, 2000, ISBN 0-521-62285-9, pg. 34. ^ Akbar, M.J, The Shade of Swords, Routledge (UK), December 1, 2003, ISBN 0-415-32814-4, pg. 102. ^ Federal Research Division. " Pakistan
Pakistan
a Country Study", Kessinger Publishing, June 1, 2004, ISBN 1-4191-3994-0 pg.45. ^ "History books contain major distortions". Daily Times.  ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
Movement". cybercity-online.net.  ^ APP (November 7, 2003). "KARACHI: Babul Islam day observed". Dawn. Retrieved May 20, 2012.  ^ Cheesman, David Landlord Power and Rural Indebtedness in Colonial Sind, Routledge (UK), February 1, 1997, ISBN 0-7007-0470-1

References[edit]

Alexander Berzin, "Part I: The Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate (661 - 750 CE), The First Muslim
Muslim
Incursion into the Indian Subcontinent", The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire The Chachnamah, An Ancient History of Sind, Giving the Hindu period down to the Arab Conquest. (1900). Translated from the Persian by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg. Karachi: Commissioners Press. Nicholas F. Gier, FROM MONGOLS TO MUGHALS: RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE IN INDIA 9TH-18TH CENTURIES, Presented at the Pacific Northwest Regional Meeting American Academy of Religion, Gonzaga University, May, 2006 [2] Stanley Lane-Poole, Medieval India under Mohammedan Rule, 712-1764, G.P. Putnam's Sons. New York, 1970 Schimmel, Annemarie Schimmel, Religionen — Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, Brill Academic Publishers, Jan 1, 1980, ISBN 90-04-06117-7 Appleby, R Scott & Martin E Marty, Fundamentalisms Comprehended, University of Chicago Press, May 1, 2004, ISBN 0-226-50888-9 Wink, Andre, Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Brill Academic Publishers, August 1, 2002, ISBN 0-391-04173-8 Wink, Andre, Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Brill Academic Publishers, 2004, ISBN 90-04-09249-8 Keay, John, India: A History, Grove Press, May 1, 2001, ISBN 0-8021-3797-0 Maclean, Derryl N. Religion and Society in Arab Sind, Brill Academic Publishers, 1989 ISBN 90-04-08551-3

External links[edit]

The Chachnamah, An Ancient History of Sind, Giving the Hindu period down to the Arab Conquest. (1900). Translated from the Persian by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg. Karachi: Commissioners Press. (Online at: Persian Packhum) Online Version of the History of the Rise of Mahommedan Power in India by Ferishta, "MAHOMED KASIM.", Last accessed 12 September 2007 - Muhammad Bin Qasim Story Religion and Society in Arab Sind By Derryl N. Maclean

v t e

Pakistan
Pakistan
topics

Basic topics Alphabetical index of topics

History

Ancient

Stone age Soanian Mehrgarh Indus Valley Indo-Iranics Indo-Aryan Achaemenid Greco-Bactrian Maurya Gandhara Indo-Greek Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthian Kushan Indo-Sassanid

Medieval

Indo-Hephthalite Kamboja Rai Dynasty Shahi Pala Solanki Muhammad bin Qasim Ghaznavid Ghurid Mamluk Khalji Tughlaq Sayyid Lodi Timurid

Modern

Pre-colonial

Mughal East India Company Durrani Sikh Confederacy Sikh Empire First Anglo-Afghan War First Anglo-Sikh War Second Anglo-Sikh War Rebellion

Colonial

British Raj Second Anglo-Afghan War Durand Line Third Anglo-Afghan War Aligarh Movement Hindi– Urdu
Urdu
controversy Pakistan
Pakistan
Movement

Muslim
Muslim
League Two nation theory Jinnah's 14 Points Lahore Resolution Direct Action Day

Partition Independence

Dominion

Dominion of Pakistan Princely states 1947 War Liaquat–Nehru Pact Baghdad
Baghdad
Pact

Republic

Indus Treaty 1965 War 1971 War Project-706 Islamisation Baloch insurgency Kargil War Liberalization War in North-West Pakistan

Geography

Features

Beaches Deserts Glaciers Islands Lakes Mountains Passes Rivers Valleys Waterfalls Wetlands

Areas

Arabian Sea Gwadar Bay Indus Plain Pothohar Plateau Salt Range Sistan Basin

Geology

Coal fields Gas fields Minerals Oil fields Tectonics Volcanoes Floods

Environment

Botanical gardens Ecoregions Environmental issues Forests Protected areas

national parks game reserves sanctuaries

Wildlife

flora fauna

Zoos

Other topics

Archaeological sites Climate

weather records

Borders Natural disasters

earthquakes floods

Subdivisions

provinces districts cities

World Heritage Sites

Governance

State

President National Security Council (C2NS ECC AEDB NCA)

Government

National government

Cabinet Ministries Prime Minister

Provincial governments

Governors Chief Ministers

Local government

Union councils

Legislative

Parliament (Majlis-e-Shoora)

Senate (upper house)

Chairman

National Assembly (lower house)

Speaker

Provincial assemblies Jirga
Jirga
(tribal assembly)

Judicial

Supreme Council Supreme Court

Chief Justice

Shariat Court High Courts District Courts

Politics

Elections Foreign relations Feudalism Intelligence community Political parties Martial law

Law

Constitution

LFO PPC WPB PCO

Human rights

Forced disappearance LGBT

LGBT history Law enforcement

Police Criminal Investigation (CID) Anti-Narcotics (ANF) Capital punishment

Terrorism

State terrorism

Military

History Army Air force Navy Marines Coast Guard Paramilitary Nuclear

Economy

Infrastructure

Electricity

Thermal Hydro nuclear solar wind

Foreign aid Fuel extraction Housing Planning Commission Post Poverty Tallest buildings Telecommunications

Pakistan
Pakistan
Remote Sensing Satellite

Transportation

bridges

Water management

Water supply and sanitation

Industry

Aerospace Agriculture Defence Automobile Fishery Forestry Husbandry Labour

child

Media Mining Pharmaceuticals Textiles

Silk

Tourism

Commerce

Banking

banks

Companies Investment board Rupee (currency) Securities and Exchange Commission Stock markets Trading Corporation

Policy programmes

Corporatisation Directive investment Industrialisation Military economisation Nationalisation Privatisation Public-private partnering Redundant Islamic economisation

Society and culture

Society

Crime Culture Education

institutions

Feudalism Gender discrimination Healthcare

hospitals

Human rights

LGBT

Marriage Media Naming Pakistanis
Pakistanis
(list) Prostitution Religion Time Urbanisation Women

Demographics

Diaspora Ethnicity Immigration Languages

Urdu

Arts

Architecture Cinema

films

Dance Festivals Folklore Literature

Mushaira

Music Philosophy Textiles Theatre

Lifestyle

Clothing

Shalwar kameez Mehndi

Cuisine Etiquette Gun culture Nationalism

flags public holidays songs symbols

Sports

Athletics Baseball Boxing Cricket Cycling Field hockey Football Gilli-danda Golf Kabaddi Motorsport Marathon (Lahore) Olympics Paralympics Polo Rugby Squash Swimming Tennis

Places

Botanical gardens Cemeteries Churches Forts Gurdwaras Hindu temples Libraries Mausolea and shrines Mosques Museums Parks Stadiums World Heritage Sites Zoos

Category Portal Commons

v t e

Karachi

History

History of Karachi Muhammad bin Qasim Delhi Sultanate British Raj 1857 War of Independence Pakistan
Pakistan
Movement Muhammad Ali Jinnah Muhajir people Muttahida Qaumi Movement Timeline of Karachi
Karachi
history

Geography

Baba and Bhit Islands Bundal Island Cape Monze Clifton Beach Clifton Oyster Rocks Climate of Karachi French Beach Hawke's Bay Beach Indus River
Indus River
Delta Manora Paradise Point Sandspit Beach

Localities

Bahria Town Karachi Baldia Bin Qasim Cantonments Clifton Defence Housing Authority Gadap Gulberg Gulshan Jamshed Kiamari Korangi Landhi Liaquatabad Lyari Malir New Karachi North Nazimabad Orangi Saddar Shah Faisal SITE

Government

City District Government Karachi
Karachi
Division Mayors Politics of Karachi Government of Karachi Karachi
Karachi
Civic Center

Attractions

Abdullah Shah Ghazi
Abdullah Shah Ghazi
Mausoleum Bagh Ibne Qasim Bahria Icon Tower Beach View Park Empress Market Frere Hall Governor's House Habib Bank Plaza Jehangir Kothari Parade Karachi
Karachi
Expo Centre Karachi
Karachi
Municipal Corporation Building Karachi
Karachi
Zoo Khaliq Deena Hall Masjid e Tooba Mazar-e-Quaid MCB Tower Merewether Clock Tower National Museum of Pakistan Ocean Towers PAF Museum Pakistan
Pakistan
Maritime Museum Port Grand Saint Patrick's Cathedral Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Zamzama Park Mohatta Palace Hindu Gymkhana Quaid-e-Azam House Wazir Mansion

Education

Aga Khan University AES School for Girls Bahria University Barrett Hodgson University Bay View High School DHA Suffa University DJ Science College Dow University of Health Sciences Fatima Jinnah Dental College Fazaia Degree College, Faisal Habib University Happy Home School Ilma University Indus Valley School of Art and Architecture Institute of Business Administration Institute of Business Management Jinnah Medical and Dental College Jinnah Sindh
Sindh
Medical University Karachi
Karachi
Grammar School Karachi
Karachi
Institute of Economics and Technology Liaquat National Memorial Library Mohammad Ali Jinnah University National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences NED University of Engineering and Technology Pakistan
Pakistan
Navy Engineering College PIA Model Secondary School Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology Sindh
Sindh
Madressatul Islam University Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology University of Karachi Usman Institute of Technology White House Grammar School Ziauddin University

Hospitals

Aga Khan University
Aga Khan University
Hospital, Karachi Indus Hospital Karachi
Karachi
Institute of Heart Diseases Karachi
Karachi
Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Civil Hospital, Karachi Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases PNS Rahat PNS Shifa Sindh
Sindh
Institute of Skin Diseases South City Hospital

Economy

HBL Pakistan I. I. Chundrigar Road Karachi
Karachi
Chamber of Commerce & Industry Karachi
Karachi
Cotton Exchange Karachi
Karachi
Port Trust Karachi
Karachi
Stock Exchange MCB Bank Limited Pakistan
Pakistan
Mercantile Exchange Port Qasim Pakistan
Pakistan
State Oil

Transport

Buses in Karachi Karachi
Karachi
Cantonment railway station Karachi
Karachi
Circular Railway Karachi
Karachi
City railway station Karachi
Karachi
Elevated Expressway Jinnah International Airport Lyari Expressway Mohammad Ali Jinnah Road

Hotels and shopping centers

Marriott International Meena Bazaar Pearl-Continental Hotels & Resorts Sheraton Hotels and Resorts

Sports and culture

Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
Country Club Asghar Ali Shah Cricket Stadium Chaand Raat City Sports Complex Dabbawala Defence Housing Authority Stadium Hockey Club of Pakistan Hyderabad Colony Karachi
Karachi
City Cricket Association Karachi
Karachi
cricket teams Karachi
Karachi
Dolphins Karachi
Karachi
Golf Club Karachi
Karachi
Literature Festival Karachi
Karachi
Yacht Club Karachi
Karachi
Zebras National Academy of Performing Arts National Bank of Pakistan
Pakistan
Sports Complex National Stadium Pakistan
Pakistan
Champions Cricket League Pakistan
Pakistan
National Council of the Arts Peoples Football Stadium Polo Grounds Sind Club Women Sports Complex

Lists

People from Karachi Streets in Karachi Universities in Karachi

Cities in Pakistan Most populous cities in Pakistan

v t e

Multan
Multan
topics

History

History of Multan History of Punjab Alexander the Great Indo-Greek Kingdom Maurya Empire Kushan Empire Muhammad bin Qasim Mahmud of Ghazni Mughal Empire Ranjit Singh Nawab Muzaffar Khan British Raj Fort Munro History of Pakistan

City and economy

The City District Government Multan
Multan
International Airport Grand Trunk Road

Education and culture

Bahauddin Zakariya University Government Emerson College University of Education Lahore ( Multan
Multan
Campus) Air University Pakistani
Pakistani
cricket team Inzamam ul Haq Siraiki language Islam in Pakistan Mausoleum of Shah Ali Akbar Manka Multan
Multan
Museum Multan
Multan
Fort

Cantonment

Multan
Multan
Cantt

Sports

Multan
Multan
Cricket Stadium Multan
Multan
Tigers Multan
Multan
Sultans

Flyovers

Yousuf Raza Gillani Flyover Chowk Kumharanwala Level II Flyover Kachehri Chowk Flyover Nishtar Chowk Flyover Pul Moj Darya Flyover Rasheedabad Flyover Sher Shah Interchange

Roads

Bosan Road Abdali Road Nusrat Road

Other topics

List of cities in Pakistan List of educational institutions in Multan

v t e

Hyderabad

History

History of Sindh Muhammad bin Qasim British Raj Indian Rebellion of 1857 Pakistan
Pakistan
Movement Muhajir people Muttahida Qaumi Movement History of Hyderabad Battle of Hyderabad Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai Kalhora Indus Valley Civilisation

Geography

Climate Indus River Kotri Barrage Kirthar National Park Phuleli

Localities

Hyderabad City Hyderabad rural Qasimabad Latifabad Old City

Government

Mayor of Hyderabad Hyderabad Municipal Corporation NA 218 NA 219 NA 220 NA 221 PS 43 PS 44 PS 45 PS 46 PS 47 PS 48 PS 49 PS 50 PS 51 PS 52 PS 53 PS 54

Attractions

Ranikot Fort Pacco Qillo Rani Bagh Sindh
Sindh
Museum Tombs of Talpur Mirs Agham Kot Hyderabad Ghanta Ghar Hyderabad Expo Center

Transport

Railway station Hyderabad Airport M9 Motorway Hyderabad Flyovers

Education

Isra University Hyderabad Institute of Arts, Science and Technology Sindh
Sindh
Agriculture University Cadet College Petaro SZABIST

Sports and culture

Niaz Stadium Municipal Gardens Ground Hyderabad Hawks First Class Hyderabadi pickle The Bombay Bakery

Lists

educational institutions in Hyderabad List of twin cities List of Hospitals List of people fr

.