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The Mthethwa Paramountcy, sometimes referred to as the Mtetwa or Mthethwa Empire, was a Southern African state that arose in the 18th century south of Delagoa Bay
Delagoa Bay
and inland in eastern southern Africa. "Mthethwa" means "the one who rules". History records tell us that the Mthethwa people are part of the original Nguni category of a cluster of clans, whose modern identity dates back some 700 years. They are among the original Nguni groups who left the Great Lakes in Central Africa between 200AD and 1200AD. On arrival in Southern Africa, they settled around modern-day Swaziland, mainly on the Lubombo Mountains, before leaving in the 17th century to settle in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal, in the Nkandla region. It consisted of roughly 30 Nguni Chiefdoms, lineages, and clans. Unlike its successor, the Zulu Kingdom, the Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
was a confederation.[1] After Zulu prince Sigidi kaSenzagakhona (better known as Shaka) became king, he forged a nearly homogeneous nation with a single king (nkosi). The Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
was consolidated and extended under the rule of Dingiswayo. The chief entered into an alliance with the Tsonga to the north in the early 19th century and began trading Ivory[2] and other things with the Portuguese in Mozambique. About 1811, the Buthelezi
Buthelezi
and a number of other Nguni groups, including the then still marginal Zulu clan led by Senzangakona, were integrated into a sort of confederacy with the Mthethwa clan predominating. Dingiswayo
Dingiswayo
was killed in a battle with the Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
in 1817. The Mthethwa Paramountcy was superseded by the Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
under Shaka, a former lieutenant in the Mthethwa army. Many military and administrative institutions, including the system of age regiments (amabutho) that later characterized the Zulu kingdom were utilized by Mthethwa, although an older theory that credits the Nyambose rulers of Mthethwa with the introduction of amabutho is no longer accepted because of evidence for the widespread existence of amabutho going back into the 18th century and perhaps earlier. The Mthethwa were amongst the first Nguni Chiefdoms to use guns. See also[edit]

Mfecane Zululand

References[edit]

^ Morris, page 42 ^ https://www.britannica.com/place/Mthethwa

Morris, Donald R. (1965). The Washing of the Spears: The Rise of the Zulu Nation under Shaka
Shaka
and its fall in the Zulu War of 1879. New York: Simon and Schuster. OCLC 408488. , reprinted in 1998 by Da Capo Press, Cambridge, ISBN 0-306-80866-8

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(c. 1075–c. 1220) Mthethwa Paramountcy
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Coordinates: 28°30′54″S 31°50′55″E / 28.51500°S 31.84861°E / -28.51500; 31.84861

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