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The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is a working group of authorities that was formed by ISO and IEC to set standards for audio and video compression and transmission.[1] MPEG is officially a collection of ISO Working Groups and Advisory Groups under ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information (ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 29).[2][3][4][5]

History

MPEG was established in 1988 by the initiative of Hiroshi Yasuda (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone) and Leonardo Chiariglione,[6] group Chair from its inception. The first MPEG meeting was in May 1988 in Ottawa, Canada.[7][8][9]

As of late 2005, MPEG has grown to include approximately 350 members per meeting from various industries, universities, and research institutions.[needs update]

On June 6, 2020, the MPEG website – hosted by Chiariglione – was updated to inform readers that he retired as convenor, and that the MPEG group "was closed".[10] Chiariglione, in his own blog, explained his reasons for deciding to step down.[11] The decision followed a restructuring process within SC 29, in which "some of the subgroups of WG 11 (MPEG) will become distinct MPEG working groups (WGs) and advisory groups (AGs)" in July 2020.[12] In the interim, Prof. Jörn Ostermann has been appointed as Acting Convenor of SC 29/WG 11.

Cooperation with other groups

Joint Video Team

Joint Video Team (JVT) is joint project between ITU-T SG16/Q.6 (Study Group 16 / Question 6) – VCEG (Video Coding Experts Group) and ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 – MPEG for the development of new video coding recommendation and international standard.[2][13] It was formed in 2001 and its main result has been H.264/MPEG-4 AVC (MPEG-4 Part 10).[14]

Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding

Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) is a group of video coding experts from ITU-T Study Group 16 (VCEG) and ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 (MPEG). It was created in 2010 to develop High Efficiency Video Coding, a new generation video coding standard that further reduces (by 50%) the data rate required for high quality video coding, as compared to the current ITU-T H.264 / ISO/IEC 14496-10 standard.[15][16] JCT-VC is co-chaired by Jens-Rainer Ohm and Gary Sullivan.

Joint Video Exploration Team

Joint Video Exploration Team (JVET) is a joint group of video coding experts from ITU-T Study Group 16 (VCEG) and ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 (MPEG) created in 2017 after an exploration phase in 2015. It seeks to develop Versatile Video Coding (VVC). Like JCT-VC, JVET is co-chaired by Jens-Rainer Ohm and Gary Sullivan.

Standards

The MPEG standards consist of different Parts. Each part covers a certain aspect of the whole specification.[17] The standards also specify Profiles and Levels. Profiles are intended to define a set of tools that are available, and Levels define the range of appropriate values for the properties associated with them.MPEG was established in 1988 by the initiative of Hiroshi Yasuda (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone) and Leonardo Chiariglione,[6] group Chair from its inception. The first MPEG meeting was in May 1988 in Ottawa, Canada.[7][8][9]

As of late 2005, MPEG has grown to include approximately 350 members per meeting from various industries, universities, and research institutions.[needs update]

On June 6, 2020, the MPEG website – hosted by Chiariglione – was updated to inform readers that he retired as convenor, and that the MPEG group "was closed".[10] Chiariglione, in his own blog, explained his reasons for deciding to step down.[11] The decision followed a restructuring process within SC 29, in which "some of the subgroups of WG 11 (MPEG) will become distinct MPEG working groups (WGs) and advisory groups (AGs)" in July 2020.[12] In the interim, Prof. Jörn Ostermann has been appointed as Acting Convenor of SC 29/WG 11.

Cooperation with other groups

Joint Video Team

Joint Video Team (JVT) is joint project between ITU-T SG16/Q.6 (Study Group 16 / Question 6) – VCEG (Vi

As of late 2005, MPEG has grown to include approximately 350 members per meeting from various industries, universities, and research institutions.[needs update]

On June 6, 2020, the MPEG website – hosted by Chiariglione – was updated to inform readers that he retired as convenor, and that the MPEG group "was closed".[10] Chiariglione, in his own blog, explained his reasons for deciding to step down.[11] The decision followed a restructuring process within SC 29, in which "some of the subgroups of WG 11 (MPEG) will become distinct MPEG working groups (WGs) and advisory groups (AGs)" in July 2020.[12] In the interim, Prof. Jörn Ostermann has been appointed as Acting Convenor of SC 29/WG 11.

Joint Video Team (JVT) is joint project between ITU-T SG16/Q.6 (Study Group 16 / Question 6) – VCEG (Video Coding Experts Group) and ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 – MPEG for the development of new video coding recommendation and international standard.[2][13] It was formed in 2001 and its main result has been H.264/MPEG-4 AVC (MPEG-4 Part 10).[14]

Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding

Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) is a group of video coding experts from ITU-T Study Group 16 (VCEG) and ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 (MPEG). It was created in 2010 to develop High Efficiency Video Codin

Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) is a group of video coding experts from ITU-T Study Group 16 (VCEG) and ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 (MPEG). It was created in 2010 to develop High Efficiency Video Coding, a new generation video coding standard that further reduces (by 50%) the data rate required for high quality video coding, as compared to the current ITU-T H.264 / ISO/IEC 14496-10 standard.[15][16] JCT-VC is co-chaired by Jens-Rainer Ohm and Gary Sullivan.

Joint Video Exploration Team

Joint Video Exploration TeamJoint Video Exploration Team (JVET) is a joint group of video coding experts from ITU-T Study Group 16 (VCEG) and ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 (MPEG) created in 2017 after an exploration phase in 2015. It seeks to develop Versatile Video Coding (VVC). Like JCT-VC, JVET is co-chaired by Jens-Rainer Ohm and Gary Sullivan.

Standards

The MPEG standards consist of different Parts.

The MPEG standards consist of different Parts. Each part covers a certain aspect of the whole specification.[17] The standards also specify Profiles and Levels. Profiles are intended to define a set of tools that are available, and Levels define the range of appropriate values for the properties associated with them.[18] Some of the approved MPEG standards were revised by later amendments and/or new editions.

MPEG has standardized the following compression formats and ancillary standards. All of the MPEG formats listed below use discrete cosine transform (DCT) based lossy discrete cosine transform (DCT) based lossy video compression algorithms.[19]

MPEG-4 has been chosen as the compression scheme for over-the-air in Brazil (ISDB-TB), based on original digital television from Japan (ISDB-T).[26]

In addition, the following standards, while not sequential advances to the video encoding standard as with MPEG-1 through MPEG-4, are referred to by similar notation:

  • MPEG-7 (2002): Multimedia content description interface. (ISO/IEC 15938)
  • MPEG-21 (2001): Multimedia framework (MPEG-21). (ISO/IEC 21000) MPEG describes this standard as a multimedia framework and provides for intellectual property management and protection.

Moreover, more recently than other standards above, MPEG has started following international standards; each of the standards holds multiple MPEG technologies for a way of application.[27][28][29][30][31] (For example, MPEG-A includes a number of technologies on multimedia application format.)

  • MPEG-A (2007): Multimedia application format (MPEG-A). (ISO/IEC 23000) (e.g., Purpose for multimedia application formats,[32] MPEG music player application format, MPEG photo player application format and others)
  • MPEG-B (2006): MPEG systems technologies. (ISO/IEC 23001) (e.g., Binary MPEG format for XML,[33] Fragment Request Units, Bitstream Syntax Description Language (BSDL) and others)
  • MPEG-C (2006): MPEG video technologies. (ISO/IEC 23002) (e.g., Accuracy requirements for implementation of integer-output 8x8 inverse discrete cosine transform[34] and others)
  • MPEG-D (2007): MPEG audio technologies. (ISO/IEC 23003) (e.g., MPEG Surround,[35] SAOC-Spatial Audio Object Coding and USAC-Unified Speech and Audio Coding)
  • MPEG-E (2007): Multimedia Middleware. (ISO/IEC 23004) (a.k.a. M3W) (e.g., Architecture,[36] Multimedia application programming interface (API), Component model and others)
  • MPEG-G (2019): Genomic Information Representation. (ISO/IEC 23092) Part 1 – Transport and Storage of Genomic Information; Part 2 – Coding of Genomic Information; Part 3 – APIs; Part 4 – Reference Software; Part 5 – Conformance; Part 6 – Genomic Annotations
  • Supplemental media technologies (2008). (ISO/IEC 29116) Part 1: Media streaming application format protocols will be revised in MPEG-M; Part 4 – MPEG extensible middleware (MXM) protocols.[37]
  • MPEG-V (2011): Media context and control. (ISO/IEC 23005) (a.k.a. Information exchange with Virtual Worlds)[38][39] (e.g., Avatar characteristics, Sensor information, Architecture[40][41] and others)
  • In addition, the following standards, while not sequential advances to the video encoding standard as with MPEG-1 through MPEG-4, are referred to by similar notation:

    Moreover, more recently than other standards above, MPEG has started following international standards; each of the standards holds multiple MPEG technologies for a way of application.[27][28][29][30][31] (For example, MPEG-A includes a number of technologies on multimedia application format.)

    • MPEG-A (2007): Multimedia application format (MPEG-A). (ISO/IEC 23000) (e.g., Purpose for multimedia application formats,[32] MPEG music player application format, MPEG photo player application format and others)
    • [7][53][54][55][56][57]

      • PWI – Preliminary Work Item
      • NP or NWIP – New Proposal / New Work Item Proposal (e.g., ISO/IEC NP 23007)
      • AWI – Approved new Work Item (e.g., ISO/IEC AWI 15444-14)
      • WD – Working Draft
      • CD – Committee Draft (e.g., ISO/IEC CD 23000-5)
      • FCD – Final Committee Draft (e.g., ISO/IEC FCD 23000-12)
      • DIS – Draft International Standard
      • FDIS – Final Draft International Standard
      • PRF – Proof of a new International Standard
      • IS – International Standard (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007)
      • CD Amd / PDAmd (PDAM) – Committee Draft Amendment / Proposed Draft Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/CD Amd 6)
      • FPDAmd / DAM (DAmd) – Final Proposed Draft Amendment / Draft Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 14496-14:2003/FPDAmd 1)
      • FDAM (FDAmd) – Final Draft Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/FDAmd 4)
      • Amd – Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/Amd 1:2007)

      Other abbreviations:

      • TR – Technical Report (e.g., ISO/IEC TR 13818-5:2005)
      • TS – Technical Specification
      • IWA – International Workshop Agreement
      • Cor – Technical Corrigendum (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/Cor 1:2008)

      A proposal of work (New Proposal) is approved at Subcommittee and then at the Technical Committee level (SC29 and JTC1 respectively – in the case of MPEG). When the scope of new work is sufficiently clarified, MPEG usually makes open requests for proposals – known as "Call for proposals". The first document that is produced for audio and video coding standards is called a Verification Model (VM). In the case of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 this was called Simulation and Test Model, respectively. When a sufficient confidence in the stability of the standard under development is reached, a Working Draft (WD) is produced. This is in the form of a standard but is kept internal to MPEG for revision. When a WD is sufficiently solid, becomes Committee Draft (CD) (usually at the planned time). It is then sent to National Bodies (NB) for ballot. The CD becomes Final Committee Draft (FCD) if the number of positive votes is above the quorum. After a review and comments issued by NBs, FCD is again submitted to NBs for the second ballot. If the FCD is approved, it becomes Final Draft International Standard (FDIS). ISO then holds a ballot with National Bodies, where no technical changes are allowed (yes/no ballot). If approved, the document becomes International Standard (IS).[7]

      ISO/IEC Directives allow also the so-called "Fast-track procedure". In this procedure a document is submitted directly for approval as a draft International Standard (DIS) to the ISO member bodies or as a final draft International Standard (FDIS) if the document was developed by an international standardizing body recognized by the ISO Council.[54]

      See also

      Notes

      1. ^ John Watkinson, The MPEG Handbook, p.1
      2. ^ a b ISO, IEC (2009-11-05). "ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29, SC 29/WG 11 Structure (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 – Coding of Moving Pictures and Audio)". Archived from the original on 2001-01-28. Retrieved 2009-11-07.
      3. ^ MPEG Committee. "MPEG – Moving Picture Experts Group". Archived from the original on 2008-01-10. Retrieved 2009-11-07.
      4. ^ ISO. "MPEG Standards – Coded representation of video and audio". Archived from the original on 2011-05-14. Retrieved 2009-11-07.
      5. ^ ISO. "JTC 1/SC 29 – Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information". Retrieved 2009-11-11.A proposal of work (New Proposal) is approved at Subcommittee and then at the Technical Committee level (SC29 and JTC1 respectively – in the case of MPEG). When the scope of new work is sufficiently clarified, MPEG usually makes open requests for proposals – known as "Call for proposals". The first document that is produced for audio and video coding standards is called a Verification Model (VM). In the case of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 this was called Simulation and Test Model, respectively. When a sufficient confidence in the stability of the standard under development is reached, a Working Draft (WD) is produced. This is in the form of a standard but is kept internal to MPEG for revision. When a WD is sufficiently solid, becomes Committee Draft (CD) (usually at the planned time). It is then sent to National Bodies (NB) for ballot. The CD becomes Final Committee Draft (FCD) if the number of positive votes is above the quorum. After a review and comments issued by NBs, FCD is again submitted to NBs for the second ballot. If the FCD is approved, it becomes Final Draft International Standard (FDIS). ISO then holds a ballot with National Bodies, where no technical changes are allowed (yes/no ballot). If approved, the document becomes International Standard (IS).[7]

        ISO/IEC Directives allow also the so-called "Fast-track procedure". In this procedure a document is submitted directly for approval as a draft International Standard (DIS) to the ISO member bodies or as a final draft International Standard (

        ISO/IEC Directives allow also the so-called "Fast-track procedure". In this procedure a document is submitted directly for approval as a draft International Standard (DIS) to the ISO member bodies or as a final draft International Standard (FDIS) if the document was developed by an international standardizing body recognized by the ISO Council.[54]