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Mozzarella
Mozzarella
(English: /ˌmɒtsəˈrɛlə/; Italian: [mottsa'rɛlla]) is a traditionally southern Italian cheese made from Italian buffalo's milk by the pasta filata method. Mozzarella
Mozzarella
received a Traditional Specialities Guaranteed certification from the European Union
European Union
in 1998. This protection scheme requires that mozzarella sold in the European Union
European Union
is produced according to a traditional recipe. The TSG certification does not specify the source of the milk, so any type of milk can be used.[1] In Italy, mozzarella made with the milk of the Italian water buffalo
Italian water buffalo
is an important variety. The Italian buffalo mozzarella sold as Mozzarella
Mozzarella
di Bufala Campana is protected under the EU's Protected Designation of Origin scheme and may only be produced in select locations in the regions of Campania, Lazio, Apulia and Molise.[2][3] Fresh mozzarella is generally white, but may vary seasonally to slightly yellow depending on the animal's diet.[4] Due to its high moisture content, it is traditionally served the day after it is made,[5] but can be kept in brine for up to a week[6] or longer when sold in vacuum-sealed packages. Low-moisture mozzarella can be kept refrigerated for up to a month,[7] though some shredded low-moisture mozzarella is sold with a shelf life of up to six months.[8] Mozzarella
Mozzarella
of several kinds is also used for most types of pizza and several pasta dishes, or served with sliced tomatoes and basil in Caprese salad.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Types 3 Variants

3.1 Buffalo's milk 3.2 Cow's milk 3.3 Sheep's milk 3.4 Goat's milk

4 Production 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Etymology[edit] Mozzarella, derived from the Neapolitan dialect spoken in Campania, is the diminutive form of mozza ("cut"), or mozzare ("to cut off") derived from the method of working.[9] The term is first mentioned in 1570, cited in a cookbook by Bartolomeo Scappi, reading "milk cream, fresh butter, ricotta cheese, fresh mozzarella and milk".[10] An earlier reference is also often cited as describing mozzarella. Historian Monsignor Alicandri, in "Chiesa Metropolitana di Capua," states that in the 12th century the Monastery of Saint Lorenzo, in Capua, offered pilgrims a piece of bread with mozza or provatura. These are locations rather than products and mozza is taken by some to be mozzarella.[11][12] Types[edit] Mozzarella, recognised as a Specialità Tradizionale Garantita (STG) since 1996,[13] is available fresh, usually rolled into a ball of 80 to 100 grams (2.8 to 3.5 oz) or about 6 cm (2.4 in) in diameter, and sometimes up to 1 kg (2.2 lb) or about 12 cm (4.7 in) diameter. It is soaked in salt water (brine) or whey, and other times citric acid is added and it is partly dried (desiccated), its structure being more compact. In this last form it is often used to prepare dishes cooked in the oven, such as lasagna and pizza. When twisted to form a plait mozzarella is called treccia. Mozzarella is also available in smoked (affumicata) and reduced-moisture, packaged varieties. Ovolini refers to smaller-sized bocconcini, and sometimes to cherry bocconcini.[14] Variants[edit] Several variants have been specifically formulated and prepared for use on pizza, such as low-moisture Mozzarella
Mozzarella
cheese.[15][16] The International Dictionary of Food and Cooking defines this cheese as "a soft spun-curd cheese similar to Mozzarella
Mozzarella
made from cow's milk" that is "[u]sed particularly for pizzas and [that] contains somewhat less water than real Mozzarella".[17] Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella, widely used in the food-service industry, has a low galactose content, per some consumers' preference for cheese on pizza to have low or moderate browning.[18][nb 1] Some pizza cheeses derived from skim mozzarella variants were designed not to require aging or the use of starter.[19] Others can be made through the direct acidification of milk.[19] Buffalo's milk[edit] In Italy, the cheese is produced nationwide using Italian buffalo's milk under the government's official name Mozzarella
Mozzarella
di latte di bufala because Italian buffalo
Italian buffalo
is in all Italian regions. Only selected Mozzarella di bufala campana
Mozzarella di bufala campana
PDO is a type, made from the milk of Italian buffalo, raised in designated areas of Campania, Lazio, Apulia, Molise. Unlike other mozzarellas—50% of whose production derives from non-Italian and often semi-coagulated milk[20]—it holds the status of a protected designation of origin (PDO 1996) under the European Union Cow's milk[edit] Fior di latte (written also as one word), is made from fresh pasteurized or unpasteurized cow's milk and not water buffalo milk, which greatly lowers its cost. Outside Italy
Italy
"mozzarella" not clearly labeled as deriving from water buffalo can be presumed to derive from cow milk. Mozzarella
Mozzarella
affumicata means smoked mozzarella. Sheep's milk[edit] Mozzarella
Mozzarella
of sheep milk, sometimes called "mozzarella pecorella", is typical of Sardinia, Abruzzo
Abruzzo
and Lazio, where it is also called 'mozzapecora'. It is worked with the addition of the rennet of lamb.[21][22][23] Goat's milk[edit] Mozzarella
Mozzarella
of goat's milk is of recent origin and the producers are still few; among the reasons for this new production is the need to offer a kind of mozzarella to those who do not digest cow's milk, because goat's milk is more digestible.[24] Production[edit]

Cheese, mozzarella, whole milk

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 300 kcal (1,300 kJ)

Carbohydrates

2.2 g

Sugars 1 g

Fat

22.4 g

Saturated 13.2 g

Monounsaturated 6.6 g

Protein

22.2 g

Minerals

Calcium

(51%) 505 mg

Phosphorus

(51%) 354 mg

Sodium

(42%) 627 mg

Other constituents

Water 50 g

Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Mozzarella
Mozzarella
di bufala is traditionally produced solely from the milk of the Italian Mediterranean buffalo. A whey starter is added from the previous batch that contains thermophilic bacteria, and the milk is left to ripen so the bacteria can multiply. Then, rennet is added to coagulate the milk. After coagulation, the curd is cut into large, 1"–2" pieces, and left to sit so the curds firm up in a process known as healing. After the curd heals, it is further cut into 3/8"–1/2" large pieces. The curds are stirred and heated to separate the curds from the whey. The whey is then drained from the curds and the curds are placed in a hoop to form a solid mass. The curd mass is left until the pH is at around 5.2–5.5, which is the point when the cheese can be stretched and kneaded to produce a delicate consistency—this process is generally known as pasta filata. According to the Mozzarella
Mozzarella
di Bufala trade association, "The cheese-maker kneads it with his hands, like a baker making bread, until he obtains a smooth, shiny paste, a strand of which he pulls out and lops off, forming the individual mozzarella."[25] It is then typically formed into cylinder shapes or in plait. In Italy, a "rubbery" consistency is generally considered not satisfactory; the cheese is expected to be softer. See also[edit]

Italy
Italy
portal Food portal

Burrata List of cheeses List of Italian products with protected designation of origin List of smoked foods List of stretch-cured cheeses List of water buffalo cheeses Mozzarella
Mozzarella
sticks String cheese Stracciatella di bufala

Notes[edit]

^ Galactose
Galactose
is a type of sugar found in dairy products and other foods that is less sweet than glucose. Sugar
Sugar
in foods can lead to caramelization when they are cooked, which increases their browning.

References[edit]

^ "Commission Regulation (EC) No 2527/98". Official Journal of the European Communities. European Commission. 41: L 317/14–18. 26 November 1998. Retrieved 28 July 2014.  ^ "Amendment Application Council Regulation (EC) No 510/2006". Official Journal of the European Communities. European Commission. 50: C 90/5–9. 25 March 2007. Retrieved 28 July 2014.  ^ "Commission Regulation (EC) No 103/2008". Official Journal of the European Communities. European Commission. 51: L 31/31. 5 February 2008. Retrieved 28 July 2014.  ^ Lambert, Paula. " Mozzarella
Mozzarella
Cheese". Sally's Place. Media Holdings. Retrieved 1 April 2008.  ^ Kotkin, Carole (October–November 2006). " Burrata
Burrata
mozzarella's creamy cousin makes a fresh impression". The Wine News Magazine. Archived from the original on 24 November 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2008.  ^ Staff. "Mozzarella". Healthnotes. PCC Natural Markets. Retrieved 1 April 2008.  ^ Correll, John. "Chapter 8 – Cheese". The Original Encyclopizza: Pizza
Pizza
Ingredient Purchasing and Preparation. Fulfillment Press. ISBN 978-0-9820920-7-1. Retrieved 1 April 2008.  ^ Staff. "Shreds: Mozzarella, Low Moisture, Part Skim, Shredded, 6 oz". Organic Valley. Retrieved 1 April 2008.  ^ Staff. "Mozzarella". Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online. Retrieved 1 April 2012.  ^ Charter, David (29 March 2008). " Buffalo mozzarella
Buffalo mozzarella
in crisis after pollution fears at Italian farms". The Times. London. Retrieved 1 April 2008. (subscription required) ^ "Define mozzarella Dictionary and Thesaurus". mozzarella.askdefine.com. Retrieved 2017-02-05.  ^ "Mozzarella". (in Italian). 2017-01-30.  ^ Regolamento (CE) N. 2527/98 della commissione del 25 novembre 1998 registrando una denominazione - Mozzarella
Mozzarella
- nell'albo delle attestazioni di specificità. Gazzetta ufficiale delle Comunità europee L 317/14 del 26/11/1998. ^ The Essential Fingerfood Cookbook, p. 40. ^ Aikenhead, Charles (1 June 2003). "Permanently pizza: continuous production of pizza cheese is now a realistic proposition". Dairy Industries International. Retrieved 30 September 2012.  (subscription required) ^ Fox, Patrick F. (1999). "Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology (Major Cheese
Cheese
Groups)". Volume 2. Aspen Publishers, Inc. Retrieved 27 September 2012.  ISBN 0412535106 ^ Sinclair, Charles G. (1998). International Dictionary of Food and Cooking. Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. p. 417. ISBN 1579580572. Retrieved 28 September 2012.  ^ Baskaran, D.; Sivakumar, S. (November 2003). "Galactose concentration in pizza cheese prepared by three different culture techniques". Volume 56, Issue 4. International Journal of Dairy Technology. pp. 229–232. doi:10.1046/j.1471-0307.2003.00109.x.  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ a b McMahon; (et al.) (5 September 2000). "Manufacture of Lower-fat and Fat-free Pizza
Pizza
Cheese". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved 28 September 2012.  ^ Fiore, Roberto (4 June 2009). "Fermiamo il formaggio Frankenstein". La Stampa
La Stampa
(in Italian). Retrieved 1 April 2012.  ^ Sardinian quality ^ Latium quality ^ Abruzzo
Abruzzo
quality ^ article in 'L'Espresso' ^ Staff. "Campana Buffalo's Mozzarella
Mozzarella
Cheese". Mozzarella
Mozzarella
di Bufala Campana Trade Organization. Retrieved 8 May 2007. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mozzarella.

Look up mozzarella in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Bocconcini
Bocconcini
Information; Ingredients & Nutritional Info, Recipes, FAQ & More. Video How Mozzarella
Mozzarella
Cheese
Cheese
is Manufactured Step-by-step photo guide to making Mozzarella Mozzarella
Mozzarella
di Bufala Campana trade organization The official DOP Consortium site – (Requires Flash) Sito di approndimento scientifico sulla mozzarella, e l'allevamento di bufala campana

v t e

Italian cheeses

PDO

Asiago Bitto Bra Caciocavallo Casciotta d'Urbino Castelmagno Fontina Formaggio di Fossa Formai de Mut dell'Alta Valle Brembana Gorgonzola Grana Padano Montasio Monte Veronese Buffalo mozzarella Parmigiano-Reggiano Pecorino

Pecorino
Pecorino
di Filiano Pecorino
Pecorino
Romano Pecorino
Pecorino
Sardo Pecorino
Pecorino
Siciliano Pecorino
Pecorino
Toscano

Piave Provolone Spressa delle Giudicarie Ragusano Raschera Salva Taleggio Valle d'Aosta Fromadzo Valtellina Casera

PAT

Bastardo del Grappa Mascarpone Pecorino
Pecorino
di Carmasciano Scamorza Stracciata Toma

Toma Piemontese

Non-protected varieties

Ambra di Talamello Bel Paese Bocconcini Brös Burrata Cacio figurato Caciotta Calcagno Caprino Casu marzu Crucolo Crutin Dolcelatte Galbanino Morlacco Mozzarella Paddraccio Pallone di Gravina Ricotta Robiola Rosa Camuna Sottocenere al tartufo Stracchino Stracciatella di bufala

Manufacturers

Auricchio Pa

.