Mozzarella (English: /ˌmɒtsəˈrɛlə/;
Italian: [mottsa'rɛlla]) is a traditionally southern Italian
cheese made from Italian buffalo's milk by the pasta filata method.
Mozzarella received a Traditional Specialities Guaranteed
certification from the
European Union in 1998. This protection scheme
requires that mozzarella sold in the
European Union is produced
according to a traditional recipe.
The TSG certification does not specify the source of the milk, so any
type of milk can be used. In Italy, mozzarella made with the milk
Italian water buffalo
Italian water buffalo is an important variety. The Italian
buffalo mozzarella sold as
Mozzarella di Bufala Campana is protected
under the EU's Protected Designation of Origin scheme and may only be
produced in select locations in the regions of Campania, Lazio, Apulia
Fresh mozzarella is generally white, but may vary seasonally to
slightly yellow depending on the animal's diet. Due to its high
moisture content, it is traditionally served the day after it is
made, but can be kept in brine for up to a week or longer when
sold in vacuum-sealed packages. Low-moisture mozzarella can be kept
refrigerated for up to a month, though some shredded low-moisture
mozzarella is sold with a shelf life of up to six months.
Mozzarella of several kinds is also used for most types of pizza and
several pasta dishes, or served with sliced tomatoes and basil in
3.1 Buffalo's milk
3.2 Cow's milk
3.3 Sheep's milk
3.4 Goat's milk
5 See also
8 External links
Mozzarella, derived from the Neapolitan dialect spoken in Campania, is
the diminutive form of mozza ("cut"), or mozzare ("to cut off")
derived from the method of working. The term is first mentioned in
1570, cited in a cookbook by Bartolomeo Scappi, reading "milk cream,
fresh butter, ricotta cheese, fresh mozzarella and milk". An
earlier reference is also often cited as describing mozzarella.
Historian Monsignor Alicandri, in "Chiesa Metropolitana di Capua,"
states that in the 12th century the Monastery of Saint Lorenzo, in
Capua, offered pilgrims a piece of bread with mozza or provatura.
These are locations rather than products and mozza is taken by some to
Mozzarella, recognised as a Specialità Tradizionale Garantita (STG)
since 1996, is available fresh, usually rolled into a ball of 80
to 100 grams (2.8 to 3.5 oz) or about 6 cm (2.4 in) in
diameter, and sometimes up to 1 kg (2.2 lb) or about
12 cm (4.7 in) diameter. It is soaked in salt water (brine)
or whey, and other times citric acid is added and it is partly dried
(desiccated), its structure being more compact. In this last form it
is often used to prepare dishes cooked in the oven, such as lasagna
When twisted to form a plait mozzarella is called treccia. Mozzarella
is also available in smoked (affumicata) and reduced-moisture,
Ovolini refers to smaller-sized bocconcini, and sometimes to cherry
Several variants have been specifically formulated and prepared for
use on pizza, such as low-moisture
Mozzarella cheese. The
International Dictionary of Food and Cooking defines this cheese as "a
soft spun-curd cheese similar to
Mozzarella made from cow's milk" that
is "[u]sed particularly for pizzas and [that] contains somewhat less
water than real Mozzarella".
Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella, widely used in the food-service
industry, has a low galactose content, per some consumers' preference
for cheese on pizza to have low or moderate browning.[nb 1] Some
pizza cheeses derived from skim mozzarella variants were designed not
to require aging or the use of starter. Others can be made through
the direct acidification of milk.
In Italy, the cheese is produced nationwide using Italian buffalo's
milk under the government's official name
Mozzarella di latte di
Italian buffalo is in all Italian regions. Only
Mozzarella di bufala campana
Mozzarella di bufala campana PDO is a type, made from the
milk of Italian buffalo, raised in designated areas of Campania,
Lazio, Apulia, Molise. Unlike other mozzarellas—50% of whose
production derives from non-Italian and often semi-coagulated
milk—it holds the status of a protected designation of origin
(PDO 1996) under the European Union
Fior di latte (written also as one word), is made from fresh
pasteurized or unpasteurized cow's milk and not water buffalo milk,
which greatly lowers its cost. Outside
Italy "mozzarella" not clearly
labeled as deriving from water buffalo can be presumed to derive from
Mozzarella affumicata means smoked mozzarella.
Mozzarella of sheep milk, sometimes called "mozzarella pecorella", is
typical of Sardinia,
Abruzzo and Lazio, where it is also called
'mozzapecora'. It is worked with the addition of the rennet of
Mozzarella of goat's milk is of recent origin and the producers are
still few; among the reasons for this new production is the need to
offer a kind of mozzarella to those who do not digest cow's milk,
because goat's milk is more digestible.
Cheese, mozzarella, whole milk
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
300 kcal (1,300 kJ)
μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Mozzarella di bufala is traditionally produced solely from the milk of
the Italian Mediterranean buffalo. A whey starter is added from the
previous batch that contains thermophilic bacteria, and the milk is
left to ripen so the bacteria can multiply. Then, rennet is added to
coagulate the milk. After coagulation, the curd is cut into large,
1"–2" pieces, and left to sit so the curds firm up in a process
known as healing.
After the curd heals, it is further cut into 3/8"–1/2" large pieces.
The curds are stirred and heated to separate the curds from the whey.
The whey is then drained from the curds and the curds are placed in a
hoop to form a solid mass. The curd mass is left until the pH is at
around 5.2–5.5, which is the point when the cheese can be stretched
and kneaded to produce a delicate consistency—this process is
generally known as pasta filata. According to the
Mozzarella di Bufala
trade association, "The cheese-maker kneads it with his hands, like a
baker making bread, until he obtains a smooth, shiny paste, a strand
of which he pulls out and lops off, forming the individual
mozzarella." It is then typically formed into cylinder shapes or
in plait. In Italy, a "rubbery" consistency is generally considered
not satisfactory; the cheese is expected to be softer.
List of cheeses
List of Italian products with protected designation of origin
List of smoked foods
List of stretch-cured cheeses
List of water buffalo cheeses
Stracciatella di bufala
Galactose is a type of sugar found in dairy products and other foods
that is less sweet than glucose.
Sugar in foods can lead to
caramelization when they are cooked, which increases their browning.
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^ "Amendment Application Council Regulation (EC) No 510/2006".
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^ "Commission Regulation (EC) No 103/2008". Official Journal of the
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Mozzarella Cheese". Sally's Place. Media Holdings.
Retrieved 1 April 2008.
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Archived from the original on 24 November 2007. Retrieved 1 April
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^ Correll, John. "Chapter 8 – Cheese". The Original Encyclopizza:
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oz". Organic Valley. Retrieved 1 April 2008.
^ Staff. "Mozzarella". Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online. Retrieved 1
^ Charter, David (29 March 2008). "
Buffalo mozzarella in crisis after
pollution fears at Italian farms". The Times. London. Retrieved 1
April 2008. (subscription required)
^ "Define mozzarella Dictionary and Thesaurus".
mozzarella.askdefine.com. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
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registrando una denominazione -
Mozzarella - nell'albo delle
attestazioni di specificità. Gazzetta ufficiale delle Comunità
europee L 317/14 del 26/11/1998.
^ The Essential Fingerfood Cookbook, p. 40.
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production of pizza cheese is now a realistic proposition". Dairy
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Cheese Groups)". Volume 2. Aspen Publishers, Inc. Retrieved 27
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ISBN 1579580572. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
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concentration in pizza cheese prepared by three different culture
techniques". Volume 56, Issue 4. International Journal of Dairy
Technology. pp. 229–232.
doi:10.1046/j.1471-0307.2003.00109.x. Missing or empty url=
^ a b McMahon; (et al.) (5 September 2000). "Manufacture of Lower-fat
Pizza Cheese". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
Retrieved 28 September 2012.
^ Fiore, Roberto (4 June 2009). "Fermiamo il formaggio Frankenstein".
La Stampa (in Italian). Retrieved 1 April 2012.
^ Sardinian quality
^ Latium quality
^ article in 'L'Espresso'
^ Staff. "Campana Buffalo's
Mozzarella di Bufala
Campana Trade Organization. Retrieved 8 May 2007.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mozzarella.
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