Mozilla (stylized as moz://a) is a free software community founded in
1998 by members of Netscape. The
Mozilla community uses, develops,
spreads and supports
Mozilla products, thereby promoting exclusively
free software and open standards, with only minor exceptions. The
community is supported institutionally by the not-for-profit Mozilla
Foundation and its tax-paying subsidiary, the
Mozilla's products include the
Firefox web browser, Thunderbird e-mail
Firefox OS mobile operating system,
Bugzilla bug tracking
system, Gecko layout engine, Pocket "read-it-later-online" service,
1.1 Eich CEO promotion controversy
4 Other activities
Mozilla Location Service
Mozilla Developer Network
4.6 Common Voice
4.7 In Real Life (IRL)
5.1 Local communities
5.3 Conferences and events
6 See also
8 External links
On January 23, 1998,
Netscape made two announcements: first, that
Netscape Communicator would be free; second, that the source code
would also be free. One day later Jamie Zawinski, from Netscape,
registered mozilla.org. The project took its name, "Mozilla", after
the original code-name of the
Netscape Navigator browser — a
portmanteau of "Mosaic and Godzilla", and used to co-ordinate the
development of the
Mozilla Application Suite, the open-source version
of Netscape's internet software,
Netscape Communicator. Jamie
Zawinski says he came up with the name "Mozilla" at a
meeting. A small group of
Netscape employees were tasked with
coordination of the new community.
Mozilla's former logo, as designed by
Shepard Fairey in 1998.
Mozilla aimed to be a technology provider for companies,
such as Netscape, who would commercialize their open-source code.
AOL (Netscape's parent company) greatly reduced its involvement
Mozilla in July 2003, the
Mozilla Foundation was designated the
legal steward of the project. Soon after,
Mozilla deprecated the
Mozilla Suite in favor of creating independent applications for each
function, primarily the
Firefox web browser and the Thunderbird email
client, and moved to supply them directly to the public.
Mozilla's activities have since expanded to include
Firefox on mobile
platforms (primarily Android), a mobile OS called
a web-based identity system called
Mozilla Persona and a marketplace
In a report released in November 2012,
Mozilla reported that their
total revenue for 2011 was $163 million, which was up 33% from
$123 million in 2010.
Mozilla noted that roughly 85% of their
revenue comes from their contract with Google.
At the end of 2013,
Mozilla announced a deal with Cisco Systems
Firefox would download and use a Cisco-provided binary build
of an open source codec to play the proprietary
format. As part of the deal, Cisco would pay any patent
licensing fees associated with the binaries that it distributes.
Mozilla's CTO, Brendan Eich, acknowledged that this is "not a complete
solution" and isn't "perfect". An employee in Mozilla's video
formats team, writing in an unofficial capacity, justified it by
the need to maintain their large user base, which would be necessary
in future battles for truly free video formats.
In December 2013,
Mozilla announced funding for the development of
non-free games through its Game Creator Challenge. However, even
those games that may be released under a non-free software or open
as per the work criteria outlined in the announcement.
In January 2017 the company rebranded away from its dinosaur logo in
favor of a logo that includes a "://" character sequence from a URL,
with the revamped logo: "moz://a".
Eich CEO promotion controversy
On March 24, 2014,
Brendan Eich to the role of CEO.
This led to boycotts and protests from the LGBT community and its
supporters, as Eich previously donated US$1,000 in 2008 in support
of California's Proposition 8, a California ballot proposition and
state constitutional amendment in opposition to same-sex marriage.
Eich's donation first became public knowledge in 2012, while he was
Mozilla’s chief technical officer, leading to angry responses on
Twitter—including the use of the hashtag "#wontworkwithbigots".
Protests also emerged in 2014 following the announcement of Eich's
appointment as CEO of Mozilla. U.S. companies
OkCupid and CREDO Mobile
received media coverage for their objections, with the former asking
its users to boycott the browser, while Credo amassed 50,000
signatures for a petition that called for Eich's resignation.
Due to the controversy, Eich voluntarily stepped down on April 3,
2014 and Mitchell Baker, executive chairwoman of Mozilla
Corporation, posted a statement on the
Mozilla blog: "We didn't move
fast enough to engage with people once the controversy started.
Mozilla believes both in equality and freedom of speech. Equality is
necessary for meaningful speech. And you need free speech to fight for
equality." Eich's resignation promoted a backlash from
conservatives who felt he had been forced out of the company
OkCupid co-founder and CEO
Sam Yagan had also donated $500 to
Chris Cannon who proceeded to vote for multiple
measures viewed as "anti-gay", including the banning of same-sex
marriage. Yagan claims he did not know about Cannon's
stance on gay rights and that his contribution was due to the
candidate being the ranking Republican participating in the House
subcommittee that oversaw Internet and Intellectual Property
Reader comments on articles that were published close to the events
were divided between support for OkCupid's actions and opposition to
them. Supporters claimed the boycott was justified and saw OkCupid's
actions as a firm statement of opposition to intolerance towards the
gay community. Opponents saw OkCupid's actions as hypocritical, since
browse OkCupid's website, and felt that users should not be punished
for the actions of
Mozilla and suspected that OkCupid's actions were a
According to Mozilla's manifesto, which outlines goals,
principles, and a pledge, "The
Mozilla project uses a community-based
approach to create world-class open source software and to develop new
types of collaborative activities". Mozilla's manifesto mentions only
its beliefs in regards to the Internet and Internet privacy, and has
no mention of any political or social viewpoints.
According to the
Mozilla Foundation pledges to support the
Mozilla Manifesto in its
activities. Specifically, we will:
Build and enable open-source technologies and communities that support
the Manifesto’s principles;
Build and deliver great consumer products that support the
Mozilla assets (intellectual property such as copyrights and
trademarks, infrastructure, funds, and reputation) to keep the
Internet an open platform;
Promote models for creating economic value for the public benefit; and
Mozilla Manifesto principles in public discourse and
within the Internet industry.
Main article: Firefox
Firefox is a web browser, and is Mozilla's flagship software product.
It is available in both desktop and mobile versions.
Firefox uses the
Gecko layout engine to render web pages, which implements current and
anticipated web standards. As of late 2015[update],
approximately 10-11% of worldwide usage share of web browsers, making
it the 4th most-used web browser.
Firefox began as an experimental branch of the
Mozilla codebase by
Dave Hyatt, Joe Hewitt and Blake Ross. They believed the commercial
requirements of Netscape's sponsorship and developer-driven feature
creep compromised the utility of the
Mozilla browser. To combat
what they saw as the
Mozilla Suite's software bloat, they created a
stand-alone browser, with which they intended to replace the Mozilla
Firefox was originally named Phoenix but the name was changed so as to
avoid trademark conflicts with Phoenix Technologies. The
initially-announced replacement, Firebird, provoked objections from
the Firebird project community. The current name, Firefox, was
chosen on February 9, 2004.
Firefox Mobile (codenamed Fennec) is the build of the
web browser for devices such as smartphones and tablet computers.
Firefox Mobile uses the same Gecko layout engine as
For example, version 1.0 used the same engine as
Firefox 3.6, and the
following release, 4.0, shared core code with
Firefox 4.0. Its
Firefox Sync, add-ons support and
Firefox Mobile is currently available for Android 4.0.3 and above
devices with an ARMv7 or x86 CPU. Tristan Nitot, president of
Mozilla Europe, has said that it's unlikely that an iPhone or a
BlackBerry version will be released, citing Apple's iTunes Store
application approval policies (which forbid applications competing
with Apple's own, and forbid engines which run downloaded code) and
BlackBerry's limited operating system as the reasons.
Firefox OS (project name: Boot to Gecko also known as B2G) was an open
source operating system in development by
Mozilla that aims to support
HTML5 apps written using "open Web" technologies rather than
platform-specific native APIs. The concept behind
Firefox OS is that
all user-accessible software will be
HTML5 applications, that use Open
Some devices using this OS include Alcatel One Touch Fire, ZTE
Open, and LG Fireweb.
Mozilla announced the end of
development in December 2015.
Thunderbird is a free, open source, cross-platform email and news
client developed by the volunteers of the
On July 16, 2012,
Mitchell Baker announced that Mozilla's leadership
had come to the conclusion that on-going stability was the most
important thing for Thunderbird and that innovation in Thunderbird was
no longer a priority for Mozilla. In that update Baker also suggested
Mozilla had provided a pathway for community to innovate around
Thunderbird if the community chooses.
Main article: SeaMonkey
SeaMonkey (formerly the
Mozilla Application Suite) is a free and open
source cross platform suite of Internet software components including
a web browser component, a client for sending and receiving email and
Usenet newsgroup messages, an
HTML editor (
Mozilla Composer) and the
ChatZilla IRC client.
On March 10, 2005, the
Mozilla Foundation announced that it would not
release any official versions of
Mozilla Application Suite
Mozilla Application Suite beyond
1.7.x, since it had now focused on the standalone applications Firefox
SeaMonkey is now maintained by the SeaMonkey
Council, which has trademarked the
SeaMonkey name with help from the
Mozilla Foundation. The
Mozilla Foundation provides project
hosting for the
Main article: Bugzilla
Bugzilla is a web-based general-purpose bug tracking system, which was
released as open source software by
Netscape Communications in 1998
along with the rest of the
Mozilla codebase, and is currently
stewarded by Mozilla. It has been adopted by a variety of
organizations for use as a bug tracking system for both free and open
source software and proprietary projects and products, including the
Mozilla Foundation, the Linux kernel, GNOME, KDE, Red Hat, Novell,
Eclipse and LibreOffice.
Main article: Network Security Services
Network Security Services (NSS) comprises a set of libraries designed
to support cross-platform development of security-enabled client and
server applications. NSS provides a complete open-source
implementation of crypto libraries supporting SSL and S/MIME. NSS was
previously tri-licensed under the
Mozilla Public License
Mozilla Public License 1.1, the GNU
General Public License, and the GNU Lesser General Public License, but
upgraded to GPL-compatible MPL 2.0.
AOL, Red Hat, Sun Microsystems/Oracle Corporation,
Google and other
companies and individual contributors have co-developed NSS and it is
used in a wide range of non-
Mozilla products including Evolution,
Pidgin, and LibreOffice.
SpiderMonkey is the original
Eich when he invented
It became part of the
Mozilla product family when
Netscape's code-base in 1998. In 2011, Eich transferred the nominal
ownership of the
SpiderMonkey code and project to Dave Mandelin.
SpiderMonkey is a cross-platform engine written in
It comprises an interpreter, several just-in-time compilers, a
decompiler and a garbage collector. Products which embed SpiderMonkey
include Firefox, Thunderbird, SeaMonkey, and many non-Mozilla
Main article: Rhino (
Rhino is an open source
Foundation. It is developed entirely in Java. Rhino converts
Main article: Gecko (layout engine)
Gecko is a layout engine that supports web pages written using HTML,
SVG, and MathML. Gecko is written in
C++ and uses
NSPR for platform
independence. Its source code is licensed under the
Firefox uses Gecko both for rendering web pages and for rendering its
user interface. Gecko is also used by Thunderbird, SeaMonkey, and many
Main article: Rust (programming language)
Rust is a compiled programming language being developed by Mozilla
Research. It is designed for safety, concurrency, and performance.
Rust is intended for creating large and complex software which needs
to be both safe against exploits and fast.
Rust is being used in an experimental layout engine, Servo, which is
Mozilla and Samsung. Servo is not used in any
consumer-oriented browsers yet. However, the Servo project developers
plan for parts of the Servo source code to be merged into Gecko, and
Main article: XULRunner
XULRunner is a software platform and technology experiment by Mozilla,
that allows applications built with the same technologies used by
natively as desktop applications, without requiring
Firefox to be
installed on the user's machine.
XULRunner binaries are available for
the Windows, GNU/Linux and OS X operating systems, allowing such
applications to be effectively cross platform.
Main article: pdf.js
Pdf.js is a library developed by
Mozilla that allows in-browser
rendering of pdf documents using the
is included by default in recent versions of Firefox, allowing the
browser to render pdf documents without requiring an external plugin;
and it is available separately as an extension named "PDF Viewer" for
Firefox for Android, SeaMonkey, and the
Firefox versions which don't
include it built-in. It can also be included as part of a website's
scripts, to allow pdf rendering for any browser that implements the
Main article: Shumway (software)
Shumway is an open source replacement for the Adobe Flash Player,
Mozilla since 2012, using open web technologies as a
Canvas elements to render Flash and execute Actionscript. It is
included by default in
Firefox Nightly and can be installed as an
extension for any recent version of Firefox. The current
implementation is limited in its capabilities to render Flash content
outside simple projects.
Mozilla VR is a team focused on bringing
Virtual reality tools,
specifications, and standards to the open Web.
maintains A-Frame (VR), a web framework for building VR experiences,
and works on advancing
WebVR support within web browsers.
Mozilla Persona was a secure, cross-browser website authentication
mechanism which allows a user to use a single username and password
(or other authentication method) to log into multiple sites.
Mozilla Persona shut down on November 30, 2016.
Mozilla Location Service
Mozilla Location Service
This open source crowdsourced geolocation service was started by
Mozilla in 2013 and offers a free API.
Mozilla Webmaker is Mozilla's educational initiative, Webmaker's goal
is to "help millions of people move from using the web to making the
web." As part of Mozilla’s non-profit mission, Webmaker aims "to
help the world increase their understanding of the web, take greater
control of their online lives, and create a more web literate
Mozilla Developer Network
Mozilla Developer Network
Mozilla maintains a comprehensive developer documentation website
Mozilla Developer Network
Mozilla Developer Network which contains information about
Mozilla-specific information. In addition,
Mozilla publishes a large
number of videos about web technologies and the development of Mozilla
projects on the Air
In July 2017,
Mozilla launched the project Common Voice to help make
voice recognition open to everyone. Visitors to the website can
donate their voice to help build an open-source voice recognition
engine that anyone can use to make apps for devices and the web that
make use of voice recognition. The website allows visitors to read a
sentence to help the machine system learn how real people speak, as
well as validate the read sentences of other people.
In Real Life (IRL)
On June 26, 2017,
Mozilla launched its own podcast named "In Real
Life" (IRL) that explores popular stories from the web that deal with
issues of the internet that affect society as a whole.
Mozilla Community consists of over 40,000 active contributors from
across the globe. It includes both paid employees and
volunteers who work towards the goals set forth in the Mozilla
Manifesto. Many of the sub-communities in
Mozilla have formed around
localization efforts for
Mozilla Firefox, and the
Mozilla spaces, London
There are a number of sub-communities that exist based on their
geographical locations, where contributors near each other work
together on particular activities, such as localization, marketing, PR
and user support.
Mozilla created a Wireless Innovation for Network Security
(WINS) challenge that awarded a total of $2 million in prize money
to innovators who used its decentralized design to create wireless
solutions for post-natural disaster internet access. This challenge
also envisioned to connect communities which lacked internet access.
Mozilla Reps logo
Mozilla Reps program aims to empower and support volunteer
Mozillians who want to become official representatives of
The program provides a simple framework and a specific set of tools to
help Mozillians to organize and/or attend events, recruit and mentor
new contributors, document and share activities, and support their
local communities better.
When joining the program, a
Mozilla Rep agrees to take on the
Mozilla in their country/region
Mozilla Project and its mission
Build on and support existing/future local community efforts and
Inspire, recruit and support new contributors
Support and mentor future
Document clearly all their activities
Conferences and events
Speakers from the
Knight Foundation discuss the future of news at the
Mozilla Festival in London.
Mozilla Festival is an annual event where hundreds of passionate
people explore the Web, learn together and make things that can change
the world. With the emphasis on making—the mantra of the Festival is
"less yack, more hack." Journalists, coders, filmmakers, designers,
educators, gamers, makers, youth and anyone else, from all over the
world, are encouraged to attend, with attendees from more than 40
countries, working together at the intersection between freedom, the
Web, and that years theme.
The event revolves around design challenges which address key issues
based on the chosen theme for that years festival. In previous years
Mozilla Festival has focused on Learning, and Media, with the 2012
festival being based around making. The titles of the festival revolve
around the main theme, freedom (as in freedom of speech not free
beer), and the Web.
MozCamps are the critical part of the Grow
Mozilla initiative which
aims to grow the
Mozilla Community. These camps aim to bring core
contributors from around the world together. They are intensive
multi-day summits that include keynote speeches by
workshops and breakout sessions (led by paid and unpaid staff), and
fun social outings. All of these activities combine to reward
contributors for their hard work, engage them with new products and
initiatives, and align all attendees on Mozilla's mission.
Mozilla Summit was the global event with active contributors and
Mozilla employees to develop a shared understanding of Mozilla's
mission together. Over 2,000 people representing 90 countries and 114
languages gathered in Santa Clara, Toronto and Brussels in 2013.
Mozilla had its last Summit in 2013 and replaced them with smaller
all-hands where both employees and volunteers come together to
Free software portal
Book of Mozilla
Timeline of web browsers
^ For exceptions, see "Values" section below
^ "About the
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^ "Comments on Cisco, Mozilla, and H.264". By endorsing Cisco's plan,
there's no getting around the fact that we've caved on our principles.
That said, principles can't replace being in a practical position to
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^ "Game Creator Challenge -Contest Terms and Conditions". -
submissions to the "amateur" category have to be released as free
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Mozilla Rebrands Itself With A New Logo: No Dinosaurs Involved
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^ "opensecrets.org listing of Sam Yagan's contributions to political
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^ "ontheissues.org listing of votes cast on the permanency of the
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Brendan Eich As CEO Sparks Controversy
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space will confuse the market, especially as browsers and databases
are often used in the same applications
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