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The Mousterian
Mousterian
(or Mode III) is a techno-complex (archaeological industry) of flint lithic tools associated primarily with Neanderthals, as well as with the earliest anatomically modern humans in Eurasia. The Mousterian
Mousterian
largely defines the latter part of the Middle Paleolithic, the middle of the West Eurasian Old Stone Age. It lasted roughly from 160,000 BP to 40,000 BP.

Contents

1 Naming 2 Characteristics 3 Locations 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Naming[edit] The culture was named after the type site of Le Moustier, a rock shelter in the Dordogne
Dordogne
region of France.[3] Similar flintwork has been found all over unglaciated Europe
Europe
and also the Near East
Near East
and North Africa. Handaxes, racloirs and points constitute the industry; sometimes a Levallois technique
Levallois technique
or another prepared-core technique was employed in making the flint flakes.[4] Characteristics[edit] The European Mousterian
Mousterian
is the product of Neanderthals. It existed roughly from 160,000 BP to 40,000 BP.[5] Some assemblages, namely those from Pech de l’Aze, include exceptionally small points prepared using the Levallois technique
Levallois technique
among other prepared core types, causing some researchers to suggest that these flakes take advantage of greater grip strength possessed by Neanderthals.[6] In North Africa
North Africa
and the Near East, Mousterian
Mousterian
tools were also produced by anatomically modern humans. In the Levant, for example, assemblages produced by Neanderthals
Neanderthals
are indistinguishable from those made by Qafzeh type modern humans.[7] Possible variants are Denticulate, Charentian (Ferrassie & Quina) named after the Charente
Charente
region,[8] Typical and the Acheulean Tradition (MTA) - Type-A and Type-B.[9] The industry continued alongside the new Châtelperronian
Châtelperronian
industry during the 45,000-40,000 BP period.[10] Locations[edit]

Mousterian
Mousterian
artifacts have been found in Haua Fteah
Haua Fteah
in Cyrenaica and other sites in Northwest Africa.[11] Contained within a cave in the Syria
Syria
region, along with a Neanderthaloid skeleton.[11] Located in the Haibak
Haibak
valley of Afghanistan.[11] Zagros
Zagros
and Central Iran The archaeological site of Atapuerca, Spain, contains Mousterian objects. Gorham's Cave
Gorham's Cave
in Gibraltar contains Mousterian
Mousterian
objects. Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
has sites of Mousterian
Mousterian
culture, including Teshik-Tash.[11] Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
also has Mousterian
Mousterian
relics.[11] Siberia
Siberia
has many sites with Mousterian
Mousterian
style implements, eg Denisova Cave.[11] Israel is one of the places where remains of both Neandertals and Homo sapiens sapiens have been found in association with Mousterian artifacts.[12] Lynford Quarry
Lynford Quarry
near near Mundford, Norfolk, England
England
has yielded Mousterian
Mousterian
tools

Artistic speculation of the head of the Shanidar 1
Shanidar 1
fossil, a Homo neanderthalensis male who lived circa 70000 BCE discovered in the mid-20th century at the Mousterian
Mousterian
archaeological site Shanidar Cave

Range of Homo neanderthalensis. Mousterian
Mousterian
industries have been found outside this range (e.g., Jordan, Saudi Arabia).

Restoration of Le Moustier
Le Moustier
Homo neanderthalensis
Homo neanderthalensis
by Charles R. Knight

Levallois points

See also[edit]

Neanderthal
Neanderthal
extinction hypotheses Levallois technique

References[edit]

^ Neanderthals: Bone technique redrafts prehistory : Nature News & Comment ^ Currat, Mathias; Excoffier, Laurent (2004). "Modern Humans Did Not Admix with Neanderthals
Neanderthals
during Their Range Expansion into Europe". PLoS Biology. 2 (12): e421. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020421. PMC 532389 . PMID 15562317.  ^ William A. Haviland; Harald E. L. Prins; Dana Walrath; Bunny McBride (24 February 2009). The Essence of Anthropology. Cengage Learning. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-495-59981-4. Retrieved 23 November 2011.  ^ Mark Aldenderfer; Alfred J. Andrea; Kevin McGeough; William E. Mierse; Carolyn Neel (29 April 2010). World History Encyclopedia. Abc-Clio. p. 330. ISBN 978-1-85109-929-0. Retrieved 23 November 2011.  ^ Shaw, Ian; Jameson, Robert, eds. (1999). A Dictionary of Archaeology. Blackwell. p. 408. ISBN 0-631-17423-0. Retrieved 1 August 2016.  ^ Dibble, Harold L.; McPherron, Shannon P. (October 2006). "The Missing Mousterian". Current Anthropology. 47 (5): 777–803. doi:10.1086/506282.  ^ Shea, J. J., 2003: Neandertals [sic], competition and the origin of modern human behaviour in the Levant, Evolutionary Anthropology, 12:173-187. ^ Andrew Lock, Charles R. Peters - Handbook of human symbolic evolution - 906 pages Oxford science publications Wiley-Blackwell, 1999 ISBN 0-631-21690-1 RETRIEVED 2012-01-06 ^ University of Oslo
University of Oslo
P.O. Box 1072 - Blindern-0316 Oslo-Norway email : fa-admin@admin.uio.no. / international@mn.uio.no - Universitetet i Oslo Archived 2012-01-30 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 2012-01-06 ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v512/n7514/full/nature13621.html ^ a b c d e f Langer, William L., ed. (1972). An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 9. ISBN 0-395-13592-3.  ^ Levy, T.(Ed.).(2001). The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land. London : Leicester University Press.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mousterian.

Neanderthals’ Last Stand Is Traced — New York Times
New York Times
article (Published: September 13, 2006)

Preceded by Micoquien Mousterian 600,000 years before present — 40,000 years before present Succeeded by Châtelperronian

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Prehistoric technology

Prehistory

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Technology

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Tools

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Systems

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Oldowan Acheulean Mousterian

Clovis culture Cupstone Fire hardening Gravettian
Gravettian
culture Hafting Hand axe

Grooves

Langdale axe industry Levallois technique Lithic core Lithic reduction

analysis debitage flake

Lithic technology Magdalenian
Magdalenian
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Solutrean
industry Striking platform Tool stone Uniface Yubetsu technique

Other tools

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Neolithic
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Water management

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Causewayed enclosure

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Sweet Track

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Stone Age
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Funeral pyre Gallery grave

transepted wedge-shaped

Grave goods Jar burial Long barrow

unchambered Grønsalen

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Other cultural

Astronomy

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Behavioral modernity Origin of language

trepanning

Prehistoric medicine Evolutionary musicology

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Prehistoric music

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Paleolithic
Paleolithic
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Prehistoric warfare Symbo

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