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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Pliocene
Pliocene
(before Homo )

Lower Paleolithic
Paleolithic
(c. 3.3 Ma – 300 ka )

* Oldowan (2.6–1.7 Ma) * Riwat
Riwat
(1.9–0.045 Ma) * Madrasian Culture (1.5 Ma) * Soanian
Soanian
(0.5–0.13 Ma) * Acheulean
Acheulean
(1.8–0.1 Ma) * Clactonian
Clactonian
(0.3–0.2 Ma)

Middle Paleolithic
Middle Paleolithic
(300–45 ka )

* Mousterian
Mousterian
(150–40 ka) * Micoquien (130–70 ka) * Aterian
Aterian
(82 ka)

Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
(50–10 ka )

* Baradostian (36 ka) * Châtelperronian (45–40 ka) * Aurignacian (43–26 ka) * Gravettian (33–24 ka) * Solutrean (22–17 ka) * Epigravettian
Epigravettian
(20-10 ka) * Magdalenian (17–12 ka) * Hamburg (14–11 ka) * Federmesser (14–13 ka) * Ahrensburg (12–11 ka) * Swiderian (11–8 ka)

Mesolithic Stone Age
Stone Age

mtDNA-based simulation of the species Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
in Europe starting 1600 generations ago. Homo neanderthalensis range in light grey.

The MOUSTERIAN (or MODE III) is a techno-complex (archaeological industry) of flint tools associated primarily with Neanderthals , as well as with the earliest anatomically modern humans in Eurasia. The Mousterian
Mousterian
largely defines the latter part of the Middle Paleolithic
Middle Paleolithic
, the middle of the West Eurasian Old Stone Age
Stone Age
. It lasted roughly from 160,000 BP to 40,000 BP.

CONTENTS

* 1 Naming * 2 Characteristics * 3 Locations * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links

NAMING

The culture was named after the type site of Le Moustier
Le Moustier
, a rock shelter in the Dordogne
Dordogne
region of France
France
. Similar flintwork has been found all over unglaciated Europe
Europe
and also the Near East
Near East
and North Africa . Handaxes , racloirs and points constitute the industry; sometimes a Levallois technique or another prepared-core technique was employed in making the flint flakes.

CHARACTERISTICS

The European Mousterian
Mousterian
is the product of Neanderthals . It existed roughly from 160,000 BP to 40,000 BP . Some assemblages, namely those from Pech de l’Aze, include exceptionally small points prepared using the Levallois technique among other prepared core types, causing some researchers to suggest that these flakes take advantage of greater grip strength possessed by Neanderthals. In North Africa
North Africa
and the Near East
Near East
, Mousterian
Mousterian
tools were also produced by anatomically modern humans . In the Levant
Levant
, for example, assemblages produced by Neanderthals are indistinguishable from those made by Qafzeh type modern humans. It may be an example of acculturation of modern humans by Neanderthals because the culture after 130,000 years reached the Levant
Levant
from Europe
Europe
(the first Mousterian
Mousterian
industry appears there 200,000 BP ) and the modern Qafzeh type humans appear in the Levant another 100,000 years later.

Possible variants are Denticulate, Charentian (Ferrassie ">

Artistic speculation of the head of the Shanidar 1 fossil, a Homo neanderthalensis male who lived circa 70000 BCE discovered in the mid-20th century at the Mousterian
Mousterian
archaeological site Shanidar Cave
Shanidar Cave
*

Range of Homo neanderthalensis . Mousterian
Mousterian
industries have been found outside this range (e.g., Jordan, Saudi Arabia). *

Restoration of Le Moustier
Le Moustier
Homo neanderthalensis by Charles R. Knight *

Levallois points

SEE ALSO

* Neanderthal
Neanderthal
extinction hypotheses * Synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures * Levallois technique

REFERENCES

* ^ Neanderthals: Bone technique redrafts prehistory : Nature News Excoffier, Laurent (2004). "Modern Humans Did Not Admix with Neanderthals during Their Range Expansion into Europe" . PLoS Biology. 2 (12): e421. PMC 532389  . PMID 15562317 . doi :10.1371/journal.pbio.0020421 . * ^ William A. Haviland; Harald E. L. Prins; Dana Walrath; Bunny McBride (24 February 2009). The Essence of Anthropology. Cengage Learning. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-495-59981-4 . Retrieved 23 November 2011. * ^ Mark Aldenderfer; Alfred J. Andrea; Kevin McGeough; William E. Mierse; Carolyn Neel (29 April 2010). World History Encyclopedia. Abc-Clio. p. 330. ISBN 978-1-85109-929-0 . Retrieved 23 November 2011.

* ^ Shaw, Ian; Jameson, Robert, eds. (1999). A Dictionary of Archaeology. Blackwell. p. 408. ISBN 0-631-17423-0 . Retrieved 1 August 2016. * ^ Dibble, Harold L.; McPherron, Shannon P. (October 2006). "The Missing Mousterian". Current Anthropology. 47 (5): 777–803. doi :10.1086/506282 . * ^ Shea, J. J., 2003: Neandertals , competition and the origin of modern human behaviour in the Levant, Evolutionary Anthropology, 12:173-187. * ^ Andrew Lock, Charles R. Peters - Handbook of human symbolic evolution - 906 pages Oxford science publications Wiley-Blackwell, 1999 ISBN 0-631-21690-1 RETRIEVED 2012-01-06 * ^ University of Oslo P.O. Box 1072 - Blindern-0316 Oslo-Norway email : fa-admin@admin.uio.no. / international@mn.uio.no - Universitetet i Oslo. Retrieved 2012-01-06 * ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v512/n7514/full/nature13621.html * ^ A B C D E F Langer, William L., ed. (1972). An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 9. ISBN 0-395-13592-3 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

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