The Info List - Mountain Province

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Mountain Province
Mountain Province
(Filipino: Lalawigang Bulubundukin), is a landlocked province of the Philippines
in the Cordillera Administrative Region
Cordillera Administrative Region
in Luzon. Its capital is Bontoc. Mountain Province
Mountain Province
was formerly referred to as Mountain in some foreign references. The name is usually shortened by locals to Mt. Province. The province was named so for being in the Cordillera Central mountain range found in the upper realms of Luzon
island. Mountain Province
Mountain Province
was also the name of the historical province that included most of the current Cordillera provinces. This old province was established by the Philippine Commission
Philippine Commission
in 1908,[3][4][5] and was later split in 1966 into Mountain Province, Benguet, Kalinga-Apayao and Ifugao.[6][7][8] The province is also known for its mummy caves, which contain naturally mummified bodies, and for its hanging coffins.[6]


1 History

1.1 Spanish period 1.2 American period 1.3 Post-war era

2 Geography

2.1 Administrative divisions

2.1.1 Barangays

3 Demographics

3.1 Religion

4 Tourism 5 Government 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Spanish period[edit] The area of the Cordillera mountains proved difficult to control by the Spaniards. From 1566 to 1665, they sent expeditions to conquer the land but the rugged terrain and hostile indigenous population at the time were major obstacles to complete subjugation.[9] Formerly called La Montañosa by the Spanish colonizers due to its mountainous terrain,[6][10] the area was subdivided into 6 comandancias politico-militar.[11]

The 6 former Comandancias Politico-Militar of La Montañosa [11]

Comandancia Year established Comandancia Year established

Benguet 1846 Amburayan 1889

Lepanto 1852 Kayapa 1891

Bontoc 1859 Cabugaoan 1891

American period[edit] On August 19, 1908, during the American rule, the Philippine Commission enacted Act No. 1876, which organized the entire area of the Cordilleras into one large province, named Mountain Province.[3][5][6][12] The first governor was Samuel Cane, and the town of Bontoc was made the capital. It was originally composed of the sub-provinces of Amburayan, Apayao, Benguet, Lepanto-Bontoc, Ifugao
and Kalinga.[5][10] Amburayan was later abolished in 1920 and its corresponding territories were transferred to the provinces of Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
and La Union. Lepanto was also reduced in size and its towns were integrated into the sub-provinces of Bontoc and Benguet, and to the province of Ilocos Sur.[9][13] [14]

Historical sub-provinces of Mountain Province
Mountain Province
under Act No. 1876[3][5][11][14]

Sub-province Abolished? Notes

Amburayan Yes, in 1920 Territories annexed to Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
and La Union[5][14]

Apayao No

Benguet No Eastern towns annexed to Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
and La Union
La Union
in 1920[14]

Ifugao No

Kalinga No

Lepanto-Bontoc Yes, in 1920 Territories annexed to Ilocos Sur, Bontoc and Benguet[5][14]

The province in 1918

Bontoc sub-province in 1918

Post-war era[edit] Effective on April 7, 1967, Republic Act
Republic Act
No. 4695 abolished the old Mountain Province, converting its sub-provinces into 4 independent provinces: Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga-Apayao
and Mountain Province (corresponding to the former Bontoc sub-province).[6][8][10] On June 15, 1987, the Cordillera Administrative Region
Cordillera Administrative Region
was established upon the issuance of Executive Order 220 by then-President Corazon Aquino, and Mountain Province
Mountain Province
was made one of its provinces.[9][15][16] Geography[edit]

The Chico River with the capital town of Bontoc in the background

Mountain Province
Mountain Province
covers a total area of 2,157.38 square kilometres (832.97 sq mi)[17] occupying the central section of the Cordillera Administrative Region
Cordillera Administrative Region
in Luzon. The province is bordered on the north by Kalinga, south by Ifugao, southwest by Benguet, west by Ilocos Sur, and northwest by Abra. Situated within the Cordillera Central, Mountain Province
Mountain Province
is 83% mountainous while 17% make up hills and levels. The province has many rivers, waterfalls, mountains, and caves. The central and western areas of the province are characterized by rugged mountains and steep cliffs, while the eastern portion has generally sloping terrain.[6][10] Administrative divisions[edit] Mountain Province
Mountain Province
comprises ten municipalities, all encompassed by a lone legislative district.[17]

Municipality [i] Population ±% p.a. Area[17] Density (2015) Brgy.

(2015)[2] (2010)[18]

km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi

17°02′29″N 121°05′57″E / 17.0415°N 121.0993°E / 17.0415; 121.0993 (Barlig) Barlig 7000310000000000000♠3.1% 4,819 5,838 −3.59% 228.64 88.28 21 54 11

16°59′20″N 120°52′04″E / 16.9888°N 120.8679°E / 16.9888; 120.8679 (Bauko) Bauko 7001201000000000000♠20.1% 31,065 30,172 +0.56% 153.00 59.07 200 520 22

17°05′43″N 120°51′22″E / 17.0952°N 120.8560°E / 17.0952; 120.8560 (Besao) Besao 7000460000000099999♠4.6% 7,040 7,818 −1.98% 173.62 67.04 41 110 14

17°05′21″N 120°58′38″E / 17.0891°N 120.9773°E / 17.0891; 120.9773 (Bontoc) Bontoc † 7001159000000000000♠15.9% 24,643 23,980 +0.52% 396.10 152.94 62 160 16

17°06′33″N 121°16′43″E / 17.1092°N 121.2785°E / 17.1092; 121.2785 (Natonin) Natonin 7000660000000000000♠6.6% 10,272 10,048 +0.42% 252.00 97.30 41 110 11

17°10′52″N 121°24′13″E / 17.1812°N 121.4036°E / 17.1812; 121.4036 (Paracelis) Paracelis 7001182000000000000♠18.2% 28,121 26,476 +1.15% 570.16 220.14 49 130 9

17°00′19″N 120°55′22″E / 17.0052°N 120.9228°E / 17.0052; 120.9228 (Sabangan) Sabangan 7000600000000000000♠6.0% 9,315 8,741 +1.22% 72.04 27.81 130 340 15

17°10′07″N 121°01′34″E / 17.1685°N 121.0262°E / 17.1685; 121.0262 (Sadanga) Sadanga 7000570000000000000♠5.7% 8,799 9,181 −0.81% 83.30 32.16 110 280 8

17°05′04″N 120°54′02″E / 17.0844°N 120.9006°E / 17.0844; 120.9006 (Sagada) Sagada 7000720000000000000♠7.2% 11,127 11,244 −0.20% 83.32 32.17 130 340 19

16°59′45″N 120°49′18″E / 16.9957°N 120.8218°E / 16.9957; 120.8218 (Tadian) Tadian 7001125000000000000♠12.5% 19,389 20,689 −1.23% 145.20 56.06 130 340 19

Total 154,590 154,187 +0.05% 2,157.38 832.97 72 190 144

 †  Provincial capital      Municipality

^ The globe  icon marks the town center.

Barangays[edit] Mountain Province
Mountain Province
has 144 barangays comprising its 10 municipalities.[18] As of 2010, the most populous barangay in the province is Poblacion
in the municipality of Paracelis, with a total of 5,687 inhabitants. Balintaugan in the municipality of Bauko has the least population with only 144.[18] Further information: List of barangays in Mountain Province Demographics[edit] The population of Mountain Province
Mountain Province
in the 2015 census was 154,590 people,[2] with a density of 72 inhabitants per square kilometre or 190 inhabitants per square mile.

Population census of Mountain Province

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1990 116,535 —    

1995 130,755 +2.18%

2000 140,631 +1.57%

2007 148,661 +0.77%

2010 154,187 +1.34%

2015 154,590 +0.05%

Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[2][18][19]

Population by ethnicity (2000)[20]




72,694 (7001518000000000000♠51.80%)

Balangao / Baliwon

18,886 (7001134600000000000♠13.46%)


17,234 (7001122800000000000♠12.28%)


6,968 (7000497000000000000♠4.97%)


2,947 (7000210000000000000♠2.10%)


2,510 (7000179000000000000♠1.79%)


2,468 (7000176000000000000♠1.76%)

Other local ethnicity

16,197 (7001115400000099999♠11.54%)

Other foreign ethnicity

22 (6998200000000000000♠0.02%)

Not Reported

413 (6999289990000000000♠0.29%)

An Anglican church in Sagada

Based on the 2000 census survey, Kankana-ey comprised 7001518000000000000♠51.8% (72,694) of the total provincial population of 140,339. Balangao/Baliwon came in second at 7001134600000000000♠13.46% (18,886), and Bontoc at 7001122800000000000♠12.28% (17,234). Other ethnicities were the Ilocano at 7000497000000000000♠4.97% (6,968), Applai at 7000210000000000000♠2.1% (2,947), Binontok at 7000179000000000000♠1.79% (2,510), and Kalinga at 7000176000000000000♠1.76% (2,468).[20] Further information: Kankanaey people, Bontoc people, Balangao people, Igorot people, and Ilocano people Religion[edit] Anglicanism predominates in the province with approximately 60% adherence with the other religions such as Roman Catholicism, Seventh-Day Adventist Church, Iglesia Filipina Indepiendente, Iglesia ni Cristo and Free Believers.[citation needed] Mountain Province
Mountain Province
is the only predominate Protestant province in the Philippines.

Tourism[edit] The province has several rice terraces in seven of its different towns:[10]

Ambasing Rice Terraces — Sagada Bangaan Rice Terraces — Sagada Bangen Rice Terraces — Bauko Barlig Rice Terraces — Barlig Bayyo Rice Terraces — Bontoc Besao Rice Terraces — Besao Bontoc Poblacion
Rice Terraces — Bontoc Bucas Rice Terraces — Besao Bulongan Rice Terraces — Sagada Dalican Rice Terraces — Bontoc Fidelisan Rice Terraces — Sagada Focong Rice Terraces — Sadanga Kapayawan Rice Terraces — Bauko Kiltepan Rice Terraces — Sagada Maligcong Rice Terraces — Bontoc Natonin Rice Terraces — Natonin Sadanga Rice Terraces — Sadanga Suyo Rice Terraces — Sagada Tanulong Rice Terraces — Sagada

The mountainous province also offers excellent mountain climbing experiences with two of its mountains among the top 10 highest points in the Philippines:

Mount Kalawitan, 2,714+msl - Sabangan Mount Amuyao or Mount Finaroy, 2,702+msl - Barlig

rice terraces

Rice terraces in Barlig

Government[edit] List of former governors

2001–2004 — Sario M. Malinias 2004–2010 — Maximo B. Dalog 2010–2016 — Leonard G. Mayaen 2016 — Bonifacio C. Lacwasan Jr. (acting / term until June 30)


^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 23 December 2013.  ^ a b c d Census of Population (2015). Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.  ^ a b c Worcester, Dean C.; Philippine Commission
Philippine Commission
(1908). Seventh Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior to the Philippine Commission for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1908. Manila: U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 17–19. Archived from the original (Digitized by Google
on 23 Nov 2005 (Original file from the University of Michigan)) on 23 Nov 2005. Retrieved 2 January 2015. ( Google
Books link)  ^ Keesing, Felix Maxwell; Keesing, Marie Margaret; Keesing, Marie Martin; Institute of Pacific Relations (contributor); International Research Committee (contributor) (1934). Taming Philippine Headhunters: A Study of Government and of Cultural Change in Northern Luzon. Stanford University Press. p. 69. ISBN 9780804721103. Retrieved 2 January 2015.  ^ a b c d e f Ingles, Raul Rafael (2008). 1908 :The Way it Really was : Historical Journal for the UP Centennial, 1908-2008. Diliman, Quezon
City: University of the Philippines
Press. p. 339. ISBN 9789715425803. Retrieved 22 October 2014.  ^ a b c d e f Lancion, Jr., Conrado M.; de Guzman, Rey (cartography) (1995). "The Provinces". Fast Facts about Philippine Provinces (The 2000 Millenium ed.). Makati, Metro Manila: Tahanan Books. pp. 108–109. ISBN 971-630-037-9. Retrieved 16 January 2015.  ^ "Natural Attractions found in Atok". Province of Benguet. Retrieved 13 August 2013.  ^ a b " Republic Act
Republic Act
No. 4695: An Act Creating the Provinces of Benguet, Mountain Province, Ifugao
and Kalinga-Apayao". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved 22 October 2014.  ^ a b c "Mt. Province". VisitMyPhilippines.com The Ultimate Travel Guide for Tourists. Department of Tourism. Retrieved 23 December 2013.  ^ a b c d e "Facts & Figures: Mountain Province". Philippine Statistics Authority - National Statistical Coordination Board - Cordillera Administrative Region. Archived from the original on 7 February 2018. Retrieved 22 October 2014.  ^ a b c " Benguet
History". Province of Benguet
(official website). Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2014. Benguet
was once part of Mountain Province.  ^ "Act No. 1876". PhilippineLaw.info. 18 August 1908. Retrieved 22 October 2014.  ^ Philippines. Census Office; Buencamino, Felipe; Villamor, Ignacio (1920). Census of the Philippine Islands Taken Under the Direction of the Philippine Legislature in the Year 1918, Volume 1. Bureau of printing. p. 68.  ^ a b c d e " Cordillera Administrative Region
Cordillera Administrative Region
History". Cordillera Connection (Blogspot). 14 August 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2014.  ^ "Regional Profile: Cordillera Administrative Region
Cordillera Administrative Region
(CAR)". CountrySTAT Philippines. Archived from the original on 22 October 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2014.  ^ "The Cordillera Administrative Region
Cordillera Administrative Region
(CAR)". Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 22 October 2014.  ^ a b c "Province: Mountain Province". PSGC Interactive. Quezon
City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 8 January 2016.  ^ a b c d Census of Population and Housing (2010). Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines
and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities (PDF). NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.  ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.  ^ a b " Mountain Province
Mountain Province
– Home of the Kankanais; Table 4. Household Population by Ethnicity and Sex: Mountain Province, 2000". Philippine Statistics Authority. 6 February 2002. Archived from the original on 15 June 2002. Retrieved 27 July 2016. 

External links[edit]

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap ·  Google

Download coordinates as: KML · GPX

Media related to Mountain Province
Mountain Province
at Wikimedia Commons Geographic data related to Mountain Province
Mountain Province
at OpenStreetMap

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Abra Kalinga

Ilocos Sur

Mountain Province


Benguet Ifugao

v t e

Mountain Province

Bontoc (capital)


Barlig Bauko Besao Bontoc Natonin Paracelis Sabangan Sadanga Sagada Tadian


See: List of barangays in Mountain Province

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