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Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
(pronounced: /reɪˈnɪər/), is the highest mountain of the Cascade Range
Cascade Range
of the Pacific Northwest, and the highest mountain in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Washington. It is a large active stratovolcano located 54 miles (87 km) south-southeast of Seattle, in the Mount Rainier National Park. It is the most topographically prominent mountain in the contiguous United States and the Cascade Volcanic
Volcanic
Arc, with a summit elevation of 14,411 ft (4,392 m).[4][5] Mt. Rainier is considered one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world, and it is on the Decade Volcano
Decade Volcano
list.[6] Because of its large amount of glacial ice, Mt. Rainier could produce massive lahars that could threaten the entire Puyallup River
Puyallup River
valley, and poses a grave threat to the southern sections of the 3.7-million-resident Seattle metropolitan area.[7]

Contents

1 Name 2 Geographical setting

2.1 Subsidiary peaks

3 Geology

3.1 Modern activity and the current threat 3.2 Seismic background 3.3 Glaciers

4 Human history 5 Climbing

5.1 Climbing routes 5.2 Dangers and accidents

6 Outdoor recreation 7 Climate 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Name[edit] Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
was first known by the local Salishan speakers as Talol, or Tacoma or Tahoma. One hypothesis of the word origin is [təˡqʷuʔbəʔ] ("mother of waters"), in the Lushootseed language spoken by the Puyallup people.[8] Another hypothesis is that "Tacoma" means "larger than Mount Baker" in Lushootseed: "Ta", larger, plus "Koma (Kulshan)", Mount Baker.[9] Other names originally used include Tahoma, Tacobeh, and Pooskaus.[10] The current name was given by George Vancouver, who named it in honor of his friend, Rear Admiral
Rear Admiral
Peter Rainier.[11] The map of the Lewis and Clark expedition of 1804-1806 refers to it as "Mt. Regniere". Although "Rainier" had been considered the official name of the mountain, Theodore Winthrop, in his posthumously published 1862 travel book The Canoe and the Saddle, referred to the mountain as "Tacoma" and for a time, both names were used interchangeably, although "Mt. Tacoma" was preferred in the city of Tacoma.[12][13] In 1890, the United States Board on Geographic Names
United States Board on Geographic Names
declared that the mountain would be known as "Rainier".[14] Following this in 1897, the Pacific Forest Reserve became the Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
Forest Reserve, and the national park was established three years later. Despite this, there was still a movement to change the mountain's name to "Tacoma" and Congress was still considering a resolution to change the name as late as 1924.[15][16] In the lead up to Super Bowl XLVIII, the Washington State Senate passed a resolution on Friday, January 31, 2014, temporarily renaming the mountain Mount Seattle
Seattle
Seahawks until the midnight after the Super Bowl, Monday, February 3, 2014,[17] in response to the renaming of 53 mountains in Colorado
Colorado
after the 53 members of the Denver Broncos
Denver Broncos
by Governor of Colorado
Colorado
John Hickenlooper.[18] After the 2015 restoration of the original name Denali
Denali
to Mount McKinley in Alaska, debate over Mount Rainier's name intensified.[19] Geographical setting[edit]

Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
behind the Starbucks
Starbucks
corporate HQ clock tower in Seattle, as seen from the Bainbridge Island ferry, with Port of Seattle
Seattle
cranes

Mt Rainier just after taking off from SeaTac

Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
is the highest mountain in Washington and the Cascade Range. This peak is located just east of Eatonville and just southeast of Seattle
Seattle
and Tacoma.[20] Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
is ranked third of the 128 ultra-prominent mountain peaks of the United States. Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
has a topographic prominence of 13,210 ft (4,026 m), which is greater than that of K2, the world's second-tallest mountain, at 13,189 ft (4,020 m).[21] On clear days it dominates the southeastern horizon in most of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area to such an extent that locals sometimes refer to it simply as "the Mountain."[22] On days of exceptional clarity, it can also be seen from as far away as Corvallis, Oregon
Corvallis, Oregon
(at Marys Peak) and Victoria, British Columbia.[23] With 26 major glaciers[24] and 36 sq mi (93 km2) of permanent snowfields and glaciers,[25] Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
is the most heavily glaciated peak in the lower 48 states. The summit is topped by two volcanic craters, each more than 1,000 ft (300 m) in diameter, with the larger east crater overlapping the west crater. Geothermal heat from the volcano keeps areas of both crater rims free of snow and ice, and has formed the world's largest volcanic glacier cave network within the ice-filled craters,[26] with nearly 2 mi (3.2 km) of passages.[27] A small crater lake about 130 by 30 ft (39.6 by 9.1 m) in size and 16 ft (5 m) deep, the highest in North America with a surface elevation of 14,203 ft (4,329 m), occupies the lowest portion of the west crater below more than 100 ft (30 m) of ice and is accessible only via the caves.[28][29] The Carbon, Puyallup, Mowich, Nisqually, and Cowlitz Rivers begin at eponymous glaciers of Mount Rainier. The sources of the White River are Winthrop, Emmons, and Fryingpan Glaciers. The White, Carbon, and Mowich join the Puyallup River, which discharges into Commencement Bay at Tacoma; the Nisqually empties into Puget Sound
Puget Sound
east of Lacey; and the Cowlitz joins the Columbia River
Columbia River
between Kelso and Longview.

A panorama of the south face of Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
viewed from Westside Road, Washington State Route 706

Subsidiary peaks[edit] The broad top of Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
contains three named summits. The highest is called the Columbia Crest. The second highest summit is Point Success, 14,158 ft (4,315 m), at the southern edge of the summit plateau, atop the ridge known as Success Cleaver. It has a topographic prominence of about 138 ft (42 m), so it is not considered a separate peak. The lowest of the three summits is Liberty Cap, 14,112 ft (4,301 m), at the northwestern edge, which overlooks Liberty Ridge, the Sunset Amphitheater, and the dramatic Willis Wall. Liberty Cap has a prominence of 492 ft (150 m), and so would qualify as a separate peak under most strictly prominence-based rules. A prominence cutoff of 400 ft (122 m) is commonly used in Washington state.[30] High on the eastern flank of Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
is a peak known as Little Tahoma Peak, 11,138 ft (3,395 m), an eroded remnant of the earlier, much higher, Mount Rainier. It has a prominence of 858 ft (262 m), and it is almost never climbed in direct conjunction with Columbia Crest, so it is usually considered a separate peak. If considered separately from Mt. Rainier, Little Tahoma Peak would be the third highest mountain peak in Washington.[31][32] Geology[edit]

Hazard map

Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
is a stratovolcano in the Cascade Volcanic Arc
Cascade Volcanic Arc
that consists of lava flows, debris flows, and pyroclastic ejecta and flows. Its early volcanic deposits are estimated at more than 840,000 years old and are part of the Lily Formation (about 2.9 million to 840,000 years ago). The early deposits formed a "proto-Rainier" or an ancestral cone prior to the present-day cone.[33] The present cone is more than 500,000 years old.[34] The volcano is highly eroded, with glaciers on its slopes, and appears to be made mostly of andesite. Rainier likely once stood even higher than today at about 16,000 ft (4,900 m) before a major debris avalanche and the resulting Osceola Mudflow
Osceola Mudflow
approximately 5,000 years ago.[35] In the past, Rainier has had large debris avalanches, and has also produced enormous lahars (volcanic mudflows) due to the large amount of glacial ice present. Its lahars have reached all the way to Puget Sound, a distance of more than 30 mi (48 km). Around 5,000 years ago, a large chunk of the volcano slid away and that debris avalanche helped to produce the massive Osceola Mudflow, which went all the way to the site of present-day Tacoma and south Seattle.[36] This massive avalanche of rock and ice removed the top 1,600 ft (500 m) of Rainier, bringing its height down to around 14,100 ft (4,300 m). About 530 to 550 years ago, the Electron Mudflow
Mudflow
occurred, although this was not as large-scale as the Osceola Mudflow.[37] After the major collapse approximately 5,000 years ago, subsequent eruptions of lava and tephra built up the modern summit cone until about as recently as 1,000 years ago. As many as 11 Holocene
Holocene
tephra layers have been found.[33]

Modern activity and the current threat[edit]

Teide

Nyiragongo

Vesuvius

Etna

Santorini

Unzen

Sakurajima

Taal

Merapi

Ulawun

Mauna Loa

Colima

Santa María

Avachinsky

Koryaksky

Galeras

Rainier

Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
is one of the 16 Decade Volcanoes.

The most recent recorded volcanic eruption was between 1820 and 1854, but many eyewitnesses reported eruptive activity in 1858, 1870, 1879, 1882 and 1894 as well.[38] Although Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
is now dormant, as of 2016[update] Seismic monitors have been located in Mount Rainier National Park
Mount Rainier National Park
and on the mountain itself to monitor activity.[39] However, an eruption could be deadly for all living in areas within the immediate vicinity of the volcano and an eruption would also cause trouble from Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada to San Francisco[40] because of the massive amounts of ash blasting out of the volcano into the atmosphere. Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
is located in an area that itself is part of the eastern rim of the Pacific Ring of Fire. This includes mountains and calderas like Mount Shasta
Mount Shasta
and Lassen Peak
Lassen Peak
in California, Crater Lake, Three Sisters, and Mount Hood
Mount Hood
in Oregon, Mount Saint Helens, Mount Adams, Glacier
Glacier
Peak, and Mount Baker
Mount Baker
in Washington, and Mount Cayley, Garibaldi, Silverthrone, and Mount Meager
Mount Meager
in British Columbia. All of the above are dormant, but alive, and scientists on both sides of the border gather research of the past eruptions of each in order to predict how mountains in this arc will behave and what they are capable of in the future, including Mount Rainier.[41][42] Of these, only two have erupted since the beginning of the twentieth century: Lassen in 1915 and St. Helens in 1980 and 2004. However, past eruptions in this volcanic arc have multiple examples of sub-plinian eruptions or higher: Crater Lake's last eruption as Mount Mazama
Mount Mazama
was large enough to cause its cone to implode,[43] and Mt. Rainier's closest neighbor, Mount St. Helens, had a huge chunk of the side of the mountain blow up in a phreatic explosion caused by a mix of gas and water. Where St. Helens was once perfectly symmetrical there is now, thirty five years later, a huge crater at the top of one face. Statistics place the likelihood of a major eruption in this range at 2-3 per century.[44] Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
is currently listed as a Decade Volcano, or one of the 16 volcanoes with the greatest likelihood of causing great loss of life and property if eruptive activity resumes.[45] If Mt. Rainier were to erupt as powerfully as Mount St. Helens
Mount St. Helens
did in its May 18, 1980 eruption, the effect would be cumulatively greater, because of the far more massive amounts of glacial ice locked on the volcano compared to Mount St. Helens,[37] the vastly more heavily populated areas surrounding Rainier, and the simple fact that Mt Rainier is a much bigger volcano, almost twice the size of St. Helens.[46] Lahars
Lahars
from Rainier pose the most risk to life and property,[47] as many communities lie atop older lahar deposits. According to the United States Geological Survey
United States Geological Survey
(USGS), about 150,000 people live on top of old lahar deposits of Rainier.[7] Not only is there much ice atop the volcano, the volcano is also slowly being weakened by hydrothermal activity. According to Geoff Clayton, a geologist with a Washington State Geology firm, RH2 Engineering, a repeat of the Osceola mudflow would destroy Enumclaw, Orting, Kent, Auburn, Puyallup, Sumner and all of Renton.[36] Such a mudflow might also reach down the Duwamish estuary and destroy parts of downtown Seattle, and cause tsunamis in Puget Sound
Puget Sound
and Lake Washington.[48] Rainier is also capable of producing pyroclastic flows and expelling lava.[48]

One of many emergency evacuation route signs in case of volcanic eruption or lahar around Mt. Rainier

According to K. Scott, a scientist with the USGS:

"A home built in any of the probabilistically defined inundation areas on the new maps is more likely to be damaged or destroyed by a lahar than by fire...For example, a home built in an area that would be inundated every 100 years, on the average, is 27 times more likely to be damaged or destroyed by a flow than by fire. People know the danger of fire, so they buy fire insurance and they have smoke alarms, but most people are not aware of the risks of lahars, and few have applicable flood insurance."[49]

The volcanic risk is somewhat mitigated by lahar warning sirens and escape route signs in Pierce County.[50] The more populous King County is also in the lahar area, but currently has no zoning restrictions due to volcanic hazard.[51] More recently (since 2001) funding from the federal government for lahar protection in the area has dried up, leading local authorities in at-risk cities like Orting to fear a disaster similar to the Armero tragedy.[52][53] Seismic background[edit] Typically, up to five earthquakes are recorded monthly near the summit. Swarms of five to ten shallow earthquakes over two or three days take place from time to time, predominantly in the region of 13,000 feet (4 km) below the summit. These earthquakes are thought to be caused by the circulation of hot fluids beneath Mount Rainier. Presumably, hot springs and steam vents within Mount Rainier National Park are generated by such fluids.[54] Seismic swarms (not initiated with a mainshock) are common features at volcanoes, and are rarely associated with eruptive activity. Rainier has had several such swarms; there were days-long swarms in 2002, 2004, and 2007, two of which (2002 and 2004) included M 3.2 earthquakes. A 2009 swarm produced the largest number of events of any swarm at Rainier since seismic monitoring began over two decades earlier.[55] Yet another swarm was observed in 2011.[56] Glaciers[edit]

Three-dimensional representation of Mount Rainier

Nisqually Glacier
Glacier
is seen clearly from the southeast of the mountain.

Glaciers are among the most conspicuous and dynamic geologic features on Mount Rainier. They erode the volcanic cone and are important sources of streamflow for several rivers, including some that provide water for hydroelectric power and irrigation. Together with perennial snow patches, the 26 major glaciers cover about 36 square miles (93 km2) of the mountain's surface and have a volume of about 1 cubic mile (4.2 km3).[24][25] Glaciers flow under the influence of gravity by the combined action of sliding over the rock on which they lie and by deformation, the gradual displacement between and within individual ice crystals. Maximum speeds occur near the surface and along the centerline of the glacier. During May 1970, Nisqually Glacier
Glacier
was measured moving as fast as 29 inches (74 cm) per day. Flow rates are generally greater in summer than in winter, probably due to the presence of large quantities of meltwater at the glacier base.[25] The size of glaciers on Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
has fluctuated significantly in the past. For example, during the last ice age, from about 25,000 to about 15,000 years ago, glaciers covered most of the area now within the boundaries of Mount Rainier National Park
Mount Rainier National Park
and extended to the perimeter of the present Puget Sound
Puget Sound
Basin.[25] Between the 14th century and 1850, many of the glaciers on Mount Rainier advanced to their farthest extent downvalley since the last ice age. Many advances of this sort occurred worldwide during this time period known to geologists as the Little Ice Age. During the Little Ice Age, the Nisqually Glacier
Glacier
advanced to a position 650 to 800 ft (200 to 240 m) downvalley from the site of the Glacier
Glacier
Bridge, Tahoma and South Tahoma Glaciers merged at the base of Glacier
Glacier
Island, and the terminus of Emmons Glacier
Glacier
reached within 1.2 mi (1.9 km) of the White River Campground.[25] Retreat of the Little Ice Age
Little Ice Age
glaciers was slow until about 1920 when retreat became more rapid. Between the height of the Little Ice Age and 1950, Mount Rainier's glaciers lost about one-quarter of their length. Beginning in 1950 and continuing through the early 1980s, however, many of the major glaciers advanced in response to relatively cooler temperatures of the mid-century. The Carbon, Cowlitz, Emmons, and Nisqually Glaciers advanced during the late 1970s and early 1980s as a result of high snowfalls during the 1960s and 1970s. Since the early-1980s, however, many glaciers have been thinning and retreating and some advances have slowed.[25] The glaciers on Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
can generate mudflows, through glacial outburst floods not associated with any eruption. The South Tahoma Glacier
Glacier
generated 30 floods in the 1980s and early 1990s, and again in August, 2015.[57] Human history[edit]

Artist rendering of Mount Tacoma from Commencement Bay, 1888.[58]

Viewed from the northwest (Tacoma), Liberty Cap is the apparent summit with Mowich Face below.[59]

At the time of European contact, the river valleys and other areas near the mountain were inhabited by many Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
tribes who hunted and gathered berries in its forests and mountain meadows. These included the Nisqually, Cowlitz, Yakama, Puyallup, and Muckleshoot.[citation needed] Captain George Vancouver
George Vancouver
reached Puget Sound
Puget Sound
in early May 1792 and became the first European to see the mountain.[11] In 1833, Dr. William Fraser Tolmie explored the area looking for medicinal plants. Hazard Stevens
Hazard Stevens
and P. B. Van Trump
P. B. Van Trump
received a hero's welcome in the streets of Olympia after their successful summit climb in 1870.[60][61] The first female ascent was made in 1890 by Fay Fuller, accompanied by Van Trump and three other teammates.[62] John Muir
John Muir
climbed Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
in 1888, and although he enjoyed the view, he conceded that it was best appreciated from below. Muir was one of many who advocated protecting the mountain. In 1893, the area was set aside as part of the Pacific Forest Reserve in order to protect its physical and economic resources, primarily timber and watersheds.[63] Citing the need to also protect scenery and provide for public enjoyment, railroads and local businesses urged the creation of a national park in hopes of increased tourism. On March 2, 1899, President William McKinley
William McKinley
established Mount Rainier National Park
Mount Rainier National Park
as America's fifth national park. Congress dedicated the new park "for the benefit and enjoyment of the people"[64] and "... for the preservation from injury or spoliation of all timber, mineral deposits, natural curiosities, or wonders within said park, and their retention in their natural condition."[65] On 24 June 1947, Kenneth Arnold reported seeing a formation of nine unidentified flying objects over Mount Rainier. His description led to the term "flying saucers".[66]

In 1998, the United States Geological Survey
United States Geological Survey
began putting together the Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
Volcano
Volcano
Lahar
Lahar
Warning System to assist in the emergency evacuation of the Puyallup River
Puyallup River
valley in the event of a catastrophic debris flow. It is now run by the Pierce County Department of Emergency Management. Tacoma, at the mouth of the Puyallup, is only 37 mi (60 km) west of Rainier, and moderately sized towns such as Puyallup and Orting are only 27 and 20 mi (43 and 32 km) away, respectively.[67] Mt. Rainier appears on four distinct United States postage stamp issues. In 1934, it was the 3-cent issue in a series of National Park stamps, and was also shown on a souvenir sheet issued for a philatelic convention. The following year, in 1935, both of these were reprinted by Postmaster General James A. Farley as special issues given to officials and friends. Because of complaints by the public, "Farley's Follies" were reproduced in large numbers. The second stamp issue is easy to tell from the original because it is imperforate. Both stamps and souvenir sheets are widely available.[68] The Washington state quarter, which was released on April 11, 2007, features Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
and a salmon.[69][70] Climbing[edit]

Climbers on Ingraham Glacier, above Little Tahoma

Mountain climbing
Mountain climbing
on Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
is difficult, involving traversing the largest glaciers in the U.S. south of Alaska. Most climbers require two to three days to reach the summit, with a success rate of approximately 50%. Climbing teams require experience in glacier travel, self-rescue, and wilderness travel. About 8,000 to 13,000 people attempt the climb each year,[71] about 90% via routes from Camp Muir
Camp Muir
on the southeast flank.[72] Most of the rest ascend Emmons Glacier
Glacier
via Camp Schurman on the northeast. About half of the attempts are successful, with weather and physical conditioning of the climbers being the most common reasons for failure. All climbers who plan to climb above high camps, Camp Muir
Camp Muir
and Camp Schurman, are required by law to purchase a Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
Climbing Pass and register for their climb.[73] Additionally, solo climbers must fill out a solo climbing request form and receive written permission from the Superintendent before attempting to climb.[74] Climbing routes[edit] All climbing routes on Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
require climbers to possess some level of technical climbing skill. This includes ascending and descending the mountain with the use of technical climbing equipment such as crampons, ice axes, harnesses, and ropes. Difficulty and technical challenge of climbing Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
can vary wildly between climbing routes. Routes are graded in NCCS Alpine Climbing format. The normal route to the summit of Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
is the Disappointment Cleaver Route, grade II-III. As climbers on this route have access to the permanently established Camp Muir, it sees the significant majority of climbing traffic on the mountain. This route is also the most common commercially guided route. The term "cleaver" is used in the context of a rock ridge that separates two glaciers. The reason for naming this cleaver a "disappointment" is unrecorded, but it is thought to be due to climbers reaching it only to recognize their inability to reach the summit.[75] An alternative route to the Disappointment Cleaver is the Ingraham Glacier
Glacier
Direct Route, grade II, and is often used when the Disappointment Cleaver route cannot be climbed due to poor route conditions. The Emmons Glacier
Glacier
Route, grade II, is an alternative to the Disappointment Cleaver route and poses a lower technical challenge to climbers. The climbers on the route can make use of Camp Schurman (9,500 ft), a glacial camp site. Unlike Camp Muir, Camp Schurman has no permanent structure, so climbers must carry their overnight equipment to the location.[76] The Liberty Ridge Route, grade IV, was first climbed by Ome Daiber, Arnie Campbell and Jim Burrow in 1935 and is listed as one of the Fifty Classic Climbs of North America
Fifty Classic Climbs of North America
by Steve Roper and Allen Steck. The Liberty Ridge Route is a considerably more challenging and objectively dangerous route than the normal route to the summit. This route only accounts for approximately 2% of climbers on the mountain, but accounts for approximately 25% of deaths on the mountain.[77] The Liberty Ridge Route runs up the center of the North Face of Mount Rainier and crosses the very active Carbon Glacier. Dangers and accidents[edit] About two mountaineering deaths each year occur because of rock and ice fall, avalanche, falls, and hypothermia associated with severe weather (58 reported since and including the 1981 accident through 2010 per American Alpine Club Accidents in North American Mountaineering and the NPS). The worst mountaineering accident on Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
occurred in 1981, when eleven people lost their lives in an ice fall on the Ingraham Glacier.[78] This was the largest number of fatalities on Mount Rainier in a single incident since 32 people were killed in a 1946 plane crash on the South Tahoma Glacier.[79] More recently, the mountain received media attention in 2012, as one of the park rangers lost his life when several climbers were caught in a storm while trying to ascend the mountain. While trying to help load the climbers into a rescue helicopter, the ranger lost his footing, and slid 3,700 feet (1,100 m) to his death.[80][81] In one of the worst disasters on the mountain in over thirty years, six climbers—two guides, and four clients—last heard from on May 28, 2014, were presumed dead on May 31, 2014, when low-flying search helicopters pinged the signals from the avalanche beacons worn by the climbers. Officials concluded that there was no possible chance of survival after the climbers fell 3,300 feet (1,000 m) while attempting or returning from the summit via the Liberty Ridge climbing route. Searchers found tents and clothes along with rock and ice strewn across a debris field on the Carbon Glacier
Glacier
at 9,500 ft (2,900 m), possible evidence for a slide or avalanche in the vicinity where the team went missing, though the exact cause of the accident is unknown.[82] The bodies of three of the guest climbers were spotted on August 7, 2014, during a training flight and subsequently recovered on August 19, 2014. The bodies of the fourth guest climber and two guides have not been located.[83][84] Outdoor recreation[edit] Hiking, backcountry skiing, photography, and camping are popular in the park. Hiking
Hiking
trails, including the Wonderland Trail—a 93-mile or 150-kilometre circumnavigation of the peak—provide access to the backcountry. Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
is also popular for winter sports, including snowshoeing and cross-country skiing.[85] Climate[edit] The summit of Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
has an alpine climate.

Climate data for Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
(14,411 feet; 4,392 m)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °F (°C) 7 (−14) 9 (−13) 11 (−12) 17 (−8) 22 (−6) 26 (−3) 33 (1) 32 (0) 28 (−2) 20 (−7) 14 (−10) 8 (−13) 18.9 (−7.2)

Average low °F (°C) −3 (−19) −2 (−19) −2 (−19) 2 (−17) 6 (−14) 10 (−12) 15 (−9) 14 (−10) 12 (−11) 7 (−14) 2 (−17) −2 (−19) 4.9 (−15)

Source: [86]

See also[edit]

Washington portal Mountains portal Volcanoes portal

Rainier in Reflection Lake

List of mountain peaks of North America

List of mountain peaks of the United States

List of U.S. states by elevation List of the highest major summits of the United States List of the most prominent summits of the United States List of the most isolated major summits of the United States List of volcanoes in the United States

List of highest points in Washington by county

Bailey Willis, USGS geological engineer, played a key role in getting Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
designated as a national park, Willis Wall is named after him.[87]

References[edit]

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Mount Rainier
– Learning to Live with Volcanic
Volcanic
Risk". Fact Sheet 034-02. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2008-10-30.  ^ Clark, Ella E. (2003-02-03). Indian Legends of the Pacific Northwest. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23926-1.  ^ Beckey, Fred (January 2009). Cascade Alpine Guide. Vol.3 (3rd ed.). Mountaineers Books. ISBN 1-59485-136-0.  ^ "Is it time to rename Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
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Mount Rainier
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Seattle
Times.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "The Outdoor World: Mt. Rainier's Name Stands". Recreation. Vol. LVII no. 3. Outdoor World Publishing Company. September 1917. p. 142. OCLC 12010285. Retrieved August 31, 2015 – via Google Books.  ^ Eaton, Nick (2014-02-01). " Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
renamed Mount Seattle Seahawks for Super Bowl XLVIII". The Seahawks Blog. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved 2015-03-12.  ^ Pappas, Stephanie (2014-01-29). "Colorado's Highest Peaks Re-Named After Super Bowl Team". Live Science. Retrieved 2015-03-12.  ^ Seattle
Seattle
Times editorial board (2015-09-01). "After McKinley, it's time to consider renaming Rainier". Seattle
Seattle
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Mount Rainier
Glaciers and Glaciations". United States Geological Survey.  ^ a b c d e f  This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document: Driedger, C.L. "Glaciers on Mount Rainier". Retrieved 2010-04-21. (Open- File
File
Report 92-474).  ^ Zimbelman, D. R.; Rye, R. O.; Landis, G. P. (2000). "Fumaroles in ice caves on the summit of Mount Rainier; preliminary stable isotope, gas, and geochemical studies". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 97 (1–4): 457–473. Bibcode:2000JVGR...97..457Z. doi:10.1016/S0377-0273(99)00180-8.  ^ Sandi Doughton (2007-10-25). "Exploring Rainier's summit steam caves". The News Tribune. Archived from the original on 2012-09-05. Retrieved 2010-10-03.  ^ Kiver, Eugene P.; Mumma, Martin D. (1971). " Summit
Summit
Firn Caves, Mount Rainier, Washington". Science. 173 (3994): 320–322. Bibcode:1971Sci...173..320K. doi:10.1126/science.173.3994.320. PMID 17809214.  ^ Kiver, Eugene P.; Steele, William K. (1975). "Firn Caves in the Volcanic
Volcanic
Craters of Mount Rainier, Washington" (abstract only). The NSS Bulletin. 37 (3): 45–55.  ^ John Roper; Jeff Howbert. "Washington 100 Highest Peaks with 400 feet of prominence". The Northwest Peakbaggers Asylum. Retrieved 2007-03-23.  ^ " Little Tahoma
Little Tahoma
Peak". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2008-11-25.  ^ "Little Tahoma". Mount Rainier
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National Park. Retrieved 2010-09-29.  ^ a b Wood, C.A.; Kienle, J. (1990). Volcanoes of North America: United States and Canada. Cambridge University Press. pp. 158–160. ISBN 0-521-36469-8.  ^ Sisson, T.W. (1995). History and Hazards of Mount Rainier, Washington. United States Geological Survey. Open- File
File
Report 95-642.  ^ Scott, Kevin M.; Vallance, James W. (1993). "History of landslides and Debris Flows at Mount Rainier". Open- File
File
Report 93-111. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2013-12-27.  ^ a b Parchman, F. (2005-10-19). "The Super Flood". Seattle
Seattle
Weekly. Archived from the original on 2007-03-21. Retrieved 2008-01-13.  ^ a b Crandall, D.R. (1971). "Postglacial Lahars
Lahars
From Mount Rainier Volcano, Washington". U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper. 677.  ^ Harris, Stephen L. (2005). "Mount Rainier: America's Most Dangerous Volcano". Fire Mountains of the West (3rd ed.). Missoula, Montana: Mountain Press Publishing Company. pp. 299–334. ISBN 0-87842-511-X.  ^ " Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
Volcano". United States Geological Survey. 2007-04-27. Retrieved 2010-01-22.  ^ Handwerk, Brian (2003-09-25). "Rainier Eruption
Eruption
Odds Low, Impact High, Expert Says". National Geographic Ultimate Explorer.  ^ "Why Have Volcanoes in the Cascades Been So Quiet Lately?". Retrieved 2016-07-17.  ^ "Scientists eye Cascade range volcanoes". Retrieved 2016-07-17.  ^ " Mount Mazama
Mount Mazama
and Crater Lake: Growth and Destruction of a Cascades Volcano". pubs.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2016-07-17.  ^ McNichols, Joshua. "What will happen when Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
erupts?". Retrieved 2016-07-17.  ^ Malone, S.D.; Moran, S.C. (1995). "Mount Rainier, Washington, USA - IAVCEI "Decade Volcano" - Hazards, Seismicity, and Geophysical Studies". IAVCEI conference on volcanic hazard in densely populated regions. Archived from the original on 1997-07-22.  ^ Tucker, Rob (2001-07-23). "Lahar: Thousands live in harm's way". Tacoma News Tribune. Archived from the original on 2012-07-20.  ^ Scott, K.M.; Vallance, J.W.; Pringle, P.T. (1995). "Sedimentology, Behavior, and Hazards of Debris Flows at Mount Rainier, Washington". Geological Survey Professional Paper 1547. United States Geological Survey.  ^ a b Hoblitt, R.P.; J.S. Walder; C.L. Driedger; K.M. Scott; P.T. Pringle; J.W. Vallance (1998). " Volcano
Volcano
Hazards from Mount Rainier, Washington, Revised". Open- File
File
Report 98-428. United States Geological Survey.  ^ " Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
Debris-Flow Maps available from USGS". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2010-09-29.  ^ " Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
Volcano
Volcano
Lahar
Lahar
Warning System".  ^ " Volcanic
Volcanic
Hazard Areas" (PDF). Critical Areas, Stormwater, and Clearing and Grading Ordinances. King County, Washington. Retrieved 2010-05-18.  ^ "Nevado del Ruiz". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2010-06-01.  ^ "Paths of Destruction: The Hidden Threat at Mount Rainier". Geotimes. April 2004. Retrieved 2013-12-27.  ^ The Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
Seismic Network (2006-12-07). "Mount Rainier Seismicity Information". Archived from the original on 2012-07-20. Retrieved 2011-05-28.  ^ Cascades Volcano
Volcano
Observatory (2006-09-23). " Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
Swarm Report". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2011-05-28.  ^ "Spate of quakes around Mount Rainier". The Seattle
Seattle
Times. 2011-10-17. Archived from the original on 2011-10-20.  ^ Doughton, Sandi (2015-08-14). "Rainier melting unleashes 'glacial outbursts' of debris". Seattle
Seattle
Times.  ^ Winsey, H. J. (1888). The Great Northwest. St Paul, MN: Northern News Co. frontispiece.  ^ "Mowich" is the Chinook Jargon
Chinook Jargon
word for "deer". ^ Haines, Aubrey L. (1999) [1962]. Mountain fever : historic conquests of Rainier. Original publisher: Oregon Historical Society; Republished by University of Washington. ISBN 0-295-97847-3.  ^ " Hazard Stevens
Hazard Stevens
photographs, c. 1840s-1918". University of Oregon Libraries Historic Photograph Collections. University of Oregon. March 2006. Retrieved 2008-05-14.  ^ Bragg, Lynn (2010). More than Petticoats: Remarkable Washington Women (2nd ed.). Globe Pequot.  ^ " John Muir
John Muir
and Mount Rainier". Arthur Churchill Warner Photographs. 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-29.  ^ "U.S. Code: Title 16 Chapter 1 Subchapter XI § 91". Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 2008-10-30.  ^ "U.S. Code: Title 16 Chapter 1 Subchapter XI § 92". Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 2008-10-30.  ^ "Kenneth Arnold". history.com.  ^ Driedger, C.L.; Scott, W.E. (2008). " Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
- Living Safely With a Volcano
Volcano
in Your Backyard". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2010-09-30.  ^ "US Stamps - Commemoratives of 1934-1935". stamp-collecting-world.com. Retrieved 23 October 2017.  ^ "Washington State Quarter". Washington State Arts Commission. Archived from the original on 2012-07-20. Retrieved 2010-05-07.  ^ Green, Sara Jean (2007-04-12). "Washington quarter makes debut". The Seattle
Seattle
Times. Retrieved 2007-04-12.  ^ "MORA Climbing Statistics". National Park Service. 2005-07-30. Archived from the original on 2006-01-01.  ^ "Camp Muir, Mount Rainier, Washington". University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections. University of Washington. Retrieved 2007-09-12.  ^ "Mt. Rainier Climbing Pass FAQs". National Park Service. Retrieved 2014-01-25.  ^ "Climbing Mount Rainier" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 2014-02-05.  ^ https://www.nps.gov/mora/planyourvisit/upload/Disappointment-Cleaver-Routebrief-2017_FINAL.pdf ^ "Mount Rainier/Emmons Glacier". The Mountaineers. Retrieved 23 October 2017.  ^ "Liberty Ridge is risky, deadly Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
route". seattletimes.com. 2 June 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2017.  ^ Hatcher, Candy (2000-03-30). "Ghosts of Rainier: Icefall in 1981 entombed 11 climbers". The Seattle
Seattle
Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved 2008-11-09.  ^ "HistoryLink: A Curtis Commando R5C transport plane crashes into Mount Rainier, killing 32 U.S. Marines, on December 10, 1946". HistoryLink.org. 2006-07-29. Retrieved 2008-11-09.  ^ "Ranger plunges to death on Mount Rainier". CNN. 2012-06-22. Retrieved 2013-12-27.  ^ Llanos, Miguel (2012-06-22). "Park ranger falls 3,700 feet to death during Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
rescue". NBC News. Retrieved 2013-12-27.  ^ "6 climbers dead on Mount Rainier". The Seattle
Seattle
Times. Retrieved 2014-05-29.  ^ John de Leon (2014-08-20). "Bodies of 3 missing climbers recovered from Mount Rainier". The Seattle
Seattle
Times. Retrieved 2014-09-02.  ^ Paige Cornwell (2014-08-22). "Bodies of 3 Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
climbers identified". The Seattle
Seattle
Times. Retrieved 2014-09-02.  ^ "Backcountry Skiing Guide to Mount Rainier, Washington". Retrieved 2010-04-10.  ^ "Interesting Weather Statistics for US Mountain Summits". SummitPost. Retrieved 2013-07-07.  ^ "Scientific Exploration Of Mount Rainier". Mount Rainier: Its Human History Associations. National Park Service. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutMount Rainierat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity

Mount Rainier National Park
Mount Rainier National Park
(also used as a reference) " Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
Volcano
Volcano
Lahar
Lahar
Warning System". Volcano
Volcano
Hazards Program. United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 2008-01-19. Retrieved 2008-10-30.  Mt. Rainier Eruption
Eruption
Task Force (pdf) Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
stream drainage Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
Trail Descriptions "Mount Rainier". SummitPost.org. Retrieved 2011-05-07.  Mount Rainier National Park
Mount Rainier National Park
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Doughton, Sandi (2014-09-26), "Under Rainier's crater, a natural laboratory like no other", The Seattle
Seattle
Times : contains images and videos of the summit caves

University of Washington
University of Washington
Libraries, Digital Collections:

Lawrence Denny Lindsley Photographs, Landscape and nature photography of Lawrence Denny Lindsley, including photographs of scenes around Mount Rainier. The Mountaineers Collection, Photographic albums and text documenting the Mountaineers official annual outings undertaken by club members from 1907–1951, includes 3 Mt. Rainier albums (ca. 1912, 1919, 1924). Henry M. Sarvant Photographs, photographs by Henry Mason Sarvant depicting his climbing expeditions to Mt. Rainier and scenes of the vicinity from 1892-1912. Alvin H. Waite Photographs Photographs of Mt. Rainier by Alvin H. Waite, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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The 124 highest major summits of greater North America

Denali Mount Logan Pico de Orizaba Mount Saint Elias Popocatépetl Mount Foraker Mount Lucania Iztaccíhuatl King Peak Mount Bona Mount Steele Mount Blackburn Mount Sanford Mount Wood Mount Vancouver Mount Slaggard Nevado de Toluca Mount Fairweather Mount Hubbard Mount Bear Mount Walsh Mount Hunter La Malinche Mount Whitney Mount Alverstone University Peak Mount Elbert Mount Massive Mount Harvard Mount Rainier Mount Williamson McArthur Peak Blanca Peak La Plata Peak Uncompahgre Peak Crestone Peak Mount Lincoln Castle Peak Grays Peak Mount Antero Mount Evans Longs Peak Mount Wilson White Mountain Peak North Palisade Mount Princeton Mount Yale Mount Shasta Maroon Peak Mount Wrangell Mount Sneffels Capitol Peak Pikes Peak Windom Peak/Mount Eolus Mount Augusta Handies Peak Culebra Peak San Luis Peak Mount of the Holy Cross Nevado de Colima Grizzly Peak Mount Humphreys Mount Keith Mount Strickland Mount Ouray Vermilion Peak Avalanche
Avalanche
Peak Atna Peaks Volcán Tajumulco Regal Mountain Mount Darwin Mount Hayes Mount Silverheels Rio Grande Pyramid Cofre de Perote Gannett Peak Mount Kaweah Grand Teton Mount Cook Mount Morgan Mount Gabb Bald Mountain Mount Oso Mount Jackson Mount Tom Bard Peak West Spanish Peak Mount Powell Hagues Peak Mount Dubois Tower Mountain Treasure Mountain Kings Peak North Arapaho Peak Mount Pinchot Mount Natazhat Mount Jarvis Parry Peak Bill Williams Peak Sultan Mountain Mount Herard Volcán Tacaná West Buffalo Peak Mount Craig Tressider Peak Summit
Summit
Peak Middle Peak/Dolores Peak Antora Peak Henry Mountain Hesperus Mountain Mount Silverthrone Jacque Peak Bennett Peak Wind River Peak Mount Waddington Conejos Peak Mount Marcus Baker Cloud Peak Wheeler Peak Francs Peak Twilight Peak South River Peak Mount Ritter Red Slate Mountain

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The 100 most prominent summits of greater North America

Denali Mount Logan Pico de Orizaba Mount Rainier Volcán Tajumulco Mount Fairweather Chirripó Grande Gunnbjørn Fjeld Mount Blackburn Mount Hayes Mount Saint Elias Mount Waddington Mount Marcus Baker Pico Duarte Mount Lucania Mount Whitney Popocatépetl Mount Shasta Monarch Mountain Shishaldin Volcano Mount Robson Redoubt Volcano Mount Elbert Mount Sir Wilfrid Laurier Nevado de Colima Mount Vancouver Mount Sir Sandford Mount Baker Mount Torbert Pic la Selle Barbeau Peak San Jacinto Peak San Gorgonio Mountain Charleston Peak Pavlof Volcano Mount Veniaminof Mount Adams Skihist Mountain Mount Hubbard Mount Ratz Mount Odin Mount Isto Mount Monashee Iliamna Volcano Mount Olympus Mount Columbia Mount Queen Bess Mount Cook Mount Hood Mount Sanford Mount Tom White Mount Cooper Wheeler Peak Ulysses Mountain Glacier
Glacier
Peak Mount Kimball Blue Mountain Peak Wedge Mountain Otter Mountain Mount Griggs Nevado de Toluca Kwatna Peak Outlook Peak Mount Foraker Golden Hinde White Mountain Peak Mount Crillon Stauning Alper Cerro Teotepec Scud Peak Keele Peak Cloud Peak Gannett Peak Razorback Mountain Mount Vsevidof Mount Odin Cerro el Nacimiento Mount Hesperus Picacho del Diablo Mount Farnham Palup Qaqa HP Mount Bona Oscar Peak Pic Macaya Montaña de Santa Bárbara Mount Assiniboine Mount Jancowski Cerro Las Minas Mount Drum Gladsheim Peak Milne Land
Milne Land
HP Mount Dawson Payers Tinde Beitstad Peak Mount Chiginagak Mount Edith Cavell Alsek Peak Mount Valpy Perserajoq Mount Cairnes

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The 107 most isolated major summits of greater North America

Denali Gunnbjørn Fjeld Pico de Orizaba Mount Whitney Mount Mitchell Mount Washington Mount Rainier Mount Elbert Pico Duarte Chirripó Grande Shishaldin Volcano Barbeau Peak Mount Caubvick Volcán Tajumulco Melville Island HP La Grande Soufrière Tanaga Volcano Avannaarsua HP Mount Isto Cerro San Rafael Mathiassen Mountain Mount Logan Angilaaq Mountain Signal Hill Mount Odin Cerro el Potosí Mount Waddington Melville Hills HP Keele Peak Mount Shasta Perserajoq Mealy Mountains HP Peary Land
Peary Land
HP The Cabox Volcán Everman Greenland Ice Sheet HP Gannett Peak Mont Yapeitso Mount Robson Mount Osborn Mount Igikpak Ulysses Mountain Cerro de Punta Cerro Gordo Pico San Juan Mont Jacques-Cartier Nevado de Colima Sukkertoppen Humphreys Peak Haffner Bjerg Victoria Island HP Wheeler Peak Revaltoppe Kisimngiuqtuq Peak Mount Vsevidof Mont Forel Beitstad Peak Hahn Land
Hahn Land
HP Pico La Laguna Volcán Las Tres Vírgenes Isla Guadalupe HP Mount Veniaminof Picacho del Diablo Cerro el Nacimiento Mount Ratz Hall Island HP Dillingham HP Mount Paatusoq Petermann Bjerg Spruce Knob Blue Mountain Peak Kings Peak Outlook Peak Sierra Blanca Peak Devon Ice Cap
Devon Ice Cap
HP Point 1740 San Gorgonio Mountain Manuel Peak Katahdin Peak 4030 Howson Peak Mount Baldy Borah Peak Sierra Fría Cloud Peak Cerro Mohinora Fox Mountain Cap Mountain Sierra la Madera Black Elk Peak Mount Frank Rae Mount Nirvana Slide Mountain Durham Heights Mount Griggs Charleston Peak Pico Turquino Pic Macaya Junipero Serra Peak Mount Baker Mount Marcy Mont Raoul-Blanchard Mount Marcus Baker Mount Hayes Sacajawea Peak Steens Mountain Mount Fairweather

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Highest Natural Points of U.S. States and Selected Additional Areas

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Additional Areas

American Samoa District of Columbia Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

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 State of Washington

Olympia (capital)

Topics

Cities Towns Census-designated places Federal lands

Indian reservations

History Geography Earthquakes People Music Parks Highways Symbols Tourist attractions

Society

Cannabis Culture Crime Demographics Economy Education Politics

Politics

Government

Law Governors Legislature Legislative districts Senate House Legislative initiatives Popular initiatives Congressional delegation Congressional districts City governments

State agencies

Agriculture Archaeology and Historic Preservation Commerce Corrections Early Learning Ecology Employment Security Enterprise Services Financial Institutions Fish and Wildlife Health Information Services Labor and Industries Licensing Liquor and Cannabis Board Military Natural Resources Parks Institute for Public Policy Public Stadium Authority Public Disclosure Commission Retirement Systems Revenue Services for the Blind Social and Health Services Student Achievement Council Transportation Utilities and Transportation

Regions

Western

Kitsap Peninsula Long Beach Peninsula Olympic Peninsula Puget Sound San Juan Islands Skagit Valley

Eastern/Inland

Central Washington Columbia Plateau Methow Valley Okanogan Country Palouse Yakima Valley

Shared

Cascade Range Columbia Gorge Columbia River

Largest cities

Seattle Spokane Tacoma Vancouver Bellevue Kent Everett Renton Yakima Federal Way Spokane Valley Kirkland Bellingham Kennewick Auburn Pasco Marysville Lakewood Redmond Shoreline Richland

Metropolitan areas

Greater Seattle Greater Spokane Tri-Cities Wenatchee metropolitan area Greater Portland and Vancouver

Counties

Adams Asotin Benton Chelan Clallam Clark Columbia Cowlitz Douglas Ferry Franklin Garfield Grant Grays Harbor Island Jefferson King Kitsap Kittitas Klickitat Lewis Lincoln Mason Okanogan Pacific Pend Oreille Pierce San Juan Skagit Skamania Snohomish Spokane Stevens Thurston Wahkiakum Walla Walla Whatcom Whitman Yakima

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Glaciers of Mount Rainier

Mount Rainier

Carbon Glacier Cowlitz Glacier Edmunds Glacier Emmons Glacier Flett Glacier Fryingpan Glacier Ingraham Glacier Inter Glacier Kautz Glacier Liberty Cap Glacier Nisqually Glacier North Mowich Glacier Ohanapecosh Glacier Paradise Glacier Puyallup Glacier Pyramid Glacier Russell Glacier South Mowich Glacier South Tahoma Glacier Success Glacier Tahoma Glacier Van Trump Glacier Whitman Glacier Wilson Glacier Williwakas Glacier Winthrop Glacier

See also

Glaciers of Mount Adams Glaciers of Mount Baker Glaciers of Glacier
Glacier
Peak Glaciers of the Olympic Mountains

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Cascade Volcanoes

British Columbia

Silverthrone Caldera Franklin Glacier
Glacier
Volcano Mount Meager
Mount Meager
massif Mount Cayley Mount Garibaldi

Washington

Mount Baker Black Buttes Glacier
Glacier
Peak Mount Rainier Goat Rocks Mount St. Helens Mount Adams Indian Heaven

Oregon

Mount Hood Mount Jefferson Three Sisters Broken Top Mount Bachelor Newberry Volcano Diamond Peak Mount Thielsen Mount Mazama
Mount Mazama
(Crater Lake) Yamsay Mountain Mount McLoughlin

California

Medicine Lake Volcano Mount Shasta Mount Tehama Lassen Peak

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Decade Volcanoes

Avachinsky Colima Etna Galeras Koryaksky Mauna Loa Merapi Nyiragongo Rainier Sakurajima Santa María Santorini Taal Teide Ula

.