HOME
The Info List - Mount Ararat


--- Advertisement ---



Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
(/ˈærəˌræt/ ARR-ə-rat;[4] Turkish: Ağrı
Ağrı
Dağı; Armenian: Մասիս, Masis and Արարատ, Ararat) is a snow-capped and dormant compound volcano in the extreme east of Turkey. It consists of two major volcanic cones: Greater Ararat, the highest peak in Turkey
Turkey
and the Armenian plateau with an elevation of 5,137 m (16,854 ft); and Little Ararat, with an elevation of 3,896 m (12,782 ft).[5] The Ararat massif is about 35 km (22 mi) wide at ground base.[6] Despite the scholarly consensus that the "mountains of Ararat" of the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
do not refer to specifically Mt. Ararat, it has been widely accepted in Christianity as the resting place of Noah's Ark. It is the principal national symbol of Armenia
Armenia
and has been considered a sacred mountain by Armenians. It is featured prominently in Armenian literature and art and is an icon for Armenian irredentism. Along with Noah's Ark, it is depicted on the coat of arms of Armenia. The first efforts to reach Ararat's summit were made in the Middle Ages. However, it was not until 1829 when Friedrich Parrot
Friedrich Parrot
and Khachatur Abovian, accompanied by four others, made the first recorded ascent.

Contents

1 Political borders 2 Names and etymology 3 Geography

3.1 Elevation 3.2 Summit
Summit
ice cap

4 Geology

4.1 Geological history 4.2 Recent volcanic and seismic activity

4.2.1 1840 eruption

5 Ascents

5.1 First ascent 5.2 Later notable ascents

6 Resting place of Noah's Ark

6.1 Origins of the tradition 6.2 Prevalence of the legend 6.3 Searches

7 Significance among Armenians

7.1 Symbolism 7.2 Myth of origin 7.3 Coat of arms of Armenia 7.4 Symbol of genocide and territorial claims

8 Cultural depictions

8.1 In visual art

8.1.1 European 8.1.2 Armenian

8.2 In literature

8.2.1 Non-Armenian 8.2.2 Armenian

8.3 In popular culture

8.3.1 In music 8.3.2 In film

9 Places named for Ararat 10 Gallery 11 References

11.1 Notes 11.2 Citations

12 Bibliography

12.1 General works cited in the article 12.2 Specific works on Ararat 12.3 Books on Armenia
Armenia
with Ararat in their titles

13 External links

Political borders Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
forms a near-quadripoint between Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iran. Its summit is located some 16 km (10 mi) west of both the Iranian border and the border of the Nakhchivan exclave of Azerbaijan, and 32 km (20 mi) south of the Armenian border. The Turkish–Armenian–Azerbaijani and Turkish–Iranian–Azerbaijani tripoints are some 8 km apart, separated by a narrow strip of Turkish territory containing the E99 road which enters Nakhchivan at 39°39′19″N 44°48′12″E / 39.6553°N 44.8034°E / 39.6553; 44.8034. From the 16th century until 1828 Great Ararat's summit and the northern slopes, along with the eastern slopes of Little Ararat
Little Ararat
were part of Persia, while the range was part of the Ottoman-Persian border. Following the 1826–28 Russo-Persian War and the Treaty of Turkmenchay, the Persian controlled territory was ceded to the Russian Empire. Little Ararat
Little Ararat
became the point where the Turkish, Persian, and Russian imperial frontiers converged.[7] The current international boundaries were formed throughout the 20th century. The mountain came under Turkish control during the 1920 Turkish–Armenian War.[8] It formally became part of Turkey
Turkey
according to the 1921 Treaty of Moscow and Treaty of Kars.[9] In the late 1920s, Turkey
Turkey
crossed the Iranian border and occupied the eastern flank of Lesser Ararat as part of its effort to quash the Kurdish Ararat rebellion,[10] during which the Kurdish rebels used the area as a safe haven against the Turkish state.[11] Iran
Iran
eventually agreed to cede the area to Turkey
Turkey
in a territorial exchange.[10][12] The Iran- Turkey
Turkey
boundary skirts east of Lesser Ararat, the lower peak of the Ararat massif. Names and etymology

View from the Araratian plain near the city of Artashat, Armenia.

Closeup of Greater Ararat

Closeup of Lesser Ararat

View from Turkey

Ararat (Hebrew: אֲרָרָט‬;[13] Armenian: Արարատ, Ararat; Western Armenian: Ararad) is the Hebrew spelling of Urartu,[14] a kingdom that existed in the Armenian plateau in the 9th–6th centuries BC. The mountain is known as Ararat in European languages.[15][16] However, none of the native peoples have traditionally referred to the mountain by that name.[17] In classical antiquity, particularly in Strabo's Geographica, the peaks of Ararat were known in ancient Greek as Ἄβος (Abos) and Νίβαρος (Nibaros).[a] The traditional Armenian name is Masis (Մասիս [maˈsis]; sometimes transliterated as Massis).[22][17] However, nowadays, the terms Masis and Ararat are both widely, often interchangeably, used in Armenian.[23][b] The folk etymology expressed in Movses Khorenatsi's History of Armenia
Armenia
derives the name from king Amasya, the great-grandson of the legendary Armenian patriarch Hayk, who is said to have called the mountain Masis after himself.[27][28] According to Russian orientalist Anatoly Novoseltsev the word Masis derives from Middle Persian
Middle Persian
masist, "the largest."[29] According to Armenian historian Sargis Petrosyan the mas root in Masis means "mountain", cf. Proto-Indo-European *mņs-.[28] The Turkish name is Ağrı
Ağrı
Dağı [ɑːrɯ dɑ.ɯ], Ottoman Turkish: اغـر طﺎﻍ‎ Ağır Dağ), i.e. "Mountain of Ağrı". Ağrı literally translates to "pain" or "sorrow".[15][29][30][31] This name has been known since the late Middle Ages.[29] Greater and Lesser Ararat are known as Büyük Ağrı
Ağrı
and Küçük Ağrı, respectively. The traditional Persian name is کوه نوح, [ˈkuːhe ˈnuːh], Kūh-e Nūḥ,[7] literally the "mountain of Noah".[15][22] The Kurdish name of the mountain is çiyayê Agirî[32][33] [t͡ʃɪjaːˈje aːgɪˈriː], which translates to "fiery mountain".[34] Geography Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
is located in the Eastern Anatolia Region
Eastern Anatolia Region
of Turkey between the provinces of Ağrı
Ağrı
and Iğdır, near the border with Iran, Armenia
Armenia
and Nakhchivan exclave of Azerbaijan, between the Aras and Murat rivers.[35] Its summit is located some 16 km (10 mi) west of the Turkey- Iran
Iran
border and 32 km (20 mi) south of the Turco-Armenian border. The Ararat plain
Ararat plain
runs along its northwest to western side. Elevation An elevation of 5,165 m (16,946 ft) for Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
is given by some encyclopedias and reference works.[36][37][38][39] However, a number of sources, such as the United States Geological Survey and numerous topographic maps indicate that the alternatively widespread figure of 5,137 m (16,854 ft) is probably more accurate.[40][41] The current elevation may be as low as 5,125 m (16,814 ft) due to the melting of its snow-covered ice cap.[42]

Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
3D

Summit
Summit
ice cap Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
has an ice cap on its summit. Since at least about 1957, it has been shrinking. In the late 1950s, Blumenthal observed that there existed 11 outlet glaciers emerging from a summit snow mass that covered about 10 km2 (3.9 sq mi).[43] At that time, it was found that the present glaciers on the summit of Ararat to extend as low as an elevation of 3,900 meters (12,800 ft) on the north-facing slope, and an elevation of 4,200 meters (13,800 ft) on its south-facing slope.[43] Using pre-existing aerial imagery and remote sensing data, Sarıkaya and others studied the extent of the ice cap on Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
between 1976 and 2011.[32][44] They discovered that this ice cap had shrunk to 8.0 km2 (3.1 sq mi) by 1976 and to 5.7 km2 (2.2 sq mi) by 2011. They calculated that between 1976 and 2011, the ice cap on top of Mount Ararat had lost 29% of its total area at an average rate of ice loss of 0.07 km2 (0.027 sq mi) per year over 35 years. This rate is consistent with the general rates of retreat of other Turkish summit glaciers and ice caps that have been documented by other studies.[44] Blumenthal estimated that the snow line had been as low as 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) in elevation during the Late Pleistocene.[43] Such a snow line would have created an ice cap of 100 km2 (39 sq mi) in extent. However, he observed a lack of any clear evidence of prehistoric moraines other than those which were close to the 1958 glacier tongues. Blumenthal explained the absence of such moraines by the lack of confining ridges to control glaciers, insufficient debris load in the ice to form moraines, and their burial by later eruptions. Years later, Birman observed on the south-facing slopes a possible moraine that extends at least 300 meters (980 ft) in altitude below the base of the 1958 ice cap at an elevation of 4,200 meters (13,800 ft).[45] He also found two morainal deposits that were created by a Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
valley glacier of Pleistocene, possibly Wisconsinan
Wisconsinan
(Last Glacial Maximum) age downvalley from Lake Balık. The higher moraine lies at an altitude of about 2,200 meters (7,200 ft) and the lower moraine lies at an altitude of about 1,800 meters (5,900 ft). The lower moraine occurs about 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) downstream from Lake Balık. Both moraines are about 30 meters (98 ft) high. It is suspected that Lake Balık
Lake Balık
occupies a glacial basin.[45] Geology Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
is a polygenic, compound stratovolcano. Covering an area of 1,100 km2 (420 sq mi), it is the largest volcanic edifice within the region. Along its northwest–southeast trending long axis, Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
is about 45 kilometers (28 mi) long and is about 30 kilometers (19 mi) long along its short axis. It consists of about 1,150 km3 (280 cu mi) of dacitic and rhyolitic pyroclastic debris and dacitic, rhyolitic, and basaltic lavas.[5] Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
consists of two distinct volcanic cones, Greater Ararat and Lesser Ararat (Little Ararat). The western volcanic cone, Greater Ararat, is a steep-sided volcanic cone that is larger and higher than the eastern volcanic cone. Greater Ararat is about 25 kilometers (16 mi) wide at the base and rises about 3 kilometers (1.9 mi) above the adjacent floors of the Iğdir and Doğubeyazıt basins. The eastern volcanic cone, Lesser Ararat, is 3,896 meters (12,782 ft) high and 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) across. These volcanic cones, which lie 13 kilometers (8.1 mi) apart, are separated by a wide north–south-trending crack. This crack is the surface expression of an extensional fault. Numerous parasitic cones and lava domes have been built by flank eruptions along this fault and on the flanks of both of the main volcanic cones.[5] Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
lies within a complex, sinistral pull-apart basin that originally was a single, continuous depression. The growth of Mount Ararat partitioned this depression into two smaller basins, the Iğdir and Doğubeyazıt basins. This pull-apart basin is the result of strike-slip movement along two en-echelon fault segments, the Doğubeyazıt–Gürbulak and Iğdir faults, of a sinistral strike–slip fault system. Tension between these faults, not only formed the original pull-apart basin, but created a system of faults, exhibiting a horsetail splay pattern, that control the position of the principal volcanic eruption centers of Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
and associated linear belt of parasitic volcanic cones. The strike-slip fault system within which Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
located is the result of north–south convergence and tectonic compression between the Arabian Platform and Laurasia
Laurasia
that continued after the Tethys Ocean
Tethys Ocean
closed during the Eocene
Eocene
epoch along the Bitlis–Zagros suture.[5][46][47] Geological history During the early Eocene
Eocene
and early Miocene, the collision of the Arabian platform with Laurasia
Laurasia
closed and eliminated the Tethys Ocean from the area of what is now Anatolia. The closure of these masses of continental crust, collapsed this ocean basin by middle Eocene
Eocene
and resulted in a progressive shallowing of the remnant seas, until the end of the early Miocene. Post-collisional tectonic convergence within the collision zone resulted in the total elimination of the remaining seas from East Anatolia, at the end of early Miocene, crustal shortening and thickening across the collision zone, and uplift of the East Anatolian–Iranian plateau. Accompanying this uplift was extensive deformation by faulting and folding, which resulted in the creation of numerous local basins. The north–south compressional deformation continues today as evidenced by ongoing faulting, volcanism, and seismicity.[5][46][48] Within Anatolia, regional volcanism started middle-late Miocene. During the late Miocene– Pliocene
Pliocene
period, widespread volcanism blanketed the entire East Anatolian–Iranian plateau under thick volcanic rocks. This volcanic activity has continued uninterrupted until historical times. Apparently, it reached a climax during the latest Miocene–Pliocene, 6 to 3 Ma. During the Quaternary, the volcanism became restricted to a few local volcanoes such as Mount Ararat. These volcanoes are typically associated with north–south tensional fractures formed by the continuing the north–south shortening deformation of Anatolia.[5] In their detailed study and summary of the Quaternary
Quaternary
volcanism of Anatolia, Yilmaz et al. recognized four phases to the construction of Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
from volcanic rocks exposed in glacial valleys deeply carved into it flanks.[5] First, they recognized a fissure eruption phase of Plinian-subPlinian fissure eruptions that deposited more than 700 meters (2,300 ft) of pyroclastic rocks and a few basaltic lava flows. These volcanic rocks were erupted from approximately north northwest–south southeast-trending extensional faults and fissures prior to the development of Mount Ararat. Second, a cone-building phase began when the volcanic activity became localized at a point along a fissure. During this phase, the eruption of successive flows of lava up to 150 meters (490 ft) thick and pyroclastic flows of andesite and dacite composition and later eruption of basaltic lava flows, formed the Greater Ararat cone with a low conical profile. Third, during a climatic phase, copious flows of andesitic and basaltic lavas were erupted. During this phase, the current cones of Greater and Lesser Ararat were formed as eruptions along subsidiary fissures and cracks and flank occurred. Finally, the volcanic eruptions at Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
transitioned into a flank eruption phase during which a major north–south-trending fault offset the two cones developed along with a number of subsidiary fissures and cracks on the volcano's flanks. Along this fault and the subsidiary fissures and cracks, a number of parasitic cones and domes were built by minor eruptions. One subsidiary cone erupted voluminous basalt and andesite lava flows. They flowed across the Doğubeyazıt plain and along the southerly flowing Sarısu River. These lava flows formed black ʻaʻā and pāhoehoe lava flows that contain well preserved lava tubes.[5] The radiometric dating of these lava flows yielded radiometric ages of 0.4, 0.48 and 0.81 Ma.[49] Overall, radiometric ages obtained from the volcanic rocks erupted by Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
range from 1.5 to 0.02 Ma.[5] Recent volcanic and seismic activity The chronology of Holocene
Holocene
volcanic activity associated with Mount Ararat is poorly documented. However, either archaeological excavations, oral history, historical records, or a combination of these data provide evidence that volcanic eruptions of Mount Ararat occurred in 2500–2400 BC, 550 BC, possibly in 1450 AD and 1783 AD, and definitely in 1840 AD. Archaeological evidence demonstrates that explosive eruptions and pyroclastic flows from the northwest flank of Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
destroyed and buried at least one Kura–Araxes culture settlement and caused numerous fatalities in 2500–2400 BC. Oral histories indicated that a significant eruption of uncertain magnitude occurred in 550 BC and minor eruptions of uncertain nature might have occurred in 1450 AD and 1783 AD.[50][47][48][51] According to the interpretation of historical and archaeological data, strong earthquakes not associated with volcanic eruptions also occurred the area of Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
in 139, 368, 851–893, and 1319 AD. During the 139 AD earthquake, a large landslide that caused many casualties and was similar to the 1840 AD landslide originated from the summit of Mount Ararat.[47][48][52] 1840 eruption Historical records and oral history document a phreatic eruption on July 2, 1840 and pyroclastic flow from radial fissures on the upper north flank of Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
and a possibly associated earthquake of magnitude 7.4 that caused severe damage and numerous casualties. Up to 10,000 people in the Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
region died in the earthquake, including 1,900 villagers in the village of Akhuri (Armenian: Akori, modern Yenidoğan) who were killed by a gigantic landslide and subsequent debris flow. In addition, this combination of landslide and debris flow destroyed the Armenian monastery of St. Jacob near Akori, the town of Aralik, several villages, and Russian military barracks. It also temporarily dammed the Sevjur (Metsamor) River.[50][47][48][51] Ascents The 13th century missionary William of Rubruck
William of Rubruck
wrote that "Many have tried to climb it, but none has been able."[53] 18th century English theologian Thomas Stackhouse
Thomas Stackhouse
noted that "All the Armenians
Armenians
are firmly persuaded that Noah's ark exists to the present day on the summit of Mount Ararat, and that in order to preserve it, no person is permitted to approach it."[54] In response to its first ascent by Parrot and Abovian, one high-ranking Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
clergyman commented that to climb the sacred mountain was "to tie the womb of the mother of all mankind in a dragonish mode." By contrast, in the 21st century to climb Ararat is "the most highly valued goal of some of the patriotic pilgrimages that are organized in growing number from Armenia
Armenia
and the Armenian diaspora."[55] First ascent

Friedrich Parrot

Khachatur Abovian

The first recorded ascent of the mountain in the modern times took place on 9 October [O.S. 27 September] 1829.[56][57][58][59] The Baltic German naturalist Friedrich Parrot
Friedrich Parrot
of the University of Dorpat arrived at Etchmiadzin in mid-September 1829, almost two years after Russian capture of Erivan, for the single purpose of exploring Ararat.[60] The prominent Armenian writer Khachatur Abovian, then a deacon and translator at Etchmiadzin, was assigned by Catholicos Yeprem, the head of the Armenian Church, as interpreter and guide. Parrot and Abovian crossed the Aras River
Aras River
into the district of Surmali and headed to the Armenian village of Akhuri situated on the northern slope of Ararat 1,220 metres (4,000 ft) above sea level. They set up a base camp at the Armenian monastery of St. Hakob some 730 metres (2,400 ft) higher, at an elevation of 1,943 metres (6,375 ft). After two failed attempts, they reached the summit on their third attempt at 3:15 p.m. on October 9, 1829.[57][61] The group included Parrot, Abovian, two Russian soldiers—Aleksei Zdorovenko and Matvei Chalpanov, and two Armenian Akhuri villagers—Hovhannes Aivazian and Murad Poghosian.[62] Parrot measured the elevation at 5,250 metres (17,220 ft) using a mercury barometer. This was not only the first ascent of Ararat, but also the second highest elevation climbed by man up to that date outside of Mount Licancabur
Licancabur
in the Chilean Andes. Abovian dug a hole in the ice and erected a wooden cross facing north.[63] Abovian also picked up a chunk of ice from the summit and carried it down with him in a bottle, considering the water holy. On 8 November [O.S. 27 October] 1829, Parrot and Abovian together with the Akhuri hunter Sahak’s brother Hako, acting as a guide climbed up Lesser Ararat.[64] Later notable ascents

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: an early account of an ascent of Mount Ararat.

Other early notable climbers of Ararat included Russian climatologist and meteorologist Kozma Spassky-Avtonomov (August 1834), Karl Behrens (1835), German mineralogist and geologist Otto Wilhelm Hermann von Abich (29 July 1845),[65] British politician Henry Danby Seymour (1848).[66] Later in the 19th century, two British scholars on Armenia—James Bryce (1876)[67] and H. F. B. Lynch (1893)[68][69]—climbed the mountain. The first winter climb was by Bozkurt Ergör, the former president of the Turkish Mountaineering Federation, who climbed the peak on 21 February 1970.[70] Resting place of Noah's Ark

Topography of Paradise by Jesuit scholar and polymath Athanasius Kircher as pictured in his book Arca Noë (1675). In the northeast, in the mountains above Armenia
Armenia
stands Mount Ararat, shown with a rectangular-shaped ark on the summit.[71]

Origins of the tradition According to the fourth verse of the eighth chapter of the Book of Genesis (Genesis 8:4), following a flood, Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
landed on the "mountains of Ararat" (Biblical Hebrew: הָרֵי אֲרָרָט‬, hare ararat).[72] Most historians and Bible scholars agree that "Ararat" is the Hebrew name of Urartu, the geographic predecessor of Armenia
Armenia
and referred to the wider region at the time and not the mountain today known as Ararat.[c] Indeed, the phrase is translated as "mountains of Armenia" (montes Armeniae) in the Vulgate, the fourth century Latin
Latin
translation of the Bible.[76] Nevertheless, Mount Ararat is considered the traditional site of the resting place of Noah's Ark.[77] It is therefore called a biblical mountain.[78][79] Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
has been associated with the Genesis flood story since the 11–12th centuries.[74] The local Armenian population began to identify it as the ark's landing place during those centuries.[80] F. C. Conybeare wrote that the mountain was "a center and focus of pagan myths and cults [...] and it was only in the eleventh century, after these had vanished from the popular mind, that the Armenian theologians ventured to locate on its eternal snows the resting-place of Noah's ark."[81] The 13th century Franciscan missionary William of Rubruck is usually considered the earliest reference for the tradition of Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
as the landing place of the ark in European literature.[53][73][82] The 14th century English traveler John Mandeville is another early author who mentioned Mount Ararat, "where Noah's ship rested, and it is still there."[83][84] Prevalence of the legend

Descent of Noah from Ararat by Ivan Aivazovsky
Ivan Aivazovsky
(1889, National Gallery of Armenia) depicts Noah with his family, and a procession of animals, crossing the Ararat plain, following their descent from Mount Ararat, which is seen in the background.[85][86]

Most Christians identify Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
with the biblical "mountains of Ararat," despite the fact that six other landing places have been proposed, "largely because it would have been the first peak to emerge from the receding flood waters."[77] Ararat is where the European tradition and most of Western Christianity
Western Christianity
place the landing of Noah's Ark. According to Spencer and Lienard the tradition "seems to be well entrenched in the Christian world."[82] A 1722 biblical dictionary by Austin Calmet and the 1871 Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary both point to Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
as the place where tradition says the ark rested.[87][88] American missionary H. G. O. Dwight wrote in 1856 that it is "the general opinion of the learned in Europe."[89] James Bryce, while admitting that the biblical passage implies that the ark rested upon a "mountain in the district which the Hebrews knew as Ararat, or Armenia", wrote in an 1878 article for the Royal Geographical Society that the biblical writer must have had Mt. Ararat in mind because it is so "very much higher, more conspicuous, and more majestic than any other summit in Armenia."[67] During his visit to Armenia
Armenia
in 2001 Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
declared in his homily in Yerevan's St. Gregory the Illuminator Cathedral: "We are close to Mount Ararat, where tradition says that the Ark of Noah came to rest."[90] Patriarch Kirill of Moscow, the head of the Russian Orthodox Church, also mentioned Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
as the resting place of Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
in his speech at the Etchmiadzin Cathedral
Etchmiadzin Cathedral
during his visit to Armenia
Armenia
in 2010.[91] Those critical of this view point out that Ararat was the name of the country, not the mountain, at the time when Genesis was written. Arnold wrote in his 2008 Genesis commentary, "The location 'on the mountains' of Ararat indicates not a specific mountain by that name, but rather the mountainous region of the land of Ararat."[14] Searches Ararat has traditionally been the main focus of the searches for Noah's Ark.[77] Augustin Calmet wrote in his 1722 biblical dictionary, "It is affirmed, but without proof, that there are still remains of Noah's ark on the top of this mountain; but M. de Tournefort, who visited this spot, has assured us there was nothing like it; that the top of mount Ararat is inaccessible, both by reason of its great height, and of the snow which perpetually covers it."[87] Archaeological expeditions, sometimes supported by evangelical and millenarian churches, have been conducted since the 19th century in search of the ark.[92] According to a 1974 book around 200 people from more than 20 countries claimed to have seen the Ark on Ararat since 1856.[93] A fragment from the ark supposedly found on Ararat is on display at the museum of Etchmiadzin Cathedral, the center of the Armenian Church.[94] Despite numerous reports of ark sightings (e.g. Ararat anomaly) and rumors, "no scientific evidence of the ark has emerged."[95] Searches for Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
are considered by scholars an example of pseudoarchaeology.[96][97] Kenneth Feder
Kenneth Feder
writes, "As the flood story itself is unsupported by any archaeological evidence, it is not surprising that there is no archaeological evidence for the existence of an impossibly large boat dating to 5,000 years ago."[98] Significance among Armenians Symbolism

Ararat—located some 65 km (40 mi) south of the city–dominates the skyline of Armenia's capital Yerevan.[25][79][99][100]

Hayk, the legendary founding father of the Armenian people, as depicted by Mkrtum Hovnatanian
Hovnatanian
(1779–1846). Ararat is pictured in the background.

Despite lying outside the borders of the modern Republic of Armenia, Ararat has historically been associated with Armenia.[101][102][d] It is widely considered the country's principal national symbol and brand.[106][107] The image of Ararat, usually framed within a nationalizing discourse, is ubiquitous in everyday material culture in Armenia.[108] According to ethnographer Tsypylma Darieva Armenians have "a sense of possession of Ararat in the sense of symbolic cultural property."[109] Ararat is known as the "holy mountain" of the Armenian people.[110][99][111] It was principal to the pre-Christian Armenian mythology, where it was the home of the gods.[112] With the rise of Christianity, the mythology associated with pagan worship of the mountain was lost.[113] Ararat was the geographical center of ancient Armenian kingdoms.[e] One scholar defined the historic Greater Armenia (Major Armenia) as "the area about 200 miles [320 km] in every direction from Mount Ararat."[117] In 19th-century era of romantic nationalism, when an Armenian state did not exist, Mt. Ararat symbolized the historical Armenian nation-state.[118] The First Republic of Armenia, the first modern Armenian state that existed between 1918 and 1920, was sometimes called the Araratian Republic or the Republic of Ararat as it was centered in the Ararat plain.[119][120] Myth of origin The Genesis flood narrative
Genesis flood narrative
was linked to the Armenian myth of origin by the early medieval historian Movses Khorenatsi. In his History of Armenia, he wrote that Noah and his family first settled in Armenia and later moved to Babylon. Hayk, a descendant of Japheth, a son of Noah, revolted against Bel and returned to the area around Mount Ararat, where he established the roots of the Armenian nation. He is thus considered the legendary founding father and the name giver of the Armenian people.[121][122] According to Razmik Panossian, this legend "makes Armenia
Armenia
the cradle of all civilisation since Noah's Ark landed on the 'Armenian' mountain of Ararat. […] it connects Armenians
Armenians
to the biblical narrative of human development. […] it makes Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
the national symbol of all Armenians, and the territory around it the Armenian homeland from time immemorial."[123] Coat of arms of Armenia Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
has been depicted on the coat of arms of Armenia consistently since 1918. The First Republic's coat of arms was designed by architect Alexander Tamanian
Alexander Tamanian
and painter Hakob Kojoyan. This coat of arms was readopted by the legislature of the Republic of Armenia
Armenia
on April 19, 1992, after Armenia
Armenia
regained independence. Ararat is depicted along with the ark on its peak on the shield on an orange background.[124] The emblem of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
(Soviet Armenia) was created by the painters Martiros Saryan
Martiros Saryan
and Hakob Kojoyan
Hakob Kojoyan
in 1921.[125] Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
is depicted in the center and makes up a large portion of it.[126]

First Republic (1918–20)

Soviet Republic (1921–91)

Current Republic (1992–)

Symbol of genocide and territorial claims In the aftermath of the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
of 1915, Ararat came to represent the destruction of the native Armenian population of eastern Turkey
Turkey
(Western Armenia) in the national consciousness of Armenians.[f][128] Ari L. Goldman
Ari L. Goldman
noted in 1988, "In most Armenian homes in the modern diaspora, there are pictures of Mount Ararat, a bittersweet reminder of the homeland and national aspirations."[129] Ararat has become a symbol of Armenian efforts to reclaim its "lost lands", i.e. the areas west of Ararat that are now part of Turkey
Turkey
that had significant Armenian population before the genocide.[130] Adriaans noted that Ararat is featured as a sanctified territory for the Armenians
Armenians
in everyday banal irredentism.[131] Stephanie Platz wrote, "Omnipresent, the vision of Ararat rising above Yerevan
Yerevan
and its outskirts constantly reminds Armenians
Armenians
of their putative ethnogenesis … and of their exile from Eastern Anatolia after the Armenian genocide of 1915."[132]

Lebanese Armenians
Armenians
protesting Turkish Prime Minister Erdoğan's visit to Beirut in November 2010.[133] The poster reads "Ararat is and remains Armenian".

Turkish political scientist Bayram Balci argues that regular references to the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
and Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
"clearly indicate" that the border with Turkey
Turkey
is contested in Armenia.[134] Since independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, the Armenian government has not made official claims to any Turkish territory,[134][135] however the Armenian government has avoided "an explicit and formal recognition of the existing Turkish-Armenian border."[136] In a 2010 interview with Der Spiegel, Armenian President Serzh Sargsyan
Serzh Sargsyan
was asked: "You can see Mount Ararat, Armenia's national symbol, from the windows of your residence. Today, the mountain is inaccessible, on the other side of the Turkish border. Turkey
Turkey
fears demands for land and compensation. Do you want Mount Ararat back?" Sargsyan, in response, said:[137]

No one can take Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
from us; we keep it in our hearts. Wherever Armenians
Armenians
live in the world today, you will find a picture of Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
in their homes. And I feel certain that a time will come when Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
is no longer a symbol of the separation between our peoples, but an emblem of understanding. But let me make this clear: Never has a representative of Armenia
Armenia
made territorial demands. Turkey alleges this—perhaps out of its own bad conscience?

The most prominent party to lay claims to eastern Turkey
Turkey
is the nationalist Armenian Revolutionary Federation
Armenian Revolutionary Federation
(Dashnaktsutyun). which claims it as part of what it considers United Armenia.[138] In various settings, several notable individuals such as German historian Tessa Hofmann,[g] Slovak conservative politician František Mikloško,[h] Lithuanian political scientist and Soviet dissident Aleksandras Štromas[i] have spoken in support of Armenian claims over Mt. Ararat. Cultural depictions

The first stamps issued by independent Armenia
Armenia
in 1992[142]

Ethnographer Levon Abrahamian noted that Ararat is visually present for Armenians
Armenians
in reality (it can be seen from many houses in Yerevan and settlements in the Ararat plain), symbolically (through many visual representations, such as on Armenia's coats of arms), and culturally—in numerous and various nostalgic poetical, political, architectural representation.[143] The first three postage stamps issued by Armenia
Armenia
in 1992 after achieving independence from the Soviet Union depicted Mt. Ararat.[142] Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
has been depicted on various Armenian dram
Armenian dram
banknotes issued in 1993–2001; on the reverse of the 10 dram banknotes issued in 1993, on the reverse of the 50 dram banknotes issued in 1998, on the obverse of the 100 and 500 dram banknotes issued in 1993, and on the reverse of the 50,000 dram banknotes issued in 2001. It was also depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 100 lira banknotes of 1972–1986.[j] Ararat is depicted on the logos of two of Armenia's leading universities—the Yerevan
Yerevan
State University and the American University of Armenia. It is depicted on the logos of Football Club Ararat Yerevan
Yerevan
(since the Soviet times) and the Football Federation of Armenia. The logo of Armavia, Armenia's now defunct flag carrier, also depicted Ararat. The publications of the Social Democrat Hunchakian Party in Lebanon (Ararad daily) and California, U.S. (Massis weekly) are both named for the mountain. The Ararat brandy, produced by the Yerevan
Yerevan
Brandy Company since 1887, is considered the most prestigious Eastern European brandy.[144] Hotels in Yerevan
Yerevan
often advertise the visibility of Ararat from their rooms, which is seen as a major advantage for tourists.[145][146][147] In visual art European Ararat was depicted in the books of European, including many British, and American travelers in the 18th–19th centuries who visited Armenia.

Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, 1718

Robert Ker Porter, 1821

"View of Ararat and the Monastery of Echmiadzin", from the 1846 English translation of Friedrich Parrot's Journey to Ararat

James Bryce, 1877

H. F. B. Lynch, 1901

Armenian According to one source, the first Armenian artist to depict the mountain was Ivan Aivazovsky,[148] who created a painting of Ararat during his visit to Armenia
Armenia
in 1868.[149] Other major Armenians artists who painted Ararat include Yeghishe Tadevosyan, Gevorg Bashinjaghian, Martiros Saryan,[150] and Panos Terlemezian.

Ivan Aivazovsky, Valley of Mount Ararat, 1882

Yeghishe Tadevosyan, Ararat from Ejmiatsin, 1895

Gevorg Bashinjaghian, 1912

Panos Terlemezian, 1929

In literature Rouben Paul Adalian suggested that "there is probably more poetry written about Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
than any other mountain on earth."[113] Travel writer Rick Antonson described Ararat as the "most fabled mountain in the world."[151] Non-Armenian English Romantic poet William Wordsworth
William Wordsworth
imagines seeing the ark in the poem "Sky-prospect — From the Plain of France":[152][153]

Lo! in the burning west, the craggy nape Of a proud Ararat! and thereupon, The Ark, her melancholy voyage done!

In his Journey to Arzrum (Путешествие в Арзрум; 1835–36), the celebrated Russian poet Aleksandr Pushkin recounted his travels to the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Armenia
Armenia
at the time of the Russo-Turkish War (1828–29). He wrote the following about his encounter with Mount Ararat:[154]

I went out of the tent into the fresh morning air. The sun was rising. Against the clear sky one could see a white-snowcapped, twin-peaked mountain. 'What mountain is that?' I asked, stretching myself, and heard the answer: 'That's Ararat.' What a powerful effect a few syllables can have! Avidly I looked at the Biblical mountain, saw the ark moored to its peak with the hope of regeneration and life, saw both the raven and dove, flying forth, the symbols of punishment and reconciliation...

Russian Symbolist poet Valery Bryusov
Valery Bryusov
often referred to Ararat in his poetry and dedicated two poems to the mountain,[k] which were published in 1917. Bryusov saw Ararat as the embodiment of antiquity of the Armenian people and their culture.[155] Russian poet Osip Mandelstam
Osip Mandelstam
wrote fondly of Ararat during his 1933 travels in Armenia. "I have cultivated in myself a sixth sense, an 'Ararat' sense," the poet wrote, "the sense of an attraction to a mountain."[156] During his travels to Armenia, Soviet Russian writer Vasily Grossman observed Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
from Yerevan
Yerevan
standing "high in the blue sky." He wrote that "with its gentle, tender contours, it seems to grow not out of the earth but out of the sky, as if it has condensed from its white clouds and its deep blue. It is this snowy mountain, this bluish-white sunlit mountain that shone in the eyes of those who wrote the Bible."[157] In The Maximus Poems American poet Charles Olson
Charles Olson
(1953), who grew up near the Armenian neighborhood in Worcester, Massachusetts, compares the Ararat Hill near his childhood home to the mountain and "imagines he can capture an Armenian's immigrant perspective: the view of Ararat Hill as Mount Ararat."[158] Armenian Mt. Ararat is featured prominently in Armenian literature. According to Meliné Karakashian, Armenian poets "attribute to it symbolic meanings of unity, freedom, and independence."[159] According to Kevork Bardakjian, in Armenian literature, Ararat "epitomizes Armenia and Armenian suffering and aspirations, especially the consequences of the 1915 genocide: almost total annihilation, loss of a unique culture and land [...] and an implicit determination never to recognize the new political borders."[160] The last two lines of Yeghishe Charents's 1920 poem "I Love My Armenia" (Ես իմ անուշ Հայաստանի) read: "And in the entire world you will not find a mountaintop like Ararat's. / Like an unreachable peak of glory I love my Mount Masis."[161] In a 1926[162] poem dedicated to the mountain Avetik Isahakyan
Avetik Isahakyan
wrote: "Ages as though in second came, / Touched the grey crest of Ararat, / And passed by...! [...] It's now your turn; you too, now, / Stare at its high and lordly brow, / And pass by...!"[163] Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
is the most frequently cited symbol in the poetry of Hovhannes Shiraz.[160] In collection of poems, Knar Hayastani (Lyre of Armenia) published in 1958, there are many poems "with very strong nationalist overtones, especially with respect to Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
(in Turkey) and the irredentism it entailed." In one such poem, "Ktak" (Bequest), Shiraz bequeaths his son Mt. Ararat to "keep it forever, / As the language of us Armenians, as the pillar of your father’s home."[164] The first lines of Paruyr Sevak's 1961 poem "We Are Few..." (Քիչ ենք, բայց հայ ենք) read: "We are few, but they say of us we are Armenians. / We do not think ourselves superior to anyone. / Clearly we shall have to accept / That we, and only we, have an Ararat"[165] In one short poem Silva Kaputikyan
Silva Kaputikyan
compares Armenia
Armenia
to an "ancient rock-carved fortress", the towers of which are Ararat and Aragats. In popular culture In music

"Holy Mountains", the 8th track of the album Hypnotize (2005) by System of a Down, an American rock band composed of four Armenian Americans, "references Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
[...] and details that the souls lost to the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
have returned to rest here."[166] "Here's to You Ararat" is a song from the 2006 album How Much is Yours' of Arto Tunçboyacıyan's Armenian Navy Band.[167]

In film

The 2002 film Ararat by Armenian-Canadian filmmaker Atom Egoyan features Mt. Ararat prominently in its symbolism.[168] The 2011 documentary film Journey to Ararat on Parrot and Abovian's expedition to Ararat was produced in Estonia by filmmaker Riho Västrik.[169][170] It was screened at the Golden Apricot International Film Festival in Yerevan
Yerevan
in 2013.[171]

Places named for Ararat In Armenia, there is a province, two cities (Ararat, Masis), and two villages (Ararat, Masis) named Ararat or Masis. The Turkish province of Ağrı
Ağrı
was named for the mountain (its Turkish name) in 1927, while the city of Karaköse was renamed to Ağrı
Ağrı
in 1946.[172] In the United States, an unincorporated community in North Carolina, a township and mountain in Pennsylvania, and a river in Virginia and North Carolina are named Ararat. In the Australian state of Victoria, there is a city and a rural city named Ararat. 96205 Ararat is an asteroid named in the mountain's honor Gallery

taken from the International Space Station
International Space Station
on 8 July 2011

taken from the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
on 18 March 2001

View of Ararat from Khor Virap, Armenia

View of Ararat with the Khor Virap
Khor Virap
in the front, Armenia

View of Ararat from Iğdır, Turkey

from Doğubeyazıt

from Iğdır

from Nakhchivan

References Notes

^ Strabo, Geographica, XI.14.2 and XI.14.14.[18] They are also transliterated as Abus and Nibarus.[19] Abos and Nibaros are the two peaks of Ararat according to scholars such as Nicholas Adontz,[18] Vladimir Minorsky,[20] Julius Fürst.[21] ^ The peaks are sometimes referred to in plural as Մասիսներ Masisner.[24] Greater Ararat is known as simply Masis or Մեծ Մասիս (Mets Masis, "Great/Big Masis"). While Lesser Ararat is known as Sis (Սիս)[25][26] or Փոքր Մասիս (P′ok′r Masis, "Little/Small Masis").[15][24] ^

Richard James Fischer: "The Genesis text, using the plural "mountains" (or hills), identifies no particular mountain, but points generally toward Armenia
Armenia
("Ararat" being identical with the Assyrian "Urartu") which is broadly embraces that region."[73] Exell, Joseph S.; Spence-Jones, Henry Donald Maurice (eds.). "Genesis". The Pulpit Commentary. It is agreed by all that the term Ararat describes a region.  view online Dummelow, John, ed. (1909). "Genesis". John Dummelow's Commentary on the Bible. Ararat is the Assyrian 'Urardhu,' the country round Lake Van, in what is now called Armenia
Armenia
[...] and perhaps it is a general expression for the hilly country which lay to the N. of Assyria. Mt. Masis, now called Mt. Ararat (a peak 17,000 ft. high), is not meant here.  view online Bill T. Arnold: "Since the ancient kingdom of Ararat/ Urartu
Urartu
was much more extensive geographically than this isolated location in Armenia, modern attempts to find remaints of Noah's ark here are misguided."[74] Vahan Kurkjian: "It has long been the notion among many Christians that Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
came to rest as the Flood subsided upon the great peak known as Mount Ararat; this assumption is based upon an erroneous reading of the 4th verse of the VIIIth chapter of Genesis. That verse does not say that the Ark landed upon Mount Ararat, but upon "the mountains of Ararat." Now, Ararat was the Hebrew version of the name, not of the mountain but of the country around it, the old Armenian homeland, whose name at other times and in other tongues appears variously as Erirath, Urartu, etc."[75]

^ Armenians
Armenians
have been called the "people of Ararat" by authors of at least two books.[103][104] Italian diplomat and historian Luigi Villari wrote in 1906: "Almost the whole history of the Armenian people centres round Mount Ararat."[105] ^ "...Mt. Ararat, which was the geographical center of the ancient Armenian kingdoms..."[114]

"The sacred mountain stands in the center of historical and traditional Armenia..."[115] "To the Armenians
Armenians
it is the ancient sanctuary of their faith, the centre of their once famous kingdom, hallowed by a thousand traditions."[116]

^ "The lands of Western Armenia
Armenia
which Mt. Ararat represent..."[118] "mount Ararat is the symbol of banal irredentism for the territories of Western Armenia"[127] ^ Hofmann suggested that "the return of the ruins of Ani
Ani
and of Mount Ararat [by Turkey
Turkey
to Armenia], both in the immediate border area could be considered as a convincing gesture of Turkey's apologies and will for reconciliation."[139] ^ Mikloško stated at a 2010 conference on Turkey's foreign policy: " Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
[represents the] Christian heritage of Armenians. Does modern Turkey
Turkey
consider the possibility of giving the mount back to Armenians? The return of Ararat would be an unprecedented step to signify Turkey’s willingness to build a peaceful future and promote its image at the international scene."[140] ^ Štromas wrote: "The Armenians
Armenians
would also be right to claim from Turkey
Turkey
the Ararat Valley, which is an indivisible part of the Armenian homeland containing the main spiritual center and supreme symbol of Armenia's nationhood, the holy Mountain of Ararat itself."[141] ^ Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey. Banknote Museum: 6. Emission Group – One Hundred Turkish Lira – I. Series, II. Series & III. Series. ^ "К Арарату" ("To Ararat") and "Арарат из Эривани" ("Ararat from Erivan")

Citations

^ "100 World Mountains ranked by primary factor". ii.uib.no. Institutt for informatikk University of Bergen.  ^ Bjørstad, Petter E. (August 2007). "Ararat Trip Report,". ii.uib.no. University of Bergen. Archived from the original on 21 October 2017.  ^ " Ağrı
Ağrı
Dağı Milli Parkı [ Ağrı
Ağrı
Dağı National Park]". ormansu.gov.tr (in Turkish). Republic of Turkey
Turkey
Ministry of Forest and Water Management.  ^ "Ararat". Merriam-Webster. ˈer-ə-ˌrat, ˈa-rə- ; "Ararat". Collins Dictionary. ˈærəˌræt  ^ a b c d e f g h i Yilmaz, Y.; Güner, Y.; Saroğlu, F. (1998). "Geology of the quaternary volcanic centres of the east Anatolia". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 85: 173–210. Bibcode:1998JVGR...85..173Y. doi:10.1016/s0377-0273(98)00055-9.  ^ Short, Nicholas M.; Blair, Robert W., eds. (1986). "Mt. Ararat, Turkey". Geomorphology From Space: A Global Overview of Regional Landforms. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. p. 226.  ^ a b de Planhol, X. (1986). "Ararat". Encyclopædia Iranica.  ^ Hovannisian, Richard G. (1973). " Armenia
Armenia
and the Caucasus
Caucasus
in the Genesis of the Soviet-Turkish Entente". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 4 (2): 129. doi:10.1017/s0020743800027409. JSTOR 162238. ...Nationalist Turkey
Turkey
annexed the Surmalu district, embracing Mount Ararat, the historic symbol of the Armenian people.  ^ de Waal, Thomas (2015). Great Catastrophe: Armenians
Armenians
and Turks in the Shadow of Genocide. Oxford University Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0199350698.  ^ a b Parrot 2016, p. xxiii. ^ Yildiz, Kerim; Taysi, Tanyel B. (2007). The Kurds
Kurds
in Iran: The Past, Present and Future. London: Pluto Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-0745326696.  ^ Tsutsiev, Arthur (2014). Atlas of the Ethno-Political History of the Caucasus. Translated by Nora Seligman Favorov. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-0300153088.  ^ Frymer, Tikva S.; Sperling, S. David (2008). "Ararat, Armenia". Encyclopaedia Judaica (2nd ed.).  view online ^ a b Arnold 2008, p. 104. ^ a b c d Hewsen, Robert H. (2001). "Armenia: The Physical Setting—Mt. Ararat". Armenia: A Historical Atlas. University of Chicago Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-226-33228-4.  ^ Smith, Eli (1832). "Foreign Correspondence". The Biblical Repository and Classical Review: 203. ...called by the Armenians, Masis, and by Europeans generally Ararat...  ^ a b Bryce 1877, p. 198. ^ a b Petrossyan 2010, p. 220. ^ Jones, Horace Leonard, ed. (1928). "XI.14". The Geography of Strabo. Harvard University Press.  view Book XI, Chapter 14 online ^ Minorsky, V. (1944). "Roman and Byzantine Campaigns in Atropatene". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 11 (2): 259. JSTOR 609312. Although what Strabo
Strabo
means by Abos seems to be the southern spurs of Mt. Ararat...  ^ Julius Fürst
Julius Fürst
cited in Exell, Joseph; Jones, William; Barlow, George; Scott, W. Frank; et al. (1892). The Preacher's Complete Homiletical Commentary.  "...the present Aghri Dagh or the great Ararat (Pers. Kuhi Nuch, i.e. Noah's mountain, in the classics ὁ ἄβος, Armen. massis)..." (Furst.) view online ^ a b Jastrow Jr., Morris; Kent, Charles Foster (1902). "Ararat". Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
Volume II. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Co. p. 73. The mountain itself is known as Ararat only among Occidental geographers. The Armenians
Armenians
call it Massis, the Turks Aghri Dagh, and the Persians Koh i Nuh, or "the mountain of Noah."  view online ^ Avetisyan, Kamsar (1979). Հայրենագիտական էտյուդներ [Armenian studies sketches] (in Armenian). Yerevan: Sovetakan grogh. p. 14. Հայերը Արարատը անվանում են Մասիս... 

"Պատմություն [History]" (in Armenian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Armenia. Բարձրավանդակի գրեթե կենտրոնում վեր է հառնում աստվածաշնչյան Արարատ (Մասիս) լեռը... 

^ a b "Մասիսներ [Masisner]". encyclopedia.am (in Armenian).  ^ a b Peroomian, Rubina (2007). "Historical Memory: Threading the Contemporary Literature of Armenia". In Hovannisian, Richard. The Armenian Genocide: Cultural and Ethical Legacies. Transaction Publishers. p. 113. ISBN 9781412835923. ...the majestic duo of Sis and Masis (the two peaks of Mount Ararat) that hover above the Erevan landscape are constant reminders of the historical injustice.  ^ Delitzsch, Franz (2001). New Commentary on Genesis. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 274. ISBN 978-1-57910-813-7. The Armenians call Little Ararat
Little Ararat
sis and Great Ararat masis, whence it seems that great, the meaning of meds, is contained in ma.  ^ Khorenatsi 1978, p. 91. ^ a b Petrossyan 2010, p. 221. ^ a b c Novoseltsev 1978. ^ Dalton, Robert H. (2004). Sacred Places of the World: A Religious Journey Across the Globe. Abhishek. p. 133. ISBN 9788182470514. The Turkish name for Mt Ararat is Agri Dagi (which means mountain of pain).  ^ McCarta, Robertson (1992). Turkey
Turkey
(2nd ed.). Nelles. p. 210. ISBN 9783886184019. (Turkish: Agri Dagi, "Mount of Sorrows")  ^ a b Sarıkaya, Mehmet Akif (2012). "Recession of the ice cap on Mount Ağrı
Ağrı
(Ararat), Turkey, from 1976 to 2011 and its climatic significance". Journal of Asian Earth Sciences. 46: 190–194. Bibcode:2012JAESc..46..190S. doi:10.1016/j.jseaes.2011.12.009.  ^ "Xortekî tirk dixwaze bi bîsîklêtê xwe ji çiyayê Agirî berde xwarê" (in Kurdish). Rudaw Media Network. 19 June 2014.  ^ Waugh, Alexander (27 August 2008). "Will he, won't He? Ararat by Frank Westerman, translated by Sam Garrett". The Spectator.  ^ " Ağrı
Ağrı
– Mount Ararat". Republic of Turkey
Turkey
Ministry of culture and tourism (kultur.gov.tr). 2005. ^ Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary (3rd ed.). Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster. 2001. p. 63. ISBN 9780877795469.  ^ Haggett, Peter, ed. (2002). "Turkey". Encyclopedia of World Geography: The Middle East (2nd ed.). Marshall Cavendish. p. 2026. ISBN 978-0-7614-7289-6.  ^ Hartemann, Frederic; Hauptman, Robert (2005). The Mountain Encyclopedia. Lanham, Maryland: Taylor Trade. p. 17. ISBN 0-8108-5056-7.  ^ Galichian, Rouben (2004). Historic Maps of Armenia: The Cartographic Heritage. I.B. Tauris. p. 26. ISBN 1-86064-979-3.  ^ Kurter, Ajun (20 May 1988). "Glaciers of the Middle East and Africa: Turkey" (PDF). United States Geological Survey
United States Geological Survey
Professional Paper. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Maps of Ararat - Ararat Map, Turkey
Turkey
(Agri Dagi)". turkeyodyssey.com. Terra Anatolia. Archived from the original on 2007-02-25.  ^ According to Petter E. Bjørstad, Head of Informatics Department at the University of Bergen
University of Bergen
(Norway). "Ararat Trip Report,". ii.uib.no. August 2007. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. I measured the summit elevation, averaging more than 300 samples in my GPS, it settled on 5132 meter, 5 meter lower than the often quoted 5137 figure. This clearly shows that the 5165 meter elevation that many sources use is wrong. The summit is a snow ridge with no visible rock anywhere. Thus, the precise elevation will change with the seasons and could definitely be influenced by climate change (global warming). Later GPS measurements in Iran
Iran
suggested that the GPS data may be about 10 meter too high also in this part of the world. This would in fact point in the direction of a true Ararat elevation around 5125 meter.  ^ a b c Blumenthal, M. M. (1958). "Vom Agrl Dag (Ararat) zum Kagkar Dag. Bergfahrten in nordostanatolischen Grenzlande". Die Alpen (in German). 34: 125–137.  ^ a b Sarıkaya, Mehmet Akif; Tekeli, A. E. (2014). "Satellite inventory of glaciers in Turkey". In J. S. Kargel; et al. Global Land Ice Measurements from Space. New York: Springer-Verlag. pp. 465–480. ISBN 978-3540798170. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ a b Birman, J. H. (1968). "Glacial Reconnaissance in Turkey". Geological Society of America
Geological Society of America
Bulletin. 79 (8): 1009–1026. Bibcode:1968GSAB...79.1009B. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1968)79[1009:GRIT]2.0.CO;2.  ^ a b Dewey, J. F.; Hempton, M. R.; Kidd, W. S. F.; Saroglum, F.; Sengὃr, A. M. C. (1986). "Shortening of continental lithosphere: the neotectonics of Eastern Anatolia – a young collision zone". In Coward, M. P.; Ries, A. C. Collision Tectonics. Geological Society of London. pp. 3–36.  ^ a b c d Karakhanian, A.; Djrbashian, R.; Trifonov, V.; Philip, H.; Arakelian, S.; Avagian, A. (2002). "Holocene–Historical Volcanism and Active Faults as Natural Risk Factor for Armenia
Armenia
and Adjacent Countries". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 113 (1): 319–344. Bibcode:2002JVGR..113..319K. doi:10.1016/s0377-0273(01)00264-5.  ^ a b c d Karakhanian, A.S.; Trifonov, V.G.; Philip, H.; Avagyan, A.; Hessami, K.; Jamali, F.; Bayraktutan, M. S.; Bagdassarian, H.; Arakelian, S.; Davtian, V.; Adilkhanyan, A. (2004). "Active faulting and natural hazards in Armenia, Eastern Turkey
Turkey
and North-Western Iran". Tectonophysics. 380 (3–4): 189–219. Bibcode:2004Tectp.380..189K. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2003.09.020.  ^ Allen, Mark B.; Mark, Darren F.; Kheirkhah, Monireh; Barfod, Dan; Emami, Mohammad H.; Saville, Christopher (2011). "40Ar/39Ar dating of Quaternary
Quaternary
lavas in northwest Iran: constraints on the landscape evolution and incision rates of the Turkish–Iranian plateau". Geophysical Journal International. 185 (3): 1175–1188. Bibcode:2011GeoJI.185.1175A. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246x.2011.05022.x.  ^ a b Siebert, L., T. Simkin, and P. Kimberly (2010) Volcanoes of the world, 3rd ed. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. 551 pp. ISBN 978-0-520-26877-7. ^ a b Haroutiunian, R. A. (2005). "Катастрофическое извержение вулкана Арарат 2 июля 1840 года [Catastrophic eruption of volcano Ararat on 2 july, 1840]". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia: Earth Sciences (in Russian). Armenian National Academy of Sciences. 58 (1): 27–35. ISSN 0515-961X.  ^ Taymaz, Tuncay; Eyidog̃an, Haluk; Jackson, James (1991). "Source parameters of large earthquakes in the East Anatolian fault zone (Turkey)". Geophysical Journal International. 106 (3): 537–550. Bibcode:1991GeoJI.106..537T. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246x.1991.tb06328.x.  ^ a b William of Rubruck
William of Rubruck
(1998). The Journey of William of Rubruck
William of Rubruck
to the Eastern Parts of the World, 1253–55. Translated by W. W. Rockhill. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 269–270. ISBN 978-81-206-1338-6. [...] mountains in which they say that Noah's ark rests; and there are two mountains, the one greater than the other; and the Araxes flows at their base [...] Many have tried to climb it, but none has been able. [...] An old man gave me quite a good reason why one ought not to try to climb it. They call the mountain Massis [...] "No one," he said, "ought to climb up Massis; it is the mother of the world."  ^ Stackhouse, Thomas (1836). A History of the Holy Bible. Glasgow: Blackie and Son. p. 93.  ^ Siekierski, Konrad (2014). ""One Nation, One Faith, One Church": The Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
and the Ethno-Religion in Post-Soviet Armenia". In Agadjanian, Alexander. Armenian Christianity Today: Identity Politics and Popular Practice. Ashgate Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-4724-1273-7.  ^ Parrot 2016, p. 139 ^ a b Randveer, Lauri. "How the Future Rector Conquered Ararat". University of Tartu.  ^ Khachaturian, Lisa (2011). Cultivating Nationhood in Imperial Russia: The Periodical Press and the Formation of a Modern Armenian Identity. Transaction Publishers. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-4128-1372-3.  ^ Milner, Thomas (1872). The Gallery of Geography: A Pictorial and Descriptive Tour of the World, Volume 2. W.R. M'Phun & Son. p. 783. Great Ararat was ascended for the first time by Professor Parrot, October 9, 1829...  ^ Giles, Thomas (27 April 2016). "Friedrich Parrot: The man who became the 'father of Russian mountaineering'". Russia Beyond the Headlines. Retrieved 19 April 2017.  ^ Ketchian, Philip K. (December 24, 2005). "Climbing Ararat: Then and Now". The Armenian Weekly. 71 (52). Archived from the original on September 8, 2009. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ Parrot 2016, p. 142. ^ Parrot 2016, p. 141-142. ^ Parrot 2016, p. 183. ^ Fairbairn, Patrick (1866). "Ararat". The Imperial Bible-Dictionary: Historical, Biographical, Geographical and Doctrinal – Volume I. p. 119.  ^ Polo, Marco; Yule, Henry (2010). The Book of Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian: Concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-108-02206-4.  ^ a b Bryce, James (1878). "On Armenia
Armenia
and Mount Ararat". Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society
Royal Geographical Society
of London. London: Royal Geographical Society. 22 (3): 169–186. doi:10.2307/1799899. JSTOR 1799899.  ^ Lynch, H. F. B. (1893). "The ascent of Ararat". The Geographical Journal. 2: 458.  ^ Lynch, H. F. B. (1901). Armenia, travels and studies. Volume I: The Russian Provinces. London: Longmans, Green, and Co. p. 176.  ^ "Conquering the legendary Mount Ararat". Hürriyet Daily News. 15 January 2006.  ^ Spar, Ira (2003). "The Mesopotamian Legacy: Origins of the Genesis tradition". In Aruz, Joan. Art of the First Cities: The Third Millennium B.C. from the Mediterranean to the Indus. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 488. ISBN 978-1-58839-043-1.  ^ Morgenstern, Julian (1941). "Psalm 48". Hebrew Union College Annual. Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion. 16: 68. JSTOR 23502992. Note the plural, hare 'Ararat; not "Mt. Ararat," as traditionally translated and interpreted, but rather "(one of) the mountains of Ararat," i. e. of Urartu
Urartu
or Armenia.  ^ a b Richard James Fischer (2007). "Mount Ararat". Historical Genesis: From Adam to Abraham. University Press of America. pp. 109–111. ISBN 9780761838074.  ^ a b Arnold 2008, p. 105. ^ Kurkjian, Vahan (1964) [1958]. A History of Armenia. New York: Armenian General Benevolent Union
Armenian General Benevolent Union
of America. p. 2.  ^ Room, Adrian (1997). Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings. McFarland. p. 34. ISBN 9780786401727.  ^ a b c Vos, Howard F. (1982). "Flood (Genesis)". In Bromiley, Geoffrey W. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: E-J (fully revised ed.). Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 319. ISBN 0-8028-3782-4.  ^ Tremblais, Jean-Louis (16 July 2011). "Ararat, montagne biblique". Le Figaro
Le Figaro
(in French). 

"Biblical mountain's glaciers shrinking". News24. 8 August 2010. 

^ a b Avagyan, Ṛafayel (1998). Yerevan—heart of Armenia: meetings on the roads of time. Union of Writers of Armenia. p. 17. The sacred biblical mountain prevailing over Yerevan
Yerevan
was the very visiting card by which foreigners came to know our country.  ^ Bailey, Lloyd R. (1990). "Ararat". In Mills, Watson E.; Bullard, Roger Aubrey. Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-86554-373-7. ...the local (Armenian) population called Masis and which they began to identify as the ark's landing place in the eleventh-twelfth centuries.  ^ Conybeare, F. C. (1901). "Reviewed Work: Ararat und Masis. Studien zur armenischen Altertumskunde und Litteratur by Friedrich Murad". The American Journal of Theology. 5 (2): 335–337. doi:10.1086/477703. JSTOR 3152410. Masis was anyhow a center and focus of pagan myths and cults, which the author enumerates; and it was only in the eleventh century, after these had vanished from the popular mind, that the Armenian theologians ventured to locate on its eternal snows the resting-place of Noah's ark.  ^ a b Spencer, Lee; Lienard, Jean Luc (2005). "The Search for Noah's Ark". Southwestern Adventist University.  (archived) ^ Mandeville, John (2012). The Book of Marvels and Travels. Translated by Anthony Bale. Oxford University Press. p. 70. ISBN 9780199600601. ...there's another mountain called Ararat; the Jews call this Thano, where Noah's ship rested, and it is still there. One can glimpse it from afar in clear weather, and the mountain is seven miles high.  ^ Mandel, Jerome (2013). "Ararat, Mount". In Friedman, John Block; Figg, Kristen Mossler. Trade, Travel, and Exploration in the Middle Ages: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-135-59094-9.  ^ "Նոյն իջնում է Արարատից (1889) [Descent of Noah from Ararat (1889)]" (in Armenian). National Gallery of Armenia.  ^ Conway Morris, Roderick (24 February 2012). "The Key to Armenia's Survival". The New York Times.  ^ a b original title: Dictionnaire historique, critique, chronologique, geographique et literal de la Bible. English translation: Calmet, Augustin (1830). "Ararat". Calmet's Dictionary of the Holy Bible: With the Biblical Fragments, Volume 1. Charles Taylor (translator). London: Holdsworth and Ball. p. 178–179.  "...a famous mountain in Armenia, on which the ark is said to have rested, after the deluge." ^ Jamieson, Robert; Fausset, Andrew Robert; Brown, David (1871). Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible.  view Genesis 8:4 commentary online "...mountain which tradition points to as the one on which the ark rested." ^ Dwight 1856, p. 189: "The mountain on which, according to ancient Armenian tradition, and the general opinion of the learned in Europe, the ark of Noah rested after the deluge, is called in Armenian Masis, and in Turkish Aghur Dagh..." ^ "Homily of John Paul II". vatican.va. Holy See. 26 September 2001. Archived from the original on 19 December 2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Приветственная речь Святейшего Патриарха Кирилла в кафедральном соборе Эчмиадзина [Welcome speech by His Holiness Patriarch Kirill at the Cathedral of Etchmiadzin]". patriarchia.ru (in Russian). Russian Orthodox Church. 16 March 2010. Archived from the original on 19 December 2016. Каждый, кто приезжает в Армению, получает неизгладимое впечатление, лицезрея ее главный символ — священную гору Арарат, на которой остановился после потопа ковчег праотца Ноя. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Patai, Raphael; Oettinger, Ayelet (2015). "Ararat". In Patai, Raphael; Bar-Itzhak, Haya. Encyclopedia of Jewish Folklore and Traditions. Routledge. pp. 50–51. ISBN 9780765620255.  ^ Balsiger, David; Sellier Jr., Charles E. (1974). In Search of Noah's Ark. Sunn Classic Books. p. 203.  ^ Zenian, David (1 July 1996). "The Holy Etchmiadzin Museum: History of a Long Journey". AGBU Magazine. Armenian General Benevolent Union.  ^ Mayell, Hillary (27 April 2004). " Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
Found? Turkey Expedition Planned for Summer". National Geographic. pp. 1, 2.  ^ Cline, Eric H. (2009). Biblical Archaeology: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-19-534263-5.  ^ Fagan, Garrett G. (2006). Archaeological Fantasies: How Pseudoarchaeology
Pseudoarchaeology
Misrepresents the Past and Misleads the Public. Psychology Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-415-30592-1.  ^ Feder, Kenneth L. (2010). "Noah's Ark". Encyclopedia of Dubious Archaeology: From Atlantis to the Walam Olum: From Atlantis to the Walam Olum. ABC-CLIO. pp. 195–196. ISBN 978-0-313-37919-2.  ^ a b Boniface, Brian; Cooper, Chris; Cooper, Robyn (2012). Worldwide Destinations: The Geography of Travel and Tourism (6th ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 338. ISBN 978-0-415-52277-9. The snow-capped peak of Ararat is a holy mountain and national symbol for Armenians, dominating the horizon in the capital, Erevan, yet it is virtually inaccessible as it lies across the border in Turkey.  ^ Lydolph, Paul E. (1979). Geography of the U.S.S.R., Topical Analysis. Misty Valley Publishing. p. 46. ...about 65 kilometers south of Yerevan
Yerevan
where Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
reaches an elevation of 5156 meters.  ^ Shoemaker, M. Wesley (2014). "Armenia". Russia and The Commonwealth of Independent States 2014. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 203. ISBN 9781475812268. Mt. Ararat, traditionally associated with Armenia...  ^ Walker, Christopher J. (1990) [1980]. Armenia: The Survival of a Nation (2nd ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-312-04230-1. ...Mount Ararat, closely identified with Armenia
Armenia
throughout her history...  ^ Gabrielian, M. C. (1892). The Armenians: or the People of Ararat. Philadelphia: Allen, Lane & Scott.  ^ Burtt, Joseph (1926). The People of Ararat. London: L. and Virginia Woolf at the Hogarth Press. OCLC 3522299.  ^ Villari, Luigi (1906). Fire and Sword in the Caucasus. London: T. Fisher Unwin. p. 215.  ^ Levonian Cole, Teresa (30 October 2010). " Armenia
Armenia
opens up to visitors". Financial Times. Ararat, the supreme symbol of Armenia...  ^ Boltyansky, Boris (24 October 2015). "Солнце мое" (in Russian). lenta.ru. Библейский Арарат, символ страны, стал главным брендом Армении.  ^ Adriaans 2011, p. 35. ^ Darieva, Tsypylma (2006). "Bringing the soil back to the homeland: Reconfigurations of representation of loss in Armenia" (PDF). Comparativ: Leipziger Beiträge zur Universalgeschichte und vergleichenden Gesellschaftsforschung. Leipzig University
Leipzig University
(3): 90. Archived from the original on 2017-05-21. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Companjen, Françoise; Marácz, László Károly; Versteegh, Lia, eds. (2010). Exploring the Caucasus
Caucasus
in the 21st Century: Essays on Culture, History and Politics in a Dynamic Context. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 9789089641830.  ^ Darke, Diana (2014). Eastern Turkey. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 317. ISBN 978-1-84162-490-7. ...of course Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
is for Armenians
Armenians
their holy mountain... 

"Арарат". Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary
Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary
Volume II (in Russian). 1890. Арарат давно считался священной горой у армян...  on Russian Wikisource

^ Melton, J. Gordon (2010). "Ararat, Mount". In Melton, J. Gordon; Baumann, Martin. Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices (2nd ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 164. ISBN 978-1-59884-204-3.  ^ a b Adalian, Rouben Paul (2010). Historical Dictionary of Armenia. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-8108-7450-3.  ^ Sakalli, Seyhun Orcan (2014). "Coexistence, Polarization and Development: The Armenian Legacy in Modern Turkey" (PDF). HEC Lausanne. Archived from the original on 2016-12-15. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Lottman, Herbert R. (29 February 1976). "Despite Ages of Captivity, The Armenians
Armenians
Persevere". The New York Times. p. 287.  ^ Bryce 1877, p. 234. ^ Maxoudian, Noubar (1952). "Early Armenia
Armenia
as an empire: The career of Tigranes III, 96–55 B.C". Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society. Royal Society for Asian Affairs. 39 (2): 156. doi:10.1080/03068375208731438.  ^ a b Shirinian, Lorne (1992). The Republic of Armenia
Armenia
and the rethinking of the North-American Diaspora in literature. Edwin Mellen Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-0773496132.  ^ Hovannisian, Richard (1971). The Republic of Armenia: The first year, 1918–1919. University of California Press. p. 259.  ^ Aftandilian, Gregory L. (1981). Armenia, vision of a republic: the independence lobby in America, 1918–1927. Charles River Books. p. 25.  ^ Khorenatsi 1978, p. 85. ^ Panossian 2006, p. 51. ^ Panossian 2006, pp. 51–52. ^ "State symbols of the Republic of Armenia". president.am. Office to the President of the Republic of Armenia.  ^ Matevosian, V.; Haytayan, P. (1984). "Սարյան Մարտիրոս (Saryan Martiros)". Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia
Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia
Volume 10 (in Armenian). p. 240. 1921–ին Հ. Կոջոյանի հետ ստեղծել է Խորհրդային Հայաստանի գերբը...  ^ Meier, Reinhard (1975). "Soviet Armenia
Armenia
Today". Swiss Review of World Affairs. Neue Zürcher Zeitung. 25–26. The impressive mountain also has its place as the central image in the coat of arms of the Armenian Soviet Republic (coupled, of course, with a five-pointed Soviet star).  ^ Adriaans 2011, p. 48. ^ Johnson, Jerry L. (2000). Crossing Borders – Confronting History: Intercultural Adjustment in the Post-Cold War World. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America. pp. 6–7. ISBN 978-0-7618-1536-5. Armenians
Armenians
view Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
as both a symbol of the Genocide and loss of hallowed land.  ^ Goldman, Ari L. (18 December 1988). "A History Full of Anguish and Agony; The Armenians, Still 'Like Job's People'". The New York Times.  ^ Avakyan, K. R. (2009). "Աշոտ Մելքոնյան, Արարատ. Հայոց անմահության խորհուրդը [Ashot Melkonyan, Ararat. Symbol of Armenian Immortality]". Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri (in Armenian) (1): 252–257. Պատմական ճակատագրի բերումով Արարատ-Մասիսը ոչ միայն վեհության, անհասանելիության, կատարելության մարմնավորում է, այլև 1915 թ. հայոց մեծ եղեռնից ու հայ ժողովրդի հայրենազրկումից հետո՝ բռնազավթված հայրենիքի և այն նորեն իր արդար զավակներին վերադարձելու համոզումի անկրկնելի խորհրդանիշ, աշխարհասփյուռ հայության միասնականության փարոս» (էջ 8):  ^ Adriaans 2011, p. 40. ^ Platz, Stephanie (1996), Pasts and Futures: Space, History and Armenian Identity 1988–1994, University of Chicago, p. 34  ^ "Armenian protest against Erdogan visit turns violent". The Daily Star. 26 November 2010. Retrieved 28 June 2013.  ^ a b Balci, Bayram (2014). "Between ambition and realism: Turkey's engagement in the South Caucasus". In Agadjanian, Alexander; Jödicke, Ansgar; van der Zweerde, Evert. Religion, Nation and Democracy in the South Caucasus. Routledge. p. 260. ISBN 978-1-317-69157-0. Armenia
Armenia
has not officially expressed territorial claims in respect of Turkey
Turkey
but the regular references to the genocide and to Mount Ararat, a national symbol for Armenians
Armenians
which is situated in contemporary Turkey, clearly indicates that the border with their eastern neighbour is contested.  ^ Phillips, David L. (2005). Unsilencing the Past: Track Two Diplomacy and Turkish-Armenian Reconciliation. New York: Berghahn Books. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-84545-007-6.  ^ Danielyan, Emil (28 July 2011). "Erdogan Demands Apology From Armenia". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.  ^ Bidder, Benjamin (6 April 2010). "Serge Sarkisian on Armenian-Turkish Relations: 'We Wanted to Break Through Centuries of Hostility'". Der Spiegel.  ^ Harutyunyan, Arus (2009). Contesting National Identities in an Ethnically Homogeneous State: The Case of Armenian Democratization. Kalamazoo, Michigan: Western Michigan University. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-109-12012-7.  ^ "Return of ruins of Ani
Ani
and of Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
could be considered as convincing gesture of Turkey's apologies: Tessa Hofmann". Armenpress. 16 April 2015.  ^ "Frantisek Miklosko demands that Turkey
Turkey
return Biblical Mount Ararat to Armenians". PanARMENIAN.Net. 14 September 2010.  ^ Shtromas, Alexander (2003). Faulkner, Robert K.; Mahoney, Daniel J., eds. Totalitarianism and the Prospects for World Order: Closing the Door on the Twentieth Century. Lexington Books. p. 387. ISBN 0-7391-0534-5.  ^ a b Healey, Barth (23 August 1992). "STAMPS; For Armenia, Rainbows And Eagles in Flight". The New York Times.  ^ Abrahamian, Levon (2007). "Dancing around the mountain: Armenian identity through rites of solidarity". In Grant, Bruce; Yalçın-Heckmann, Lale. Caucasus
Caucasus
Paradigms: Anthropologies, Histories and the Making of a World Area. Berlin: Lit Verlag. pp. 167–188. ISBN 9783825899066.  ^ Ermochkine, Nicholas; Iglikowski, Peter (2003). 40 Degrees East: An Anatomy of Vodka. New York: Nova Science Publishers. p. 121. ISBN 978-1-59033-594-9. Undoubtedly the top of the tops of East European brandies is the Armenian brandy called Ararat...  ^ Ritman, Alex (17 August 2012). "My Kind of Place: Yerevan
Yerevan
has thrived through conquest". The National.  ^ Radisson Blu Hotel, Yerevan. "Radisson Blu Hotel, Yerevan". radissonblu.com. Our magnificent hilltop setting provides beautiful views of Yerevan
Yerevan
city center against the backdrop of Mount Ararat...  ^ Ani
Ani
Plaza Hotel. " Ani
Ani
Plaza: Hotel in Yerevan, Armenia". anihotel.com. The guest rooms offer a spectacular view over the city: one can admire the famous Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
– the symbol of Armenia...  ^ Sarkssian, M. S. (1963). "Հովհաննես Այվազովսկին և հայ մշակույթը [Hovhannes Ayvazovsky and Armenian Culture]". Patma-Banasirakan Handes
Patma-Banasirakan Handes
(in Armenian). Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences (4): 28. Դեռևս 1860–ակա ն թթ. Անդրկովկասում կատարած ճանապարհորդության ժամանակ և դրանից հետո Այվազովսկին նկարում է Արարատի և Սևանի գեղատեսիլ բնության պատկերներ։ Մինչ այդ հայ նկարիչներից ոչ ոք չէր տվել Արարատը և Արարատյան դաշտը պատկերող կտավներ։  ^ Khachatrian, Shahen. ""Поэт моря" ["The Sea Poet"]" (in Russian). Center of Spiritual Culture, Leading and National Research Samara State Aerospace University. Archived from the original on 19 March 2014.  ^ "Martiros Sarian (1880–1972) View of Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
from Yerevan". Christie's. 3 June 2013.  ^ Antonson 2016. ^ Jeffrey, David L. (1992). A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 287. ISBN 9780802836342.  ^ Wordsworth, William (1838). The Sonnets of William Wordsworth: Collected in One Volume, with a Few Additional Ones, Now First Published. E. Moxon. p. 209.  ^ Pushkin, Aleksandr (1974). A Journey to Arzrum. Translated by Birgitta Ingemanson. Ann Arbor: Ardis. p. 50. ISBN 978-0882330679.  ^ Dmitriev, Vladimir Alekseevich (2014). "Древнеармянские сюжеты в творчестве В.Я. Брюсова: к вопросу о влиянии событий Первой мировой войны на русскую литературу начала XX в.". In Bogush, V. A. Первая мировая война в исторических судьбах Европы : сб. материалов Междунар. науч. конф., г. Вилейка, 18 окт. 2014 г (PDF) (in Russian). Minsk: Belarusian State University. p. 404. Для В. Брюсова Арарат — это прежде всего символ, олицетворяющий древность армянского народа и его культуры...  ^ Mandelstam, Osip (2011). A Journey to Armenia. Translated by Sidney Monas. London: Notting Hill Editions. p. 91. ISBN 9781907903472.  ^ Grossman, Vasily (2013). An Armenian Sketchbook. Translated by Robert Chandler; Elizabeth Chandler. Introduction by Robert Chandler and Yury Bit-Yunan. New York: New York Review Books. p. 24. ISBN 9781590176184.  ^ Siraganian, Lisa (2012). Modernism's Other Work: The Art Object's Political Life. Oxford University Press. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-19-979655-7.  ^ Karakashian, Meliné (1998). "Armenia: A Country's History of Challenges". Journal of Social Issues. 54 (2): 381–392. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1998.tb01225.x.  ^ a b Bardakjian, Kevork B., ed. (2000). "Hovhannes Širaz". A Reference Guide to Modern Armenian Literature, 1500–1920: With an Introductory History. Wayne State University Press. p. 227. ISBN 978-0814327470.  ^ "I Love My Armenia
Armenia
by Yeghishe Charents". Ararat. New York: Armenian General Benevolent Union. 15: 46. 1960.  ^ Ter-Khachatryan, Yervand (11 December 2014). "Բանաստեղծը Ռավեննայում". Azg (in Armenian). Archived from the original on April 11, 2016. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ Chrysanthopoulos, Leonidas (2002). Caucasus
Caucasus
Chronicles: Nation-building and Diplomacy in Armenia, 1993–1994. Gomidas Institute. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-884630-05-7.  ^ Panossian 2006, p. 335. ^ "We Are Few... by Barouyr Sevak". Ararat. New York: Armenian General Benevolent Union. 21–22: 5. 1978.  ^ " System of a Down
System of a Down
– Holy Mountains Lyrics". genius.com.  ^ "Arto Tuncboyaciyan – Ararat". Sharm Holding production.  ^ Hogikyan, Nellie (2007). "Atom Egoyan's Post-exilic Imaginary: Representing Homeland, Imagining Family". In Burwell, Jennifer; Tschofen, Monique. Image and Territory: Essays on Atom Egoyan. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. p. 202. ISBN 978-0-88920-487-4.  ^ "Nights are long and dark". Looduskalender.ee. 29 March 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2017.  ^ Ter-Sahakian, Karine (29 March 2014). "Armenian community of Estonia: A look into the future". PanARMENIAN.Net. Retrieved 11 October 2017.  ^ "'Journey to Ararat' Documentary Film". Golden Apricot International Film Festival. July 2013.  ^ Nişanyan, Sevan (2010). " Ağrı
Ağrı
il – Merkez – Ağrı". Index Anatolicus (in Turkish). 

Bibliography

General works cited in the article

Movses Khorenatsi
Movses Khorenatsi
(1978). History of the Armenians. Translated by Robert W. Thomson. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-39571-9.  Panossian, Razmik (2006). The Armenians: From Kings and Priests to Merchants and Commissars. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231139267.  Arnold, Bill T. (2008). Genesis. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00067-3.  Adriaans, Rik (2011). "Sonorous Borders: National Cosmology & the Mediation of Collective Memory in Armenian Ethnopop Music". University of Amsterdam. pp. 24–27. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)

Specific works on Ararat

Parrot, Friedrich (2016) [1846]. Journey to Ararat. Translated by William Desborough Cooley. Introduction by Pietro A. Shakarian. London: Gomidas Institute. ISBN 978-1909382244.  Dwight, H.G.O. (1856). "Armenian Traditions about Mt. Ararat". Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. 5: 189. doi:10.2307/592222. JSTOR 592222.  Bryce, James (1877). Transcaucasia and Ararat: Being Notes of a Vacation Tour in Autumn of 1876. London: Macmillan and Co.  Murad, Friedrich (1901). Ararat und Masis: Studien zur armenischen Altertumskunde und Litteratur (in German). Heidelberg: Carl Winters Universitätsbuchhandlung.  Novoseltsev, Anatoly (1978). "О местонахождении библейской "горы Арарат" (On the location of the biblical "mountains of Ararat")". Европа в древности и средневековье (Europe in the antiquity and the Middle Ages) (in Russian). Moscow: Nauka. pp. 61–66.  Ketchian, Philip K. (24 December 2005). "Climbing Ararat: Then and Now". The Armenian Weekly. 71 (52). Archived from the original on September 8, 2009. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) Melkonyan, Ashot (2008). Արարատ. Հայոց անմահության խորհուրդը [Ararat: Symbol of Armenian Immortality] (in Armenian). Yerevan: Tigrant Mets Publishing.  Petrossyan, Sargis (2010). "Արարատյան լեռների հին անունների և անվանադիրների մասին [About the Ancient Names and Eponyms of the Ararat Mountains]". Patma-Banasirakan Handes (3): 220–227.  Antonson, Rick (2016). Full Moon over Noah's Ark: An Odyssey to Mount Ararat and Beyond. Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 9781510705678. 

Books on Armenia
Armenia
with Ararat in their titles

Gregory, S. M. (1920). The land of Ararat: twelve discourses on Armenia, her history and her church. London: Chiswick Press.  Elliott, Mabel Evelyn (1924). Beginning Again at Ararat. Introduction by John H. Finley. New York: Fleming H. Revell Company.  Yeghenian, Aghavnie Y. (2013) [1932]. The Red Flag at Ararat. Introduction by Pietro A. Shakarian. London: Sterndale Classics (Gomidas Institute). ISBN 978-1909382022.  Burney, Charles; Lang, David Marshall (1971). The Peoples of the Hills: Ancient Ararat and Caucasus. New York: Praeger.  Arlen, Michael J. (2006) [1975]. Passage to Ararat. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux. ISBN 978-0374530129.  Suny, Ronald Grigor (1993). Looking Toward Ararat: Armenia
Armenia
in Modern History. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0253207739.  Walker, Christopher J., ed. (1997). Visions of Ararat: Writings on Armenia. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 9781860641114.  Asher, Armen; Minasian Asher, Teryl (2009). The Peoples of Ararat. BookSurge Publishing. ISBN 978-1439225677.  Golden, Christopher (2017). Ararat. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-1250117052. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mount Ararat.

NASA Earth Observatory page

v t e

Mountains of Turkey
Turkey

Mountain ranges

Anti-Taurus Ilgaz Pontic Taurus Yunt

Mountains

Acıgöl Akdağ Aktaş Ağrı
Ağrı
(Ararat) Babadağ Beşparmak (Latmus) Davraz Demirkazık Dilek (Mycale) Erciyes Erek Göllü Hasan Honaz Kaçkar Kadifekale Karacadağ Karadağ Karagöl Kaz (Ida) Kula Küçük Ağrı Madur Mahya Medetsiz Nemrut Nemrut (volcano) Nif Palandöken Spil Sultan Süphan Şaphane Tahtalı Tendürek Topçambaba Uludağ Yamanlar Zurbahan

v t e

Highest points of Asia

Sovereign states

Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China Cyprus East Timor Egypt Georgia India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan North Korea South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Russia Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Tajikistan Thailand Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Nagorno-Karabakh Northern Cyprus Palestine South Ossetia Taiwan

Dependencies and other territories

British Indian Ocean Territory Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Hong Kong Macau

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 252386350 GND: 4085881-9 BNF: cb14643768v (d

.