Mount Ararat (/ˈærəˌræt/ ARR-ə-rat; Turkish:
Armenian: Մասիս, Masis and Արարատ, Ararat) is a snow-capped
and dormant compound volcano in the extreme east of Turkey. It
consists of two major volcanic cones: Greater Ararat, the highest peak
Turkey and the Armenian plateau with an elevation of 5,137 m
(16,854 ft); and Little Ararat, with an elevation of 3,896 m
(12,782 ft). The Ararat massif is about 35 km
(22 mi) wide at ground base.
Despite the scholarly consensus that the "mountains of Ararat" of the
Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis do not refer to specifically Mt. Ararat, it has been
widely accepted in Christianity as the resting place of Noah's Ark. It
is the principal national symbol of
Armenia and has been considered a
sacred mountain by Armenians. It is featured prominently in Armenian
literature and art and is an icon for Armenian irredentism. Along with
Noah's Ark, it is depicted on the coat of arms of Armenia.
The first efforts to reach Ararat's summit were made in the Middle
Ages. However, it was not until 1829 when
Friedrich Parrot and
Khachatur Abovian, accompanied by four others, made the first recorded
1 Political borders
2 Names and etymology
Summit ice cap
4.1 Geological history
4.2 Recent volcanic and seismic activity
4.2.1 1840 eruption
5.1 First ascent
5.2 Later notable ascents
6 Resting place of Noah's Ark
6.1 Origins of the tradition
6.2 Prevalence of the legend
7 Significance among Armenians
7.2 Myth of origin
7.3 Coat of arms of Armenia
7.4 Symbol of genocide and territorial claims
8 Cultural depictions
8.1 In visual art
8.2 In literature
8.3 In popular culture
8.3.1 In music
8.3.2 In film
9 Places named for Ararat
12.1 General works cited in the article
12.2 Specific works on Ararat
12.3 Books on
Armenia with Ararat in their titles
13 External links
Mount Ararat forms a near-quadripoint between Turkey, Armenia,
Azerbaijan and Iran. Its summit is located some 16 km
(10 mi) west of both the Iranian border and the border of the
Nakhchivan exclave of Azerbaijan, and 32 km (20 mi) south of
the Armenian border. The Turkish–Armenian–Azerbaijani and
Turkish–Iranian–Azerbaijani tripoints are some 8 km apart,
separated by a narrow strip of Turkish territory containing the E99
road which enters Nakhchivan at 39°39′19″N 44°48′12″E /
39.6553°N 44.8034°E / 39.6553; 44.8034.
From the 16th century until 1828 Great Ararat's summit and the
northern slopes, along with the eastern slopes of
Little Ararat were
part of Persia, while the range was part of the Ottoman-Persian
border. Following the 1826–28 Russo-Persian War and the Treaty of
Turkmenchay, the Persian controlled territory was ceded to the Russian
Little Ararat became the point where the Turkish, Persian, and
Russian imperial frontiers converged. The current international
boundaries were formed throughout the 20th century. The mountain came
under Turkish control during the 1920 Turkish–Armenian War. It
formally became part of
Turkey according to the 1921 Treaty of Moscow
and Treaty of Kars. In the late 1920s,
Turkey crossed the Iranian
border and occupied the eastern flank of Lesser Ararat as part of its
effort to quash the Kurdish Ararat rebellion, during which the
Kurdish rebels used the area as a safe haven against the Turkish
Iran eventually agreed to cede the area to
Turkey in a
territorial exchange. The Iran-
Turkey boundary skirts east of
Lesser Ararat, the lower peak of the Ararat massif.
Names and etymology
View from the Araratian plain near the city of Artashat, Armenia.
Closeup of Greater Ararat
Closeup of Lesser Ararat
View from Turkey
Ararat (Hebrew: אֲרָרָט; Armenian: Արարատ, Ararat;
Western Armenian: Ararad) is the Hebrew spelling of Urartu, a
kingdom that existed in the Armenian plateau in the 9th–6th
centuries BC. The mountain is known as Ararat in European
languages. However, none of the native peoples have
traditionally referred to the mountain by that name. In classical
antiquity, particularly in Strabo's Geographica, the peaks of Ararat
were known in ancient Greek as Ἄβος (Abos) and Νίβαρος
The traditional Armenian name is Masis (Մասիս [maˈsis];
sometimes transliterated as Massis). However, nowadays, the
terms Masis and Ararat are both widely, often interchangeably, used in
Armenian.[b] The folk etymology expressed in Movses Khorenatsi's
Armenia derives the name from king Amasya, the
great-grandson of the legendary Armenian patriarch Hayk, who is said
to have called the mountain Masis after himself. According to
Anatoly Novoseltsev the word Masis derives from
Middle Persian masist, "the largest." According to Armenian
historian Sargis Petrosyan the mas root in Masis means "mountain", cf.
The Turkish name is
Ağrı Dağı [ɑːrɯ dɑ.ɯ], Ottoman Turkish:
اغـر طﺎﻍ Ağır Dağ), i.e. "Mountain of Ağrı". Ağrı
literally translates to "pain" or "sorrow". This name
has been known since the late Middle Ages. Greater and Lesser
Ararat are known as Büyük
Ağrı and Küçük Ağrı, respectively.
The traditional Persian name is کوه نوح, [ˈkuːhe ˈnuːh],
Kūh-e Nūḥ, literally the "mountain of Noah". The
Kurdish name of the mountain is çiyayê Agirî
[t͡ʃɪjaːˈje aːgɪˈriː], which translates to "fiery
Mount Ararat is located in the
Eastern Anatolia Region
Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey
between the provinces of
Ağrı and Iğdır, near the border with
Armenia and Nakhchivan exclave of Azerbaijan, between the Aras
and Murat rivers. Its summit is located some 16 km
(10 mi) west of the Turkey-
Iran border and 32 km
(20 mi) south of the Turco-Armenian border. The
Ararat plain runs
along its northwest to western side.
An elevation of 5,165 m (16,946 ft) for
Mount Ararat is
given by some encyclopedias and reference works.
However, a number of sources, such as the United States Geological
Survey and numerous topographic maps indicate that the alternatively
widespread figure of 5,137 m (16,854 ft) is probably more
accurate. The current elevation may be as low as 5,125 m
(16,814 ft) due to the melting of its snow-covered ice cap.
Mount Ararat 3D
Summit ice cap
Mount Ararat has an ice cap on its summit. Since at least about 1957,
it has been shrinking. In the late 1950s, Blumenthal observed that
there existed 11 outlet glaciers emerging from a summit snow mass that
covered about 10 km2 (3.9 sq mi). At that time, it
was found that the present glaciers on the summit of Ararat to extend
as low as an elevation of 3,900 meters (12,800 ft) on the
north-facing slope, and an elevation of 4,200 meters (13,800 ft)
on its south-facing slope. Using pre-existing aerial imagery and
remote sensing data, Sarıkaya and others studied the extent of the
ice cap on
Mount Ararat between 1976 and 2011. They discovered
that this ice cap had shrunk to 8.0 km2 (3.1 sq mi) by
1976 and to 5.7 km2 (2.2 sq mi) by 2011. They
calculated that between 1976 and 2011, the ice cap on top of Mount
Ararat had lost 29% of its total area at an average rate of ice loss
of 0.07 km2 (0.027 sq mi) per year over 35 years. This
rate is consistent with the general rates of retreat of other Turkish
summit glaciers and ice caps that have been documented by other
Blumenthal estimated that the snow line had been as low as 3,000
meters (9,800 ft) in elevation during the Late Pleistocene.
Such a snow line would have created an ice cap of 100 km2
(39 sq mi) in extent. However, he observed a lack of any
clear evidence of prehistoric moraines other than those which were
close to the 1958 glacier tongues. Blumenthal explained the absence of
such moraines by the lack of confining ridges to control glaciers,
insufficient debris load in the ice to form moraines, and their burial
by later eruptions. Years later, Birman observed on the south-facing
slopes a possible moraine that extends at least 300 meters
(980 ft) in altitude below the base of the 1958 ice cap at an
elevation of 4,200 meters (13,800 ft). He also found two
morainal deposits that were created by a
Mount Ararat valley glacier
of Pleistocene, possibly
Wisconsinan (Last Glacial Maximum) age
downvalley from Lake Balık. The higher moraine lies at an altitude of
about 2,200 meters (7,200 ft) and the lower moraine lies at an
altitude of about 1,800 meters (5,900 ft). The lower moraine
occurs about 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) downstream from Lake Balık.
Both moraines are about 30 meters (98 ft) high. It is suspected
Lake Balık occupies a glacial basin.
Mount Ararat is a polygenic, compound stratovolcano. Covering an area
of 1,100 km2 (420 sq mi), it is the largest volcanic
edifice within the region. Along its northwest–southeast trending
Mount Ararat is about 45 kilometers (28 mi) long and
is about 30 kilometers (19 mi) long along its short axis. It
consists of about 1,150 km3 (280 cu mi) of dacitic and
rhyolitic pyroclastic debris and dacitic, rhyolitic, and basaltic
Mount Ararat consists of two distinct volcanic cones, Greater Ararat
and Lesser Ararat (Little Ararat). The western volcanic cone, Greater
Ararat, is a steep-sided volcanic cone that is larger and higher than
the eastern volcanic cone. Greater Ararat is about 25 kilometers
(16 mi) wide at the base and rises about 3 kilometers
(1.9 mi) above the adjacent floors of the Iğdir and
Doğubeyazıt basins. The eastern volcanic cone, Lesser Ararat, is
3,896 meters (12,782 ft) high and 15 kilometers (9.3 mi)
across. These volcanic cones, which lie 13 kilometers (8.1 mi)
apart, are separated by a wide north–south-trending crack. This
crack is the surface expression of an extensional fault. Numerous
parasitic cones and lava domes have been built by flank eruptions
along this fault and on the flanks of both of the main volcanic
Mount Ararat lies within a complex, sinistral pull-apart basin that
originally was a single, continuous depression. The growth of Mount
Ararat partitioned this depression into two smaller basins, the Iğdir
and Doğubeyazıt basins. This pull-apart basin is the result of
strike-slip movement along two en-echelon fault segments, the
Doğubeyazıt–Gürbulak and Iğdir faults, of a sinistral
strike–slip fault system. Tension between these faults, not only
formed the original pull-apart basin, but created a system of faults,
exhibiting a horsetail splay pattern, that control the position of the
principal volcanic eruption centers of
Mount Ararat and associated
linear belt of parasitic volcanic cones. The strike-slip fault system
Mount Ararat located is the result of north–south
convergence and tectonic compression between the Arabian Platform and
Laurasia that continued after the
Tethys Ocean closed during the
Eocene epoch along the Bitlis–Zagros suture.
During the early
Eocene and early Miocene, the collision of the
Arabian platform with
Laurasia closed and eliminated the Tethys Ocean
from the area of what is now Anatolia. The closure of these masses of
continental crust, collapsed this ocean basin by middle
resulted in a progressive shallowing of the remnant seas, until the
end of the early Miocene. Post-collisional tectonic convergence within
the collision zone resulted in the total elimination of the remaining
seas from East Anatolia, at the end of early Miocene, crustal
shortening and thickening across the collision zone, and uplift of the
East Anatolian–Iranian plateau. Accompanying this uplift was
extensive deformation by faulting and folding, which resulted in the
creation of numerous local basins. The north–south compressional
deformation continues today as evidenced by ongoing faulting,
volcanism, and seismicity.
Within Anatolia, regional volcanism started middle-late Miocene.
During the late Miocene–
Pliocene period, widespread volcanism
blanketed the entire East Anatolian–Iranian plateau under thick
volcanic rocks. This volcanic activity has continued uninterrupted
until historical times. Apparently, it reached a climax during the
latest Miocene–Pliocene, 6 to 3 Ma. During the Quaternary, the
volcanism became restricted to a few local volcanoes such as Mount
Ararat. These volcanoes are typically associated with north–south
tensional fractures formed by the continuing the north–south
shortening deformation of Anatolia.
In their detailed study and summary of the
Quaternary volcanism of
Anatolia, Yilmaz et al. recognized four phases to the construction of
Mount Ararat from volcanic rocks exposed in glacial valleys deeply
carved into it flanks. First, they recognized a fissure eruption
phase of Plinian-subPlinian fissure eruptions that deposited more than
700 meters (2,300 ft) of pyroclastic rocks and a few basaltic
lava flows. These volcanic rocks were erupted from approximately north
northwest–south southeast-trending extensional faults and fissures
prior to the development of Mount Ararat. Second, a cone-building
phase began when the volcanic activity became localized at a point
along a fissure. During this phase, the eruption of successive flows
of lava up to 150 meters (490 ft) thick and pyroclastic flows of
andesite and dacite composition and later eruption of basaltic lava
flows, formed the Greater Ararat cone with a low conical profile.
Third, during a climatic phase, copious flows of andesitic and
basaltic lavas were erupted. During this phase, the current cones of
Greater and Lesser Ararat were formed as eruptions along subsidiary
fissures and cracks and flank occurred. Finally, the volcanic
Mount Ararat transitioned into a flank eruption phase
during which a major north–south-trending fault offset the two cones
developed along with a number of subsidiary fissures and cracks on the
volcano's flanks. Along this fault and the subsidiary fissures and
cracks, a number of parasitic cones and domes were built by minor
eruptions. One subsidiary cone erupted voluminous basalt and andesite
lava flows. They flowed across the Doğubeyazıt plain and along the
southerly flowing Sarısu River. These lava flows formed black ʻaʻā
and pāhoehoe lava flows that contain well preserved lava tubes.
The radiometric dating of these lava flows yielded radiometric ages of
0.4, 0.48 and 0.81 Ma. Overall, radiometric ages obtained from the
volcanic rocks erupted by
Mount Ararat range from 1.5 to 0.02 Ma.
Recent volcanic and seismic activity
The chronology of
Holocene volcanic activity associated with Mount
Ararat is poorly documented. However, either archaeological
excavations, oral history, historical records, or a combination of
these data provide evidence that volcanic eruptions of Mount Ararat
occurred in 2500–2400 BC, 550 BC, possibly in 1450 AD and 1783 AD,
and definitely in 1840 AD. Archaeological evidence demonstrates that
explosive eruptions and pyroclastic flows from the northwest flank of
Mount Ararat destroyed and buried at least one Kura–Araxes culture
settlement and caused numerous fatalities in 2500–2400 BC. Oral
histories indicated that a significant eruption of uncertain magnitude
occurred in 550 BC and minor eruptions of uncertain nature might have
occurred in 1450 AD and 1783 AD. According to the
interpretation of historical and archaeological data, strong
earthquakes not associated with volcanic eruptions also occurred the
Mount Ararat in 139, 368, 851–893, and 1319 AD. During the
139 AD earthquake, a large landslide that caused many casualties and
was similar to the 1840 AD landslide originated from the summit of
Historical records and oral history document a phreatic eruption on
July 2, 1840 and pyroclastic flow from radial fissures on the upper
north flank of
Mount Ararat and a possibly associated earthquake of
magnitude 7.4 that caused severe damage and numerous casualties. Up to
10,000 people in the
Mount Ararat region died in the earthquake,
including 1,900 villagers in the village of Akhuri (Armenian: Akori,
modern Yenidoğan) who were killed by a gigantic landslide and
subsequent debris flow. In addition, this combination of landslide and
debris flow destroyed the Armenian monastery of St. Jacob near Akori,
the town of Aralik, several villages, and Russian military barracks.
It also temporarily dammed the Sevjur (Metsamor)
The 13th century missionary
William of Rubruck
William of Rubruck wrote that "Many have
tried to climb it, but none has been able." 18th century English
Thomas Stackhouse noted that "All the
Armenians are firmly
persuaded that Noah's ark exists to the present day on the summit of
Mount Ararat, and that in order to preserve it, no person is permitted
to approach it." In response to its first ascent by Parrot and
Abovian, one high-ranking
Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church clergyman
commented that to climb the sacred mountain was "to tie the womb of
the mother of all mankind in a dragonish mode." By contrast, in the
21st century to climb Ararat is "the most highly valued goal of some
of the patriotic pilgrimages that are organized in growing number from
Armenia and the Armenian diaspora."
The first recorded ascent of the mountain in the modern times took
place on 9 October [O.S. 27 September] 1829.
The Baltic German naturalist
Friedrich Parrot of the University of
Dorpat arrived at Etchmiadzin in mid-September 1829, almost two years
after Russian capture of Erivan, for the single purpose of exploring
Ararat. The prominent Armenian writer Khachatur Abovian, then a
deacon and translator at Etchmiadzin, was assigned by Catholicos
Yeprem, the head of the Armenian Church, as interpreter and guide.
Parrot and Abovian crossed the
Aras River into the district of Surmali
and headed to the Armenian village of Akhuri situated on the northern
slope of Ararat 1,220 metres (4,000 ft) above sea level. They set
up a base camp at the Armenian monastery of St. Hakob some 730 metres
(2,400 ft) higher, at an elevation of 1,943 metres
(6,375 ft). After two failed attempts, they reached the summit on
their third attempt at 3:15 p.m. on October 9, 1829. The
group included Parrot, Abovian, two Russian soldiers—Aleksei
Zdorovenko and Matvei Chalpanov, and two Armenian Akhuri
villagers—Hovhannes Aivazian and Murad Poghosian. Parrot
measured the elevation at 5,250 metres (17,220 ft) using a
mercury barometer. This was not only the first ascent of Ararat, but
also the second highest elevation climbed by man up to that date
outside of Mount
Licancabur in the Chilean Andes. Abovian dug a hole
in the ice and erected a wooden cross facing north. Abovian also
picked up a chunk of ice from the summit and carried it down with him
in a bottle, considering the water holy. On 8 November [O.S. 27
October] 1829, Parrot and Abovian together with the Akhuri hunter
Sahak’s brother Hako, acting as a guide climbed up Lesser
Later notable ascents
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
an early account of an ascent of Mount Ararat.
Other early notable climbers of Ararat included Russian climatologist
Kozma Spassky-Avtonomov (August 1834), Karl Behrens
(1835), German mineralogist and geologist Otto Wilhelm Hermann von
Abich (29 July 1845), British politician Henry Danby Seymour
(1848). Later in the 19th century, two British scholars on
Armenia—James Bryce (1876) and H. F. B. Lynch
(1893)—climbed the mountain. The first winter climb was by
Bozkurt Ergör, the former president of the Turkish Mountaineering
Federation, who climbed the peak on 21 February 1970.
Resting place of Noah's Ark
Topography of Paradise by Jesuit scholar and polymath Athanasius
Kircher as pictured in his book Arca Noë (1675). In the northeast, in
the mountains above
Armenia stands Mount Ararat, shown with a
rectangular-shaped ark on the summit.
Origins of the tradition
According to the fourth verse of the eighth chapter of the Book of
Genesis (Genesis 8:4), following a flood,
Noah's Ark landed on the
"mountains of Ararat" (Biblical Hebrew: הָרֵי אֲרָרָט,
hare ararat). Most historians and Bible scholars agree that
"Ararat" is the Hebrew name of Urartu, the geographic predecessor of
Armenia and referred to the wider region at the time and not the
mountain today known as Ararat.[c] Indeed, the phrase is translated as
"mountains of Armenia" (montes Armeniae) in the Vulgate, the fourth
Latin translation of the Bible. Nevertheless, Mount Ararat
is considered the traditional site of the resting place of Noah's
Ark. It is therefore called a biblical mountain.
Mount Ararat has been associated with the Genesis flood story since
the 11–12th centuries. The local Armenian population began to
identify it as the ark's landing place during those centuries. F.
C. Conybeare wrote that the mountain was "a center and focus of pagan
myths and cults [...] and it was only in the eleventh century, after
these had vanished from the popular mind, that the Armenian
theologians ventured to locate on its eternal snows the resting-place
of Noah's ark." The 13th century Franciscan missionary William of
Rubruck is usually considered the earliest reference for the tradition
Mount Ararat as the landing place of the ark in European
literature. The 14th century English traveler John
Mandeville is another early author who mentioned Mount Ararat, "where
Noah's ship rested, and it is still there."
Prevalence of the legend
Descent of Noah from Ararat by
Ivan Aivazovsky (1889, National Gallery
of Armenia) depicts Noah with his family, and a procession of animals,
crossing the Ararat plain, following their descent from Mount Ararat,
which is seen in the background.
Most Christians identify
Mount Ararat with the biblical "mountains of
Ararat," despite the fact that six other landing places have been
proposed, "largely because it would have been the first peak to emerge
from the receding flood waters." Ararat is where the European
tradition and most of
Western Christianity place the landing of Noah's
Ark. According to Spencer and Lienard the tradition "seems to be well
entrenched in the Christian world." A 1722 biblical dictionary by
Austin Calmet and the 1871 Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary
both point to
Mount Ararat as the place where tradition says the ark
rested. American missionary
H. G. O. Dwight wrote in 1856 that
it is "the general opinion of the learned in Europe." James Bryce,
while admitting that the biblical passage implies that the ark rested
upon a "mountain in the district which the Hebrews knew as Ararat, or
Armenia", wrote in an 1878 article for the Royal Geographical Society
that the biblical writer must have had Mt. Ararat in mind because it
is so "very much higher, more conspicuous, and more majestic than any
other summit in Armenia."
During his visit to
Armenia in 2001
Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II declared in his
homily in Yerevan's St. Gregory the Illuminator Cathedral: "We are
close to Mount Ararat, where tradition says that the Ark of Noah came
to rest." Patriarch Kirill of Moscow, the head of the Russian
Orthodox Church, also mentioned
Mount Ararat as the resting place of
Noah's Ark in his speech at the
Etchmiadzin Cathedral during his visit
Armenia in 2010.
Those critical of this view point out that Ararat was the name of the
country, not the mountain, at the time when Genesis was written.
Arnold wrote in his 2008 Genesis commentary, "The location 'on the
mountains' of Ararat indicates not a specific mountain by that name,
but rather the mountainous region of the land of Ararat."
Ararat has traditionally been the main focus of the searches for
Noah's Ark. Augustin Calmet wrote in his 1722 biblical dictionary,
"It is affirmed, but without proof, that there are still remains of
Noah's ark on the top of this mountain; but M. de Tournefort, who
visited this spot, has assured us there was nothing like it; that the
top of mount Ararat is inaccessible, both by reason of its great
height, and of the snow which perpetually covers it."
Archaeological expeditions, sometimes supported by evangelical and
millenarian churches, have been conducted since the 19th century in
search of the ark. According to a 1974 book around 200 people from
more than 20 countries claimed to have seen the Ark on Ararat since
1856. A fragment from the ark supposedly found on Ararat is on
display at the museum of Etchmiadzin Cathedral, the center of the
Armenian Church. Despite numerous reports of ark sightings (e.g.
Ararat anomaly) and rumors, "no scientific evidence of the ark has
emerged." Searches for
Noah's Ark are considered by scholars an
example of pseudoarchaeology.
Kenneth Feder writes, "As the
flood story itself is unsupported by any archaeological evidence, it
is not surprising that there is no archaeological evidence for the
existence of an impossibly large boat dating to 5,000 years ago."
Significance among Armenians
Ararat—located some 65 km (40 mi) south of the
city–dominates the skyline of Armenia's capital
Hayk, the legendary founding father of the Armenian people, as
depicted by Mkrtum
Hovnatanian (1779–1846). Ararat is pictured in
Despite lying outside the borders of the modern Republic of Armenia,
Ararat has historically been associated with Armenia.[d] It
is widely considered the country's principal national symbol and
brand. The image of Ararat, usually framed within a
nationalizing discourse, is ubiquitous in everyday material culture in
Armenia. According to ethnographer
Tsypylma Darieva Armenians
have "a sense of possession of Ararat in the sense of symbolic
Ararat is known as the "holy mountain" of the Armenian
people. It was principal to the pre-Christian Armenian
mythology, where it was the home of the gods. With the rise of
Christianity, the mythology associated with pagan worship of the
mountain was lost. Ararat was the geographical center of ancient
Armenian kingdoms.[e] One scholar defined the historic Greater Armenia
(Major Armenia) as "the area about 200 miles [320 km] in every
direction from Mount Ararat." In 19th-century era of romantic
nationalism, when an Armenian state did not exist, Mt. Ararat
symbolized the historical Armenian nation-state. The First
Republic of Armenia, the first modern Armenian state that existed
between 1918 and 1920, was sometimes called the Araratian Republic or
the Republic of Ararat as it was centered in the Ararat
Myth of origin
Genesis flood narrative
Genesis flood narrative was linked to the Armenian myth of origin
by the early medieval historian Movses Khorenatsi. In his History of
Armenia, he wrote that Noah and his family first settled in Armenia
and later moved to Babylon. Hayk, a descendant of Japheth, a son of
Noah, revolted against Bel and returned to the area around Mount
Ararat, where he established the roots of the Armenian nation. He is
thus considered the legendary founding father and the name giver of
the Armenian people. According to Razmik Panossian, this
Armenia the cradle of all civilisation since Noah's Ark
landed on the 'Armenian' mountain of Ararat. […] it connects
Armenians to the biblical narrative of human development. […] it
Mount Ararat the national symbol of all Armenians, and the
territory around it the Armenian homeland from time immemorial."
Coat of arms of Armenia
Mount Ararat has been depicted on the coat of arms of Armenia
consistently since 1918. The First Republic's coat of arms was
designed by architect
Alexander Tamanian and painter Hakob Kojoyan.
This coat of arms was readopted by the legislature of the Republic of
Armenia on April 19, 1992, after
Armenia regained independence. Ararat
is depicted along with the ark on its peak on the shield on an orange
The emblem of the
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (Soviet Armenia)
was created by the painters
Martiros Saryan and
Hakob Kojoyan in
Mount Ararat is depicted in the center and makes up a large
portion of it.
First Republic (1918–20)
Soviet Republic (1921–91)
Current Republic (1992–)
Symbol of genocide and territorial claims
In the aftermath of the
Armenian Genocide of 1915, Ararat came to
represent the destruction of the native Armenian population of eastern
Turkey (Western Armenia) in the national consciousness of
Ari L. Goldman
Ari L. Goldman noted in 1988, "In most Armenian
homes in the modern diaspora, there are pictures of Mount Ararat, a
bittersweet reminder of the homeland and national aspirations."
Ararat has become a symbol of Armenian efforts to reclaim its "lost
lands", i.e. the areas west of Ararat that are now part of
had significant Armenian population before the genocide. Adriaans
noted that Ararat is featured as a sanctified territory for the
Armenians in everyday banal irredentism. Stephanie Platz wrote,
"Omnipresent, the vision of Ararat rising above
Yerevan and its
outskirts constantly reminds
Armenians of their putative ethnogenesis
… and of their exile from Eastern Anatolia after the Armenian
genocide of 1915."
Armenians protesting Turkish Prime Minister Erdoğan's visit
to Beirut in November 2010. The poster reads "Ararat is and
Turkish political scientist Bayram Balci argues that regular
references to the
Armenian Genocide and
Mount Ararat "clearly
indicate" that the border with
Turkey is contested in Armenia.
Since independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, the Armenian
government has not made official claims to any Turkish
territory, however the Armenian government has avoided "an
explicit and formal recognition of the existing Turkish-Armenian
border." In a 2010 interview with Der Spiegel, Armenian President
Serzh Sargsyan was asked: "You can see Mount Ararat, Armenia's
national symbol, from the windows of your residence. Today, the
mountain is inaccessible, on the other side of the Turkish border.
Turkey fears demands for land and compensation. Do you want Mount
Ararat back?" Sargsyan, in response, said:
No one can take
Mount Ararat from us; we keep it in our hearts.
Armenians live in the world today, you will find a picture of
Mount Ararat in their homes. And I feel certain that a time will come
Mount Ararat is no longer a symbol of the separation between our
peoples, but an emblem of understanding. But let me make this clear:
Never has a representative of
Armenia made territorial demands. Turkey
alleges this—perhaps out of its own bad conscience?
The most prominent party to lay claims to eastern
Turkey is the
Armenian Revolutionary Federation
Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnaktsutyun). which
claims it as part of what it considers United Armenia. In various
settings, several notable individuals such as German historian Tessa
Hofmann,[g] Slovak conservative politician František Mikloško,[h]
Lithuanian political scientist and Soviet dissident Aleksandras
Štromas[i] have spoken in support of Armenian claims over Mt. Ararat.
The first stamps issued by independent
Armenia in 1992
Ethnographer Levon Abrahamian noted that Ararat is visually present
Armenians in reality (it can be seen from many houses in Yerevan
and settlements in the Ararat plain), symbolically (through many
visual representations, such as on Armenia's coats of arms), and
culturally—in numerous and various nostalgic poetical, political,
architectural representation. The first three postage stamps
Armenia in 1992 after achieving independence from the Soviet
Union depicted Mt. Ararat.
Mount Ararat has been depicted on various
Armenian dram banknotes
issued in 1993–2001; on the reverse of the 10 dram banknotes issued
in 1993, on the reverse of the 50 dram banknotes issued in 1998, on
the obverse of the 100 and 500 dram banknotes issued in 1993, and on
the reverse of the 50,000 dram banknotes issued in 2001. It was also
depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 100 lira banknotes of
Ararat is depicted on the logos of two of Armenia's leading
Yerevan State University and the American
University of Armenia. It is depicted on the logos of Football Club
Yerevan (since the Soviet times) and the Football Federation of
Armenia. The logo of Armavia, Armenia's now defunct flag carrier, also
depicted Ararat. The publications of the Social Democrat Hunchakian
Party in Lebanon (Ararad daily) and California, U.S. (Massis weekly)
are both named for the mountain. The Ararat brandy, produced by the
Yerevan Brandy Company since 1887, is considered the most prestigious
Eastern European brandy. Hotels in
Yerevan often advertise the
visibility of Ararat from their rooms, which is seen as a major
advantage for tourists.
In visual art
Ararat was depicted in the books of European, including many British,
and American travelers in the 18th–19th centuries who visited
Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, 1718
Robert Ker Porter, 1821
"View of Ararat and the Monastery of Echmiadzin", from the 1846
English translation of Friedrich Parrot's Journey to Ararat
James Bryce, 1877
H. F. B. Lynch, 1901
According to one source, the first Armenian artist to depict the
mountain was Ivan Aivazovsky, who created a painting of Ararat
during his visit to
Armenia in 1868. Other major Armenians
artists who painted Ararat include Yeghishe Tadevosyan, Gevorg
Bashinjaghian, Martiros Saryan, and Panos Terlemezian.
Ivan Aivazovsky, Valley of Mount Ararat, 1882
Yeghishe Tadevosyan, Ararat from Ejmiatsin, 1895
Gevorg Bashinjaghian, 1912
Panos Terlemezian, 1929
Rouben Paul Adalian suggested that "there is probably more poetry
Mount Ararat than any other mountain on earth."
Travel writer Rick Antonson described Ararat as the "most fabled
mountain in the world."
English Romantic poet
William Wordsworth imagines seeing the ark in
the poem "Sky-prospect — From the Plain of France":
Lo! in the burning west, the craggy nape
Of a proud Ararat! and thereupon,
The Ark, her melancholy voyage done!
In his Journey to Arzrum (Путешествие в Арзрум;
1835–36), the celebrated Russian poet Aleksandr Pushkin recounted
his travels to the
Armenia at the time of the
Russo-Turkish War (1828–29). He wrote the following about his
encounter with Mount Ararat:
I went out of the tent into the fresh morning air. The sun was rising.
Against the clear sky one could see a white-snowcapped, twin-peaked
mountain. 'What mountain is that?' I asked, stretching myself, and
heard the answer: 'That's Ararat.' What a powerful effect a few
syllables can have! Avidly I looked at the Biblical mountain, saw the
ark moored to its peak with the hope of regeneration and life, saw
both the raven and dove, flying forth, the symbols of punishment and
Russian Symbolist poet
Valery Bryusov often referred to Ararat in his
poetry and dedicated two poems to the mountain,[k] which were
published in 1917. Bryusov saw Ararat as the embodiment of antiquity
of the Armenian people and their culture.
Osip Mandelstam wrote fondly of Ararat during his 1933
travels in Armenia. "I have cultivated in myself a sixth sense, an
'Ararat' sense," the poet wrote, "the sense of an attraction to a
During his travels to Armenia, Soviet Russian writer Vasily Grossman
Mount Ararat from
Yerevan standing "high in the blue sky." He
wrote that "with its gentle, tender contours, it seems to grow not out
of the earth but out of the sky, as if it has condensed from its white
clouds and its deep blue. It is this snowy mountain, this bluish-white
sunlit mountain that shone in the eyes of those who wrote the
In The Maximus Poems American poet
Charles Olson (1953), who grew up
near the Armenian neighborhood in Worcester, Massachusetts, compares
the Ararat Hill near his childhood home to the mountain and "imagines
he can capture an Armenian's immigrant perspective: the view of Ararat
Hill as Mount Ararat."
Mt. Ararat is featured prominently in Armenian literature. According
to Meliné Karakashian, Armenian poets "attribute to it symbolic
meanings of unity, freedom, and independence." According to
Kevork Bardakjian, in Armenian literature, Ararat "epitomizes Armenia
and Armenian suffering and aspirations, especially the consequences of
the 1915 genocide: almost total annihilation, loss of a unique culture
and land [...] and an implicit determination never to recognize the
new political borders."
The last two lines of Yeghishe Charents's 1920 poem "I Love My
Armenia" (Ես իմ անուշ Հայաստանի) read: "And in the
entire world you will not find a mountaintop like Ararat's. / Like an
unreachable peak of glory I love my Mount Masis."
In a 1926 poem dedicated to the mountain
Avetik Isahakyan wrote:
"Ages as though in second came, / Touched the grey crest of Ararat, /
And passed by...! [...] It's now your turn; you too, now, / Stare at
its high and lordly brow, / And pass by...!"
Mount Ararat is the most frequently cited symbol in the poetry of
Hovhannes Shiraz. In collection of poems, Knar Hayastani (Lyre of
Armenia) published in 1958, there are many poems "with very strong
nationalist overtones, especially with respect to
Mount Ararat (in
Turkey) and the irredentism it entailed." In one such poem, "Ktak"
(Bequest), Shiraz bequeaths his son Mt. Ararat to "keep it forever, /
As the language of us Armenians, as the pillar of your father’s
The first lines of Paruyr Sevak's 1961 poem "We Are Few..." (Քիչ
ենք, բայց հայ ենք) read: "We are few, but they say of us
we are Armenians. / We do not think ourselves superior to anyone. /
Clearly we shall have to accept / That we, and only we, have an
In one short poem
Silva Kaputikyan compares
Armenia to an "ancient
rock-carved fortress", the towers of which are Ararat and Aragats.
In popular culture
"Holy Mountains", the 8th track of the album Hypnotize (2005) by
System of a Down, an American rock band composed of four Armenian
Mount Ararat [...] and details that the souls
lost to the
Armenian Genocide have returned to rest here."
"Here's to You Ararat" is a song from the 2006 album How Much is
Yours' of Arto Tunçboyacıyan's Armenian Navy Band.
The 2002 film Ararat by Armenian-Canadian filmmaker Atom Egoyan
features Mt. Ararat prominently in its symbolism.
The 2011 documentary film
Journey to Ararat on Parrot and Abovian's
expedition to Ararat was produced in Estonia by filmmaker Riho
Västrik. It was screened at the Golden Apricot
International Film Festival in
Yerevan in 2013.
Places named for Ararat
In Armenia, there is a province, two cities (Ararat, Masis), and two
villages (Ararat, Masis) named Ararat or Masis.
The Turkish province of
Ağrı was named for the mountain (its Turkish
name) in 1927, while the city of Karaköse was renamed to
In the United States, an unincorporated community in North Carolina, a
township and mountain in Pennsylvania, and a river in Virginia and
North Carolina are named Ararat.
In the Australian state of Victoria, there is a city and a rural city
96205 Ararat is an asteroid named in the mountain's honor
taken from the
International Space Station
International Space Station on 8 July 2011
taken from the
Space Shuttle on 18 March 2001
View of Ararat from Khor Virap, Armenia
View of Ararat with the
Khor Virap in the front, Armenia
View of Ararat from Iğdır, Turkey
^ Strabo, Geographica, XI.14.2 and XI.14.14. They are also
transliterated as Abus and Nibarus. Abos and Nibaros are the two
peaks of Ararat according to scholars such as Nicholas Adontz,
Vladimir Minorsky, Julius Fürst.
^ The peaks are sometimes referred to in plural as Մասիսներ
Masisner. Greater Ararat is known as simply Masis or Մեծ
Մասիս (Mets Masis, "Great/Big Masis"). While Lesser Ararat is
known as Sis (Սիս) or Փոքր Մասիս (P′ok′r
Masis, "Little/Small Masis").
Richard James Fischer: "The Genesis text, using the plural "mountains"
(or hills), identifies no particular mountain, but points generally
Armenia ("Ararat" being identical with the Assyrian "Urartu")
which is broadly embraces that region."
Exell, Joseph S.; Spence-Jones, Henry Donald Maurice (eds.).
"Genesis". The Pulpit Commentary. It is agreed by all that the term
Ararat describes a region. view online
Dummelow, John, ed. (1909). "Genesis". John Dummelow's Commentary on
the Bible. Ararat is the Assyrian 'Urardhu,' the country round Lake
Van, in what is now called
Armenia [...] and perhaps it is a general
expression for the hilly country which lay to the N. of Assyria. Mt.
Masis, now called Mt. Ararat (a peak 17,000 ft. high), is not meant
here. view online
Bill T. Arnold: "Since the ancient kingdom of Ararat/
Urartu was much
more extensive geographically than this isolated location in Armenia,
modern attempts to find remaints of Noah's ark here are
Vahan Kurkjian: "It has long been the notion among many Christians
Noah's Ark came to rest as the Flood subsided upon the great peak
known as Mount Ararat; this assumption is based upon an erroneous
reading of the 4th verse of the VIIIth chapter of Genesis. That verse
does not say that the Ark landed upon Mount Ararat, but upon "the
mountains of Ararat." Now, Ararat was the Hebrew version of the name,
not of the mountain but of the country around it, the old Armenian
homeland, whose name at other times and in other tongues appears
variously as Erirath, Urartu, etc."
Armenians have been called the "people of Ararat" by authors of at
least two books. Italian diplomat and historian Luigi
Villari wrote in 1906: "Almost the whole history of the Armenian
people centres round Mount Ararat."
^ "...Mt. Ararat, which was the geographical center of the ancient
"The sacred mountain stands in the center of historical and
Armenians it is the ancient sanctuary of their faith, the
centre of their once famous kingdom, hallowed by a thousand
^ "The lands of Western
Armenia which Mt. Ararat represent..."
"mount Ararat is the symbol of banal irredentism for the territories
of Western Armenia"
^ Hofmann suggested that "the return of the ruins of
Ani and of Mount
Turkey to Armenia], both in the immediate border area could
be considered as a convincing gesture of Turkey's apologies and will
^ Mikloško stated at a 2010 conference on Turkey's foreign policy:
Mount Ararat [represents the] Christian heritage of Armenians. Does
Turkey consider the possibility of giving the mount back to
Armenians? The return of Ararat would be an unprecedented step to
signify Turkey’s willingness to build a peaceful future and promote
its image at the international scene."
^ Štromas wrote: "The
Armenians would also be right to claim from
Turkey the Ararat Valley, which is an indivisible part of the Armenian
homeland containing the main spiritual center and supreme symbol of
Armenia's nationhood, the holy Mountain of Ararat itself."
^ Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey. Banknote Museum: 6. Emission
Group – One Hundred Turkish Lira – I. Series, II. Series &
^ "К Арарату" ("To Ararat") and "Арарат из
Эривани" ("Ararat from Erivan")
^ "100 World Mountains ranked by primary factor". ii.uib.no. Institutt
for informatikk University of Bergen.
^ Bjørstad, Petter E. (August 2007). "Ararat Trip Report,".
ii.uib.no. University of Bergen. Archived from the original on 21
Ağrı Dağı Milli Parkı [
Ağrı Dağı National Park]".
ormansu.gov.tr (in Turkish). Republic of
Turkey Ministry of Forest and
^ "Ararat". Merriam-Webster. ˈer-ə-ˌrat, ˈa-rə- ; "Ararat".
Collins Dictionary. ˈærəˌræt
^ a b c d e f g h i Yilmaz, Y.; Güner, Y.; Saroğlu, F. (1998).
"Geology of the quaternary volcanic centres of the east Anatolia".
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 85: 173–210.
^ Short, Nicholas M.; Blair, Robert W., eds. (1986). "Mt. Ararat,
Turkey". Geomorphology From Space: A Global Overview of Regional
Landforms. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
^ a b de Planhol, X. (1986). "Ararat". Encyclopædia Iranica.
^ Hovannisian, Richard G. (1973). "
Armenia and the
Caucasus in the
Genesis of the Soviet-Turkish Entente". International Journal of
Middle East Studies. 4 (2): 129. doi:10.1017/s0020743800027409.
JSTOR 162238. ...Nationalist
Turkey annexed the Surmalu district,
embracing Mount Ararat, the historic symbol of the Armenian
^ de Waal, Thomas (2015). Great Catastrophe:
Armenians and Turks in
the Shadow of Genocide. Oxford University Press. p. 86.
^ a b Parrot 2016, p. xxiii.
^ Yildiz, Kerim; Taysi, Tanyel B. (2007). The
Kurds in Iran: The Past,
Present and Future. London: Pluto Press. p. 71.
^ Tsutsiev, Arthur (2014). Atlas of the Ethno-Political History of the
Caucasus. Translated by Nora Seligman Favorov. New Haven: Yale
University Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-0300153088.
^ Frymer, Tikva S.; Sperling, S. David (2008). "Ararat, Armenia".
Encyclopaedia Judaica (2nd ed.). view online
^ a b Arnold 2008, p. 104.
^ a b c d Hewsen, Robert H. (2001). "Armenia: The Physical
Setting—Mt. Ararat". Armenia: A Historical Atlas. University of
Chicago Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-226-33228-4.
^ Smith, Eli (1832). "Foreign Correspondence". The Biblical Repository
and Classical Review: 203. ...called by the Armenians, Masis, and by
Europeans generally Ararat...
^ a b Bryce 1877, p. 198.
^ a b Petrossyan 2010, p. 220.
^ Jones, Horace Leonard, ed. (1928). "XI.14". The Geography of Strabo.
Harvard University Press. view Book XI, Chapter 14 online
^ Minorsky, V. (1944). "Roman and Byzantine Campaigns in Atropatene".
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of
London. 11 (2): 259. JSTOR 609312. Although what
Strabo means by
Abos seems to be the southern spurs of Mt. Ararat...
Julius Fürst cited in Exell, Joseph; Jones, William; Barlow,
George; Scott, W. Frank; et al. (1892). The Preacher's Complete
Homiletical Commentary. "...the present Aghri Dagh or the great
Ararat (Pers. Kuhi Nuch, i.e. Noah's mountain, in the classics ὁ
ἄβος, Armen. massis)..." (Furst.) view online
^ a b Jastrow Jr., Morris; Kent, Charles Foster (1902). "Ararat".
Jewish Encyclopedia Volume II. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Co.
p. 73. The mountain itself is known as Ararat only among
Occidental geographers. The
Armenians call it Massis, the Turks Aghri
Dagh, and the Persians Koh i Nuh, or "the mountain of Noah."
^ Avetisyan, Kamsar (1979). Հայրենագիտական
էտյուդներ [Armenian studies sketches] (in Armenian). Yerevan:
Sovetakan grogh. p. 14. Հայերը Արարատը
անվանում են Մասիս...
"Պատմություն [History]" (in Armenian). Ministry of Foreign
Affairs of the Republic of Armenia. Բարձրավանդակի
գրեթե կենտրոնում վեր է հառնում
աստվածաշնչյան Արարատ (Մասիս) լեռը...
^ a b "Մասիսներ [Masisner]". encyclopedia.am (in
^ a b Peroomian, Rubina (2007). "Historical Memory: Threading the
Contemporary Literature of Armenia". In Hovannisian, Richard. The
Armenian Genocide: Cultural and Ethical Legacies. Transaction
Publishers. p. 113. ISBN 9781412835923. ...the majestic duo
of Sis and Masis (the two peaks of Mount Ararat) that hover above the
Erevan landscape are constant reminders of the historical
^ Delitzsch, Franz (2001). New Commentary on Genesis. Wipf and Stock
Publishers. p. 274. ISBN 978-1-57910-813-7. The Armenians
Little Ararat sis and Great Ararat masis, whence it seems that
great, the meaning of meds, is contained in ma.
^ Khorenatsi 1978, p. 91.
^ a b Petrossyan 2010, p. 221.
^ a b c Novoseltsev 1978.
^ Dalton, Robert H. (2004). Sacred Places of the World: A Religious
Journey Across the Globe. Abhishek. p. 133.
ISBN 9788182470514. The Turkish name for Mt Ararat is Agri Dagi
(which means mountain of pain).
^ McCarta, Robertson (1992).
Turkey (2nd ed.). Nelles. p. 210.
ISBN 9783886184019. (Turkish: Agri Dagi, "Mount of
^ a b Sarıkaya, Mehmet Akif (2012). "Recession of the ice cap on
Ağrı (Ararat), Turkey, from 1976 to 2011 and its climatic
significance". Journal of Asian Earth Sciences. 46: 190–194.
^ "Xortekî tirk dixwaze bi bîsîklêtê xwe ji çiyayê Agirî berde
xwarê" (in Kurdish). Rudaw Media Network. 19 June 2014.
^ Waugh, Alexander (27 August 2008). "Will he, won't He? Ararat by
Frank Westerman, translated by Sam Garrett". The Spectator.
Ağrı – Mount Ararat". Republic of
Turkey Ministry of culture
and tourism (kultur.gov.tr). 2005.
^ Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary (3rd ed.). Springfield,
Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster. 2001. p. 63.
^ Haggett, Peter, ed. (2002). "Turkey". Encyclopedia of World
Geography: The Middle East (2nd ed.). Marshall Cavendish.
p. 2026. ISBN 978-0-7614-7289-6.
^ Hartemann, Frederic; Hauptman, Robert (2005). The Mountain
Encyclopedia. Lanham, Maryland: Taylor Trade. p. 17.
^ Galichian, Rouben (2004). Historic Maps of Armenia: The Cartographic
Heritage. I.B. Tauris. p. 26. ISBN 1-86064-979-3.
^ Kurter, Ajun (20 May 1988). "Glaciers of the Middle East and Africa:
United States Geological Survey
United States Geological Survey Professional Paper.
Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. CS1 maint: BOT:
original-url status unknown (link)
^ "Maps of Ararat - Ararat Map,
Turkey (Agri Dagi)".
turkeyodyssey.com. Terra Anatolia. Archived from the original on
^ According to Petter E. Bjørstad, Head of Informatics Department at
University of Bergen
University of Bergen (Norway). "Ararat Trip Report,". ii.uib.no.
August 2007. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. I measured
the summit elevation, averaging more than 300 samples in my GPS, it
settled on 5132 meter, 5 meter lower than the often quoted 5137
figure. This clearly shows that the 5165 meter elevation that many
sources use is wrong. The summit is a snow ridge with no visible rock
anywhere. Thus, the precise elevation will change with the seasons and
could definitely be influenced by climate change (global warming).
Later GPS measurements in
Iran suggested that the GPS data may be
about 10 meter too high also in this part of the world. This would in
fact point in the direction of a true Ararat elevation around 5125
^ a b c Blumenthal, M. M. (1958). "Vom Agrl Dag (Ararat) zum Kagkar
Dag. Bergfahrten in nordostanatolischen Grenzlande". Die Alpen (in
German). 34: 125–137.
^ a b Sarıkaya, Mehmet Akif; Tekeli, A. E. (2014). "Satellite
inventory of glaciers in Turkey". In J. S. Kargel; et al. Global Land
Ice Measurements from Space. New York: Springer-Verlag.
pp. 465–480. ISBN 978-3540798170. CS1 maint: Explicit
use of et al. (link)
^ a b Birman, J. H. (1968). "Glacial Reconnaissance in Turkey".
Geological Society of America
Geological Society of America Bulletin. 79 (8): 1009–1026.
^ a b Dewey, J. F.; Hempton, M. R.; Kidd, W. S. F.; Saroglum, F.;
Sengὃr, A. M. C. (1986). "Shortening of continental lithosphere: the
neotectonics of Eastern Anatolia – a young collision zone". In
Coward, M. P.; Ries, A. C. Collision Tectonics. Geological Society of
London. pp. 3–36.
^ a b c d Karakhanian, A.; Djrbashian, R.; Trifonov, V.; Philip, H.;
Arakelian, S.; Avagian, A. (2002). "Holocene–Historical Volcanism
and Active Faults as Natural Risk Factor for
Armenia and Adjacent
Countries". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 113 (1):
^ a b c d Karakhanian, A.S.; Trifonov, V.G.; Philip, H.; Avagyan, A.;
Hessami, K.; Jamali, F.; Bayraktutan, M. S.; Bagdassarian, H.;
Arakelian, S.; Davtian, V.; Adilkhanyan, A. (2004). "Active faulting
and natural hazards in Armenia, Eastern
Turkey and North-Western
Iran". Tectonophysics. 380 (3–4): 189–219.
^ Allen, Mark B.; Mark, Darren F.; Kheirkhah, Monireh; Barfod, Dan;
Emami, Mohammad H.; Saville, Christopher (2011). "40Ar/39Ar dating of
Quaternary lavas in northwest Iran: constraints on the landscape
evolution and incision rates of the Turkish–Iranian plateau".
Geophysical Journal International. 185 (3): 1175–1188.
^ a b Siebert, L., T. Simkin, and P. Kimberly (2010) Volcanoes of the
world, 3rd ed. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.
551 pp. ISBN 978-0-520-26877-7.
^ a b Haroutiunian, R. A. (2005). "Катастрофическое
извержение вулкана Арарат 2 июля 1840
года [Catastrophic eruption of volcano Ararat on 2 july, 1840]".
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of
Armenia: Earth Sciences (in Russian). Armenian National Academy of
Sciences. 58 (1): 27–35. ISSN 0515-961X.
^ Taymaz, Tuncay; Eyidog̃an, Haluk; Jackson, James (1991). "Source
parameters of large earthquakes in the East Anatolian fault zone
(Turkey)". Geophysical Journal International. 106 (3): 537–550.
^ a b
William of Rubruck
William of Rubruck (1998). The Journey of
William of Rubruck
William of Rubruck to
the Eastern Parts of the World, 1253–55. Translated by W. W.
Rockhill. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 269–270.
ISBN 978-81-206-1338-6. [...] mountains in which they say that
Noah's ark rests; and there are two mountains, the one greater than
the other; and the Araxes flows at their base [...] Many have tried to
climb it, but none has been able. [...] An old man gave me quite a
good reason why one ought not to try to climb it. They call the
mountain Massis [...] "No one," he said, "ought to climb up Massis; it
is the mother of the world."
^ Stackhouse, Thomas (1836). A History of the Holy Bible. Glasgow:
Blackie and Son. p. 93.
^ Siekierski, Konrad (2014). ""One Nation, One Faith, One Church": The
Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church and the Ethno-Religion in Post-Soviet
Armenia". In Agadjanian, Alexander. Armenian Christianity Today:
Identity Politics and Popular Practice. Ashgate Publishing.
p. 14. ISBN 978-1-4724-1273-7.
^ Parrot 2016, p. 139
^ a b Randveer, Lauri. "How the Future Rector Conquered Ararat".
University of Tartu.
^ Khachaturian, Lisa (2011). Cultivating Nationhood in Imperial
Russia: The Periodical Press and the Formation of a Modern Armenian
Identity. Transaction Publishers. p. 52.
^ Milner, Thomas (1872). The Gallery of Geography: A Pictorial and
Descriptive Tour of the World, Volume 2. W.R. M'Phun & Son.
p. 783. Great Ararat was ascended for the first time by Professor
Parrot, October 9, 1829...
^ Giles, Thomas (27 April 2016). "Friedrich Parrot: The man who became
the 'father of Russian mountaineering'". Russia Beyond the Headlines.
Retrieved 19 April 2017.
^ Ketchian, Philip K. (December 24, 2005). "Climbing Ararat: Then and
Now". The Armenian Weekly. 71 (52). Archived from the original on
September 8, 2009. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
^ Parrot 2016, p. 142.
^ Parrot 2016, p. 141-142.
^ Parrot 2016, p. 183.
^ Fairbairn, Patrick (1866). "Ararat". The Imperial Bible-Dictionary:
Historical, Biographical, Geographical and Doctrinal – Volume I.
^ Polo, Marco; Yule, Henry (2010). The Book of Ser Marco Polo, the
Venetian: Concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East, Volume 1.
Cambridge University Press. p. 49.
^ a b Bryce, James (1878). "On
Armenia and Mount Ararat". Proceedings
Royal Geographical Society
Royal Geographical Society of London. London: Royal
Geographical Society. 22 (3): 169–186. doi:10.2307/1799899.
^ Lynch, H. F. B. (1893). "The ascent of Ararat". The Geographical
Journal. 2: 458.
^ Lynch, H. F. B. (1901). Armenia, travels and studies. Volume I: The
Russian Provinces. London: Longmans, Green, and Co. p. 176.
^ "Conquering the legendary Mount Ararat". Hürriyet Daily News. 15
^ Spar, Ira (2003). "The Mesopotamian Legacy: Origins of the Genesis
tradition". In Aruz, Joan. Art of the First Cities: The Third
Millennium B.C. from the Mediterranean to the Indus. New York:
Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 488.
^ Morgenstern, Julian (1941). "Psalm 48". Hebrew Union College Annual.
Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion. 16: 68.
JSTOR 23502992. Note the plural, hare 'Ararat; not "Mt. Ararat,"
as traditionally translated and interpreted, but rather "(one of) the
mountains of Ararat," i. e. of
Urartu or Armenia.
^ a b Richard James Fischer (2007). "Mount Ararat". Historical
Genesis: From Adam to Abraham. University Press of America.
pp. 109–111. ISBN 9780761838074.
^ a b Arnold 2008, p. 105.
^ Kurkjian, Vahan (1964) . A History of Armenia. New York:
Armenian General Benevolent Union
Armenian General Benevolent Union of America. p. 2.
^ Room, Adrian (1997). Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings.
McFarland. p. 34. ISBN 9780786401727.
^ a b c Vos, Howard F. (1982). "Flood (Genesis)". In Bromiley,
Geoffrey W. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: E-J (fully
revised ed.). Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 319.
^ Tremblais, Jean-Louis (16 July 2011). "Ararat, montagne biblique".
Le Figaro (in French).
"Biblical mountain's glaciers shrinking". News24. 8 August 2010.
^ a b Avagyan, Ṛafayel (1998). Yerevan—heart of Armenia: meetings
on the roads of time. Union of Writers of Armenia. p. 17. The
sacred biblical mountain prevailing over
Yerevan was the very visiting
card by which foreigners came to know our country.
^ Bailey, Lloyd R. (1990). "Ararat". In Mills, Watson E.; Bullard,
Roger Aubrey. Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press.
p. 54. ISBN 978-0-86554-373-7. ...the local (Armenian)
population called Masis and which they began to identify as the ark's
landing place in the eleventh-twelfth centuries.
^ Conybeare, F. C. (1901). "Reviewed Work: Ararat und Masis. Studien
zur armenischen Altertumskunde und Litteratur by Friedrich Murad". The
American Journal of Theology. 5 (2): 335–337. doi:10.1086/477703.
JSTOR 3152410. Masis was anyhow a center and focus of pagan myths
and cults, which the author enumerates; and it was only in the
eleventh century, after these had vanished from the popular mind, that
the Armenian theologians ventured to locate on its eternal snows the
resting-place of Noah's ark.
^ a b Spencer, Lee; Lienard, Jean Luc (2005). "The Search for Noah's
Ark". Southwestern Adventist University. (archived)
^ Mandeville, John (2012). The Book of Marvels and Travels. Translated
by Anthony Bale. Oxford University Press. p. 70.
ISBN 9780199600601. ...there's another mountain called Ararat;
the Jews call this Thano, where Noah's ship rested, and it is still
there. One can glimpse it from afar in clear weather, and the mountain
is seven miles high.
^ Mandel, Jerome (2013). "Ararat, Mount". In Friedman, John Block;
Figg, Kristen Mossler. Trade, Travel, and Exploration in the Middle
Ages: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 30.
^ "Նոյն իջնում է Արարատից (1889) [Descent of Noah
from Ararat (1889)]" (in Armenian). National Gallery of Armenia.
^ Conway Morris, Roderick (24 February 2012). "The Key to Armenia's
Survival". The New York Times.
^ a b original title: Dictionnaire historique, critique,
chronologique, geographique et literal de la Bible. English
translation: Calmet, Augustin (1830). "Ararat". Calmet's Dictionary of
the Holy Bible: With the Biblical Fragments, Volume 1. Charles Taylor
(translator). London: Holdsworth and Ball. p. 178–179.
"...a famous mountain in Armenia, on which the ark is said to have
rested, after the deluge."
^ Jamieson, Robert; Fausset, Andrew Robert; Brown, David (1871).
Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible. view
Genesis 8:4 commentary online "...mountain which tradition points to
as the one on which the ark rested."
^ Dwight 1856, p. 189: "The mountain on which, according to
ancient Armenian tradition, and the general opinion of the learned in
Europe, the ark of Noah rested after the deluge, is called in Armenian
Masis, and in Turkish Aghur Dagh..."
^ "Homily of John Paul II". vatican.va. Holy See. 26 September 2001.
Archived from the original on 19 December 2016. CS1 maint: BOT:
original-url status unknown (link)
^ "Приветственная речь Святейшего
Патриарха Кирилла в кафедральном
соборе Эчмиадзина [Welcome speech by His Holiness
Patriarch Kirill at the Cathedral of Etchmiadzin]". patriarchia.ru (in
Russian). Russian Orthodox Church. 16 March 2010. Archived from the
original on 19 December 2016. Каждый, кто приезжает
в Армению, получает неизгладимое
впечатление, лицезрея ее главный
символ — священную гору Арарат, на
которой остановился после потопа
ковчег праотца Ноя. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url
status unknown (link)
^ Patai, Raphael; Oettinger, Ayelet (2015). "Ararat". In Patai,
Raphael; Bar-Itzhak, Haya. Encyclopedia of Jewish Folklore and
Traditions. Routledge. pp. 50–51.
^ Balsiger, David; Sellier Jr., Charles E. (1974). In Search of Noah's
Ark. Sunn Classic Books. p. 203.
^ Zenian, David (1 July 1996). "The Holy Etchmiadzin Museum: History
of a Long Journey". AGBU Magazine. Armenian General Benevolent
^ Mayell, Hillary (27 April 2004). "
Noah's Ark Found? Turkey
Expedition Planned for Summer". National Geographic. pp. 1,
^ Cline, Eric H. (2009). Biblical Archaeology: A Very Short
Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 72.
^ Fagan, Garrett G. (2006). Archaeological Fantasies: How
Pseudoarchaeology Misrepresents the Past and Misleads the Public.
Psychology Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-415-30592-1.
^ Feder, Kenneth L. (2010). "Noah's Ark". Encyclopedia of Dubious
Archaeology: From Atlantis to the Walam Olum: From Atlantis to the
Walam Olum. ABC-CLIO. pp. 195–196.
^ a b Boniface, Brian; Cooper, Chris; Cooper, Robyn (2012). Worldwide
Destinations: The Geography of Travel and Tourism (6th ed.). Taylor
& Francis. p. 338. ISBN 978-0-415-52277-9. The
snow-capped peak of Ararat is a holy mountain and national symbol for
Armenians, dominating the horizon in the capital, Erevan, yet it is
virtually inaccessible as it lies across the border in Turkey.
^ Lydolph, Paul E. (1979). Geography of the U.S.S.R., Topical
Analysis. Misty Valley Publishing. p. 46. ...about 65 kilometers
Mount Ararat reaches an elevation of 5156
^ Shoemaker, M. Wesley (2014). "Armenia". Russia and The Commonwealth
of Independent States 2014. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 203.
ISBN 9781475812268. Mt. Ararat, traditionally associated with
^ Walker, Christopher J. (1990) . Armenia: The Survival of a
Nation (2nd ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 11.
ISBN 978-0-312-04230-1. ...Mount Ararat, closely identified with
Armenia throughout her history...
^ Gabrielian, M. C. (1892). The Armenians: or the People of Ararat.
Philadelphia: Allen, Lane & Scott.
^ Burtt, Joseph (1926). The People of Ararat. London: L. and Virginia
Woolf at the Hogarth Press. OCLC 3522299.
^ Villari, Luigi (1906). Fire and Sword in the Caucasus. London: T.
Fisher Unwin. p. 215.
^ Levonian Cole, Teresa (30 October 2010). "
Armenia opens up to
visitors". Financial Times. Ararat, the supreme symbol of
^ Boltyansky, Boris (24 October 2015). "Солнце мое" (in
Russian). lenta.ru. Библейский Арарат, символ
страны, стал главным брендом
^ Adriaans 2011, p. 35.
^ Darieva, Tsypylma (2006). "Bringing the soil back to the homeland:
Reconfigurations of representation of loss in Armenia" (PDF).
Comparativ: Leipziger Beiträge zur Universalgeschichte und
Leipzig University (3): 90.
Archived from the original on 2017-05-21. CS1 maint: BOT:
original-url status unknown (link)
^ Companjen, Françoise; Marácz, László Károly; Versteegh, Lia,
eds. (2010). Exploring the
Caucasus in the 21st Century: Essays on
Culture, History and Politics in a Dynamic Context. Amsterdam
University Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 9789089641830.
^ Darke, Diana (2014). Eastern Turkey. Bradt Travel Guides.
p. 317. ISBN 978-1-84162-490-7. ...of course
Mount Ararat is
Armenians their holy mountain...
Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary
Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary Volume II
(in Russian). 1890. Арарат давно считался
священной горой у армян... on Russian
^ Melton, J. Gordon (2010). "Ararat, Mount". In Melton, J. Gordon;
Baumann, Martin. Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia
of Beliefs and Practices (2nd ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 164.
^ a b Adalian, Rouben Paul (2010). Historical Dictionary of Armenia.
Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 85.
^ Sakalli, Seyhun Orcan (2014). "Coexistence, Polarization and
Development: The Armenian Legacy in Modern Turkey" (PDF). HEC
Lausanne. Archived from the original on 2016-12-15. CS1 maint:
BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ Lottman, Herbert R. (29 February 1976). "Despite Ages of Captivity,
Armenians Persevere". The New York Times. p. 287.
^ Bryce 1877, p. 234.
^ Maxoudian, Noubar (1952). "Early
Armenia as an empire: The career of
Tigranes III, 96–55 B.C". Journal of the Royal Central Asian
Society. Royal Society for Asian Affairs. 39 (2): 156.
^ a b Shirinian, Lorne (1992). The Republic of
Armenia and the
rethinking of the North-American Diaspora in literature. Edwin Mellen
Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-0773496132.
^ Hovannisian, Richard (1971). The Republic of Armenia: The first
year, 1918–1919. University of California Press. p. 259.
^ Aftandilian, Gregory L. (1981). Armenia, vision of a republic: the
independence lobby in America, 1918–1927. Charles River Books.
^ Khorenatsi 1978, p. 85.
^ Panossian 2006, p. 51.
^ Panossian 2006, pp. 51–52.
^ "State symbols of the Republic of Armenia". president.am. Office to
the President of the Republic of Armenia.
^ Matevosian, V.; Haytayan, P. (1984). "Սարյան Մարտիրոս
Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia
Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia Volume 10 (in
Armenian). p. 240. 1921–ին Հ. Կոջոյանի հետ
ստեղծել է Խորհրդային Հայաստանի
^ Meier, Reinhard (1975). "Soviet
Armenia Today". Swiss Review of
World Affairs. Neue Zürcher Zeitung. 25–26. The impressive mountain
also has its place as the central image in the coat of arms of the
Armenian Soviet Republic (coupled, of course, with a five-pointed
^ Adriaans 2011, p. 48.
^ Johnson, Jerry L. (2000). Crossing Borders – Confronting History:
Intercultural Adjustment in the Post-Cold War World. Lanham, Maryland:
University Press of America. pp. 6–7.
Mount Ararat as both a
symbol of the Genocide and loss of hallowed land.
^ Goldman, Ari L. (18 December 1988). "A History Full of Anguish and
Agony; The Armenians, Still 'Like Job's People'". The New York
^ Avakyan, K. R. (2009). "Աշոտ Մելքոնյան, Արարատ.
Հայոց անմահության խորհուրդը [Ashot Melkonyan,
Ararat. Symbol of Armenian Immortality]". Lraber Hasarakakan
Gitutyunneri (in Armenian) (1): 252–257. Պատմական
ճակատագրի բերումով Արարատ-Մասիսը ոչ
միայն վեհության, անհասանելիության,
կատարելության մարմնավորում է, այլև 1915
թ. հայոց մեծ եղեռնից ու հայ ժողովրդի
հայրենազրկումից հետո՝ բռնազավթված
հայրենիքի և այն նորեն իր արդար
զավակներին վերադարձելու համոզումի
անկրկնելի խորհրդանիշ, աշխարհասփյուռ
հայության միասնականության փարոս» (էջ
^ Adriaans 2011, p. 40.
^ Platz, Stephanie (1996), Pasts and Futures: Space, History and
Armenian Identity 1988–1994, University of Chicago, p. 34
^ "Armenian protest against Erdogan visit turns violent". The Daily
Star. 26 November 2010. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
^ a b Balci, Bayram (2014). "Between ambition and realism: Turkey's
engagement in the South Caucasus". In Agadjanian, Alexander; Jödicke,
Ansgar; van der Zweerde, Evert. Religion, Nation and Democracy in the
South Caucasus. Routledge. p. 260. ISBN 978-1-317-69157-0.
Armenia has not officially expressed territorial claims in respect of
Turkey but the regular references to the genocide and to Mount Ararat,
a national symbol for
Armenians which is situated in contemporary
Turkey, clearly indicates that the border with their eastern neighbour
^ Phillips, David L. (2005). Unsilencing the Past: Track Two Diplomacy
and Turkish-Armenian Reconciliation. New York: Berghahn Books.
p. 68. ISBN 978-1-84545-007-6.
^ Danielyan, Emil (28 July 2011). "Erdogan Demands Apology From
Armenia". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
^ Bidder, Benjamin (6 April 2010). "Serge Sarkisian on
Armenian-Turkish Relations: 'We Wanted to Break Through Centuries of
Hostility'". Der Spiegel.
^ Harutyunyan, Arus (2009). Contesting National Identities in an
Ethnically Homogeneous State: The Case of Armenian Democratization.
Kalamazoo, Michigan: Western Michigan University. p. 89.
^ "Return of ruins of
Ani and of
Mount Ararat could be considered as
convincing gesture of Turkey's apologies: Tessa Hofmann". Armenpress.
16 April 2015.
^ "Frantisek Miklosko demands that
Turkey return Biblical Mount Ararat
to Armenians". PanARMENIAN.Net. 14 September 2010.
^ Shtromas, Alexander (2003). Faulkner, Robert K.; Mahoney, Daniel J.,
eds. Totalitarianism and the Prospects for World Order: Closing the
Door on the Twentieth Century. Lexington Books. p. 387.
^ a b Healey, Barth (23 August 1992). "STAMPS; For Armenia, Rainbows
And Eagles in Flight". The New York Times.
^ Abrahamian, Levon (2007). "Dancing around the mountain: Armenian
identity through rites of solidarity". In Grant, Bruce;
Caucasus Paradigms: Anthropologies, Histories
and the Making of a World Area. Berlin: Lit Verlag.
pp. 167–188. ISBN 9783825899066.
^ Ermochkine, Nicholas; Iglikowski, Peter (2003). 40 Degrees East: An
Anatomy of Vodka. New York: Nova Science Publishers. p. 121.
ISBN 978-1-59033-594-9. Undoubtedly the top of the tops of East
European brandies is the Armenian brandy called Ararat...
^ Ritman, Alex (17 August 2012). "My Kind of Place:
thrived through conquest". The National.
^ Radisson Blu Hotel, Yerevan. "Radisson Blu Hotel, Yerevan".
radissonblu.com. Our magnificent hilltop setting provides beautiful
Yerevan city center against the backdrop of Mount
Ani Plaza Hotel. "
Ani Plaza: Hotel in Yerevan, Armenia".
anihotel.com. The guest rooms offer a spectacular view over the city:
one can admire the famous
Mount Ararat – the symbol of
^ Sarkssian, M. S. (1963). "Հովհաննես Այվազովսկին
և հայ մշակույթը [Hovhannes Ayvazovsky and Armenian
Patma-Banasirakan Handes (in Armenian). Yerevan: Armenian
Academy of Sciences (4): 28. Դեռևս 1860–ակա ն թթ.
ճանապարհորդության ժամանակ և դրանից
հետո Այվազովսկին նկարում է Արարատի և
Սևանի գեղատեսիլ բնության պատկերներ։
Մինչ այդ հայ նկարիչներից ոչ ոք չէր
տվել Արարատը և Արարատյան դաշտը
^ Khachatrian, Shahen. ""Поэт моря" ["The Sea Poet"]" (in
Russian). Center of Spiritual Culture, Leading and National Research
Samara State Aerospace University. Archived from the original on 19
^ "Martiros Sarian (1880–1972) View of
Mount Ararat from Yerevan".
Christie's. 3 June 2013.
^ Antonson 2016.
^ Jeffrey, David L. (1992). A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in
English Literature. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 287.
^ Wordsworth, William (1838). The Sonnets of William Wordsworth:
Collected in One Volume, with a Few Additional Ones, Now First
Published. E. Moxon. p. 209.
^ Pushkin, Aleksandr (1974). A Journey to Arzrum. Translated by
Birgitta Ingemanson. Ann Arbor: Ardis. p. 50.
^ Dmitriev, Vladimir Alekseevich (2014).
"Древнеармянские сюжеты в творчестве
В.Я. Брюсова: к вопросу о влиянии
событий Первой мировой войны на
русскую литературу начала XX в.". In Bogush,
V. A. Первая мировая война в
исторических судьбах Европы : сб.
материалов Междунар. науч. конф., г.
Вилейка, 18 окт. 2014 г (PDF) (in Russian). Minsk:
Belarusian State University. p. 404. Для В. Брюсова
Арарат — это прежде всего символ,
олицетворяющий древность армянского
народа и его культуры...
^ Mandelstam, Osip (2011). A Journey to Armenia. Translated by Sidney
Monas. London: Notting Hill Editions. p. 91.
^ Grossman, Vasily (2013). An Armenian Sketchbook. Translated by
Robert Chandler; Elizabeth Chandler. Introduction by Robert Chandler
and Yury Bit-Yunan. New York: New York Review Books. p. 24.
^ Siraganian, Lisa (2012). Modernism's Other Work: The Art Object's
Political Life. Oxford University Press. p. 156.
^ Karakashian, Meliné (1998). "Armenia: A Country's History of
Challenges". Journal of Social Issues. 54 (2): 381–392.
^ a b Bardakjian, Kevork B., ed. (2000). "Hovhannes Širaz". A
Reference Guide to Modern Armenian Literature, 1500–1920: With an
Introductory History. Wayne State University Press. p. 227.
^ "I Love My
Armenia by Yeghishe Charents". Ararat. New York: Armenian
General Benevolent Union. 15: 46. 1960.
^ Ter-Khachatryan, Yervand (11 December 2014). "Բանաստեղծը
Ռավեննայում". Azg (in Armenian). Archived from the original
on April 11, 2016. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
^ Chrysanthopoulos, Leonidas (2002).
Nation-building and Diplomacy in Armenia, 1993–1994. Gomidas
Institute. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-884630-05-7.
^ Panossian 2006, p. 335.
^ "We Are Few... by Barouyr Sevak". Ararat. New York: Armenian General
Benevolent Union. 21–22: 5. 1978.
System of a Down
System of a Down – Holy Mountains Lyrics". genius.com.
^ "Arto Tuncboyaciyan – Ararat". Sharm Holding production.
^ Hogikyan, Nellie (2007). "Atom Egoyan's Post-exilic Imaginary:
Representing Homeland, Imagining Family". In Burwell, Jennifer;
Tschofen, Monique. Image and Territory: Essays on Atom Egoyan. Wilfrid
Laurier University Press. p. 202.
^ "Nights are long and dark". Looduskalender.ee. 29 March 2014.
Retrieved 11 October 2017.
^ Ter-Sahakian, Karine (29 March 2014). "Armenian community of
Estonia: A look into the future". PanARMENIAN.Net. Retrieved 11
^ "'Journey to Ararat' Documentary Film". Golden Apricot International
Film Festival. July 2013.
^ Nişanyan, Sevan (2010). "
Ağrı il – Merkez – Ağrı". Index
Anatolicus (in Turkish).
General works cited in the article
Movses Khorenatsi (1978). History of the Armenians. Translated by
Robert W. Thomson. Harvard University Press.
Panossian, Razmik (2006). The Armenians: From Kings and Priests to
Merchants and Commissars. New York: Columbia University Press.
Arnold, Bill T. (2008). Genesis. Cambridge University Press.
Adriaans, Rik (2011). "Sonorous Borders: National Cosmology & the
Mediation of Collective Memory in Armenian Ethnopop Music". University
of Amsterdam. pp. 24–27. Archived from the original on March 5,
2016. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
Specific works on Ararat
Parrot, Friedrich (2016) . Journey to Ararat. Translated by
William Desborough Cooley. Introduction by Pietro A. Shakarian.
London: Gomidas Institute. ISBN 978-1909382244.
Dwight, H.G.O. (1856). "Armenian Traditions about Mt. Ararat". Journal
of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. 5: 189.
doi:10.2307/592222. JSTOR 592222.
Bryce, James (1877). Transcaucasia and Ararat: Being Notes of a
Vacation Tour in Autumn of 1876. London: Macmillan and Co.
Murad, Friedrich (1901). Ararat und Masis: Studien zur armenischen
Altertumskunde und Litteratur (in German). Heidelberg: Carl Winters
Novoseltsev, Anatoly (1978). "О местонахождении
библейской "горы Арарат" (On the location of the
biblical "mountains of Ararat")". Европа в древности
и средневековье (Europe in the antiquity and the Middle
Ages) (in Russian). Moscow: Nauka. pp. 61–66.
Ketchian, Philip K. (24 December 2005). "Climbing Ararat: Then and
Now". The Armenian Weekly. 71 (52). Archived from the original on
September 8, 2009. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
Melkonyan, Ashot (2008). Արարատ. Հայոց
անմահության խորհուրդը [Ararat: Symbol of Armenian
Immortality] (in Armenian). Yerevan: Tigrant Mets Publishing.
Petrossyan, Sargis (2010). "Արարատյան լեռների հին
անունների և անվանադիրների մասին [About the
Ancient Names and Eponyms of the Ararat Mountains]". Patma-Banasirakan
Handes (3): 220–227.
Antonson, Rick (2016). Full Moon over Noah's Ark: An Odyssey to Mount
Ararat and Beyond. Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 9781510705678.
Armenia with Ararat in their titles
Gregory, S. M. (1920). The land of Ararat: twelve discourses on
Armenia, her history and her church. London: Chiswick Press.
Elliott, Mabel Evelyn (1924). Beginning Again at Ararat. Introduction
by John H. Finley. New York: Fleming H. Revell Company.
Yeghenian, Aghavnie Y. (2013) . The Red Flag at Ararat.
Introduction by Pietro A. Shakarian. London: Sterndale Classics
(Gomidas Institute). ISBN 978-1909382022.
Burney, Charles; Lang, David Marshall (1971). The Peoples of the
Hills: Ancient Ararat and Caucasus. New York: Praeger.
Arlen, Michael J. (2006) . Passage to Ararat. New York: Farrar,
Straus & Giroux. ISBN 978-0374530129.
Suny, Ronald Grigor (1993). Looking Toward Ararat:
Armenia in Modern
History. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0253207739.
Walker, Christopher J., ed. (1997). Visions of Ararat: Writings on
Armenia. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 9781860641114.
Asher, Armen; Minasian Asher, Teryl (2009). The Peoples of Ararat.
BookSurge Publishing. ISBN 978-1439225677.
Golden, Christopher (2017). Ararat. St. Martin's Press.
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