A MOUND is a heaped pile of earth , gravel , sand , rocks , or debris
. Most commonly, mounds are earthen formations such as hills and
mountains , particularly if they appear artificial. A mound may be any
rounded area of topographically higher elevation on any surface.
Artificial mounds have been created for a variety of reasons
throughout history, including ceremonial (platform mound ), burial
(tumulus ), and commemorative purposes (e.g.
Kościuszko Mound ).
* 1.1 North American archaeology
* 1.2 India
* 3 See also
* 4 External links
* 5 References
NORTH AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY
In the archaeology of the
United States and
Canada , a mound is a
deliberately constructed elevated earthen structure or earthwork ,
intended for a range of potential uses. In European and Asian
archaeology, the word "tumulus " may be used as a synonym for an
artificial hill, particularly if the hill is related to particular
While the term "mound" may be applied to historic constructions, most
mounds in the
United States are pre-Columbian earthworks, built by
Native American peoples. Native Americans built a variety of mounds,
including flat-topped pyramids or cones known as platform mounds,
rounded cones, and ridge or loaf-shaped mounds. Some mounds took on
unusual shapes, such as the outline of cosmologically significant
animals. These are known as effigy mounds . Some mounds, such as a
Wisconsin , have rock formations, or petroforms within them, on
them, or near them.
While these mounds are perhaps not as famous as burial mounds, like
their European analogs, Native American mounds also have a variety of
other uses. While some prehistoric cultures, like the
Adena culture ,
used mounds preferentially for burial, others used mounds for other
ritual and sacred acts, as well as for secular functions. The platform
mounds of the
Mississippian culture , for example, may have supported
temples , the houses of chiefs , council houses , and may have also
acted as a platform for public speaking. Other mounds would have been
part of defensive walls to protect a certain area. The Hopewell
culture used mounds as markers of complex astronomical alignments
related to ceremonies.
Mounds and related earthworks are the only significant monumental
construction in pre-Columbian Eastern and Central North America.
Mounds are given different names depending on which culture they
strive from. They can be located all across the world in spots such as
Asia, Europe and the Americas. "
Mound builders" have more commonly
been associated with the mounds in the Americas. They all have
different meanings and sometimes are constructed as animals and can be
clearly seen from aerial views.
Kankali Tila General view of the excavations in
January 1889 at Kankali Tila,
Kankali Tila is a famous mound located at
Mathura in the Indian state
Uttar Pradesh . A
Jain stupa was excavated here in 1890-91 by Dr.
Mound, as a technical term in archaeology, is not generally in favor
in the rest of the world. More specific local terminology is
preferred, and each of these terms has its own article (see below).
Kofun (Japanese mounds)
* Tell (also includes multi-lingual synonyms for mounds in the Near
Chambered long barrow