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The MOSQUITO COAST, also known as the MISKITO COAST, historically comprised an area along the eastern coast of present-day Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and Honduras
Honduras
. It formed part of the Western Caribbean Zone . It was named after the local Miskito Amerindians and was long dominated by British interests. The Mosquito Coast
The Mosquito Coast
was incorporated into Nicaragua
Nicaragua
in 1894; however, in 1960, the northern part was granted to Honduras
Honduras
by the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
.

The Mosquito Coast
The Mosquito Coast
was generally defined as the domain of the Mosquito or Miskito Kingdom and expanded or contracted with that domain. During the nineteenth century, the question of the kingdom's borders was a serious issue of international diplomacy between Britain, the United States, Nicaragua, and Honduras. Conflicting claims regarding both the kingdom's extent and arguable nonexistence were pursued in diplomatic exchanges. The British and Miskito definition applied to the whole eastern seaboard of Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and even to La Mosquitia in Honduras
Honduras
: i.e., the coast region as far west as the Río Negro or Tinto. The Mosquito Coast
The Mosquito Coast
in the later part of the century came to be considered as the narrow strip of territory, fronting the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
and extending from about 11°45’ to 14°10’ N. It stretched inland for an average distance of 60 kilometers (40 mi), and measured about 400 kilometers (225 mi) from north to south. In the north, its boundary skirted the Wawa River ; in the west, it corresponded with the eastern limit of the Nicaraguan highlands; in the south, it followed the Río Rama . The chief modern towns are Bluefields , the largest town and capital of Nicaragua's South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region ; Magdala on Pearl Cay
Cay
; Prinzapolka on the river of that name ; Wounta near the mouth of the Kukalaya ; and Karata near the mouth of the Coco River .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Attempted Spanish settlement

* 1.2 British contact and recognition of the Mosquito Kingdom

* 1.2.1 Early British alliance * 1.2.2 Emergence of the Mosquitos Zambos (Miskito Sambu) * 1.2.3 Sociopolitical system * 1.2.4 British settlement * 1.2.5 British evacuation

* 1.3 Spanish interlude

* 1.3.1 Government reorganization and Spanish settlement * 1.3.2 Miskito revolt

* 1.4 Renewed British presence

* 1.4.1 Economic expansion * 1.4.2 Second British protectorate and American opposition * 1.4.3 Arrival of the Moravian Church
Moravian Church

* 1.5 Treaty of Managua

* 1.5.1 Annexation to Nicaragua
Nicaragua

* 1.6 Miskito under Nicaragua
Nicaragua
* 1.7 Miskito separatism

* 2 Miskito Kings * 3 Inhabitants * 4 Religion * 5 See also * 6 Footnotes

* 7 Sources and references

* 7.1 Internet resources * 7.2 Printed sources

HISTORY

Before the arrival of Europeans in the region, the area was divided into a large number of small, egalitarian groups, possibly speaking languages related to Sumu and Paya . Columbus visited the coast briefly in his fourth voyage. Detailed Spanish accounts of the region, however, only relate to the late 16th and early 17th centuries. According to their understanding of the geography, the region was divided between two "Provinces" Taguzgalpa and Tologalpa . Lists of "nations" left by Spanish missionaries include as many as 30 names, though careful analysis of them by Karl Offen suggests that many were duplicated and the regional geography included about a half dozen entities speaking related but distinct dialects occupying the various river basins of the region.

ATTEMPTED SPANISH SETTLEMENT

See also: Spanish conquest of Nicaragua
Nicaragua
§ Fringes of empire: Eastern Nicaragua
Nicaragua
, and Spanish conquest of Honduras
Honduras
§ Province of Taguzgalpa Political map of the Caribbean around 1600.

During the 16th century, Spanish authorities issued various licenses to conquer Taguzgalpa and Tologalpa in 1545, 1562, 1577 and 1594, but there is no evidence that any of these licenses resulted in even brief settlements or conquests. The Spanish were unable to conquer this region during the 16th century and in the 17th century sought to "reduce " the region through missionary efforts. These included several attempts by Franciscans between 1604 and 1612; another one led by Fray Cristóbal Martinez in 1622, and a third one between 1667 and 1675. None of these efforts resulted in any lasting success.

Because the Spanish failed to have significant influence in the region, it remained independent of outside control. This allowed the indigenous people to continue their traditional way of life and to receive visitors from other regions. English and Dutch privateers who preyed on Spanish ships soon found refuge in the Mosquito Coast.

BRITISH CONTACT AND RECOGNITION OF THE MOSQUITO KINGDOM

Mosquito Kingdom

Protectorate
Protectorate
of England (1638–1707) Protectorate
Protectorate
of Great Britain (1707–1787)

1638–1787

Flag

ANTHEM God Save the King
King
(1745–1787)

CAPITAL Sandy Bay (King's residence)

LANGUAGES Miskito English

GOVERNMENT Monarchy
Monarchy

MONARCH

• c.1650–1687 Oldman (first known)

• 1776–1801 George II Frederic (last)

SUPERINTENDENT OF THE SHORE

• 1749–1759 Robert Hodgson, Sr. (first)

• 1775–1787 James Lawrie (last)

HISTORY

• Arrival of the Providence Island Company 1630

• British ally 1638

• British protectorate 1740

• Convention of London 1786

• British evacuation 1787

CURRENCY Pound sterling
Pound sterling

PRECEDED BY SUCCEEDED BY

Captaincy General of Guatemala

Miskito people

Captaincy General of Guatemala

Although the earliest accounts do not mention it, a political entity of uncertain organization, but probably not very stratified, which the English called the "Mosquito Kingdom" was present on the coast in the early seventeenth century. One of the kings of this polity visited England around 1638 at the behest of the Providence Island Company , and sealed an alliance with Great Britain.

In subsequent years, the kingdom stood strongly against any Spanish incursions in their region, and were prepared to offer rest and asylum to any anti-Spanish groups that might come to their shores. At the very least English and French privateers and pirates did visit there, taking in water and food. A detailed account of the kingdom written by a buccaneer known only as M. W. describes its organization as being fundamentally egalitarian, with the king, and some officials (usually called "Captains" in that period but later being more elaborate) being primarily military leaders, but only in time of war.

Early British Alliance

The first British contacts with the Mosquito region started around 1630, when the agents of the English chartered Providence Island Company —of which the Earl of Warwick was chairman and John Pym treasurer—occupied two small cays and established friendly relations with the local inhabitants. Providence Island , the company's main base and settlement, entered into regular correspondence with the coast during the decade of company occupation, 1631–41.

The Providence Island Company sponsored the Miskito's "King's Son" visit to England during the reign of Charles I (1625–49). When his father died, this son returned home and placed his country under English protection. Following the capture of Providence Island by Spain in 1641, England did not possess a base close to the coast. However, shortly after the English captured Jamaica
Jamaica
in 1655, they recommenced relations with the coast, and Oldman went to visit England. According to the testimony of his son Jeremy, taken around 1699, he was received in audience by "his brother king", Charles II and was given a "lac'd hat" and a commission "to kindly use and relieve such straggling Englishmen as should chance to come that way".

Emergence Of The Mosquitos Zambos (Miskito Sambu)

Main article: Miskito Sambu The Wanks or Coco river, in the northern limit of the Mosquito Kingdom.

While accounts vary, the Miskito Sambu appear to be descended from the survivors of a shipwrecked slave ship who reached this area in the mid-seventeenth century. These survivors intermarried with the local Miskito people and produced mixed-race offspring. They gradually adopted the language and much of the culture of their hosts. The Miskito Sambu settled near the Wanks (Coco) River . By the late 17th century, their leader held the office of General with jurisdiction over the northern portions of the Miskito Kingdom. In the early eighteenth century, they managed to take over the office of King, which they held for at least the rest of the century.

In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, Miskitos Zambos began a series of raids that attacked Spanish-held territories and still independent indigenous groups in the area. Miskito raiders reached as far north as the Yucatán, and as far south as Costa Rica. They sold many of the captives they took as slaves to English or other British merchants; the slaves were transported to Jamaica
Jamaica
to work on sugar plantations. Through such raiding, the Zambo gained a more dominant position and the king's domain was inhabited primarily by Zambos. They also assisted the government of Jamaica
Jamaica
in hunting down Maroons in the 1720s.

Sociopolitical System

Although English accounts referred to the area as a "kingdom", it was relatively loosely organized. A description of the kingdom written in 1699, notes that it occupied discontinuous areas along the coast. It probably did not include a number of settlements of English traders. Although English accounts refer as well to various noble titles, Miskito social structure does not appear to have been particularly stratified. The 1699 description noted that people holding titles such as "king" and "governor" were only empowered as war leaders, and did not have the last word in judicial disputes. Otherwise, the author saw the population as living in an egalitarian state.

M. W. mentioned titled officers in his account of 1699, but later sources define these superior offices to include the king, a Governor , and a General . In the early 18th century, the Miskito kingdom became organized into four distinct clusters of population, centered on the banks of the navigable rivers. They were integrated into a single, if loosely structured political entity. The northern portions were dominated by Sambus and the southern ones by Tawira Miskitos. The King, whose domain lay from the Wanks River south to the Rio Kukalaya , including the king's residence near Sandy Bay, was a Sambu, as was the General, who ruled the northern portions of the kingdom, from the Wanks River to nearly Trujillo. The Governor, who was a Tawira, controlled the southern regions, from the Cucalaya River to Pearl Key Lagoon . In the later 18th century (post 1766), another title, Admiral , was recorded; this man was also a Tawira, controlling a region on the extreme south from Pearl Key Lagoon down to around Bluefields .

British Settlement

The Miskito king Edward I and the British concluded a formal Treaty of Friendship and Alliance in 1740, and Robert Hodgson, Senior was appointed as Superintendent of the Shore. The language of the treaty includes what amounts to a surrender of sovereignty, and is often taken by historians as an indication that a British protectorate was established over the Miskito Kingdom.

Britain's primary motive and the most immediate result of the treaty was to secure an alliance between the Miskito and British for the War of Jenkin\'s Ear , and the Miskito and British cooperated in attacks on Spanish settlements during the war. This military cooperation would prove important as Miskito forces were vital to protecting not only British interests in the Miskito Kingdom, but also for British holdings in British Honduras
Honduras
(now Belize
Belize
).

A more lasting result of this formal relation was that Edward I and other Miskito rulers who followed him allowed the British to establish settlements and plantations within his realm, and issued the first land grants to this effect in 1742. British settlement concentrated especially in the Black River area, Cape Gracias a Dios, and Bluefields. The British plantation owners used their estates to grow some export crops and as bases for the exploitation of timber resources, especially mahogany. Most of the labor on the estates was supplied by African slaves and by indigenous slaves captured in Miskito and British raids into Spanish territory. By 1786, there were several hundred British residents on the shore and several thousands slaves, mostly African.

The Miskito kings received regular gifts from the British in the form of weapons and consumer goods, and provided security against slave revolts and capturing runaways.

British Evacuation

Spain, which claimed the territory, suffered considerably from the Miskito attacks which continued during peacetime. When the American Revolutionary War broke out, Spanish forces attempted to eliminate the British presence, seizing the settlement at Black River , and driving British settlers from the isle of Roatán ; however, this ultimately failed when armed settlers led by the Anglo-Irish soldier Edward Despard retook the settlements .

Although Spain had been unable to drive the British from the coast or occupy any position, in the course of the diplomatic negotiations following the war, Britain found itself making concessions to the Spanish. In the 1786 Convention of London , Britain agreed to evacuate British settlers and their slaves from the Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast
to their as yet informal colony in what was to become British Honduras; later treaties recognized Britain's commercial, but never territorial rights in the region. Some of the settlers and their slaves remained after they swore loyalty to the King
King
of Spain , especially in Bluefields .

SPANISH INTERLUDE

Government Reorganization And Spanish Settlement

The Mosquito Coast
The Mosquito Coast
was initially annexed (or from the Spanish point of view, re-annexed) to the Captaincy General of Guatemala . Since the beginning however, poor land communication with Guatemala City made easier for the Miskito elites to sail to Cartagena de Indias
Cartagena de Indias
and swear fealty to Spain before the Viceroy of New Granada instead. Viceroy Francisco Gil de Taboada even suggested that government over the Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast
should be transferred to Havana, Cuba
Havana, Cuba
, mirroring the long-standing relation that the Mosquito Kingdom had earlier with British Jamaica
Jamaica
, but this idea was rejected by the Spanish Crown . Guatemala
Guatemala
protested the perceived unruliness of the Spanish appointed governor at Bluefields , who was none other but a former British Superintendent of the Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast
who had sworn recent fealty to Spain, Robert Hodgson Jr., but his loyalty and good work were defended by the New Granadan Viceroy José Manuel de Ezpeleta , who succeeded Taboada in 1789 and considered that Hodgson's influence among the Miskito was vital to avoid a revolt. Hodgson Jr. was the son of Robert Hodgson Sr., the first British appointed Superintendent in 1749–1759, and he had occupied himself this post from 1767 to 1775, when his political enemies persuaded Lord George Germain to replace him with James Lawrie, the last British Superintendent before the evacuation and a declared adversary of Hodgson.

The Spanish hoped to win over support of the Miskito elite by offering presents like the British had and educating their youth in Guatemala, as many Miskito had been educated previously in Jamaica. Catholic
Catholic
missionaries also travelled to the Coast with the aim of converting the native population in this period. The acceptance of the new order was unequal and often influenced by the underlying tensions within the own Miskito elites, divided between the northern regions controlled by the Sambu, loyal to King
King
George II Frederic who remained himself friendly to the British, and the Tawira southerners aligned with Admiral Briton, who developed closer ties with Spain and adopted the name Don Carlos Antonio Castilla after his own conversion.

The Spanish also sought to occupy the positions formerly held by British settlers with their own colonists. Beginning in 1787, around 1,200 settlers were brought from the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
and the Canary Islands . They settled in Sandy Bay, Cape Gracias a Dios and Black River, but not in the new capital Bluefields.

Miskito Revolt

The new colony suffered setbacks as a result of many of the settlers dying en route and the Miskito Crown showing its dissatisfaction with the gifts offered by the Spanish. The Miskito resumed trade with Jamaica
Jamaica
and, when news of another Anglo-Spanish War arrived in 1797, George II raised an army to attack Bluefields, deposing Hodgson, and drove the Spanish out of the kingdom on September 4, 1800. However, the king died suddenly in 1801. According to British George Henderson, who visited the Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast
in 1804, many in the kingdom believed that George II had been poisoned by his brother Stephen as part of a deal with the Spanish. In order to prevent Stephen from seizing power for himself, the General Robinson spirited George II's young heir George Frederic Augustus I to Jamaica
Jamaica
by way of Belize
Belize
and established a regency in his name.

With Spanish power over the Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast
vanished and British influence rapidly returning, the Captaincy General of Guatemala sought full control of the shore to Spain. The Colombian Ricardo S. Pereira, writing in 1883, considered this act a miscalculation on the part of the Real Audiencia of Guatemala : had they simply raised an army and marched on the Mosquito Coast, nobody would have questioned that the area was part of the Captaincy General once Spanish power was fully restored. Instead, the Spanish government heeded the old advice exposed by Gil de Taboada and Ezpeleta, and decided against Guatemala's request on November 30, 1803, reaffirming the control of the Viceroyalty of New Granada over the Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina (used by New Granadan coast guards as a base against British privateers, often coming from the Mosquito Coast itself) and transferring sovereignty over the Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast
to New Granada for considering the area dependent of San Andrés. While Spanish rule was never restored over the Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast
(instead, the British occupied the Archipelago itself in 1806, during the course of the war against Spain), the Royal Decree of 1803 became the reason for territorial disputes between the United Provinces of Central America and Gran Colombia
Colombia
after Latin American independence , and between Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and Colombia
Colombia
for the rest of the 19th century.

In the mean time George II's brother Stephen made some overtures to Spain, who reciprocated by calling Stephen king and giving him the traditional gifts (albeit in less frequency than to George II), but he later changed allegiances and raided Spanish held territory. In 1815 Stephen, styling himself " King
King
Regent of the Shore", and 33 other Miskito notables gave their "consent, assent, and declaration to, for, and of" George Frederic Augustus I as their "Sovereign King". His coronation in Belize
Belize
on January 16, 1816, in a deliberate move to secure British support, marked the end of the regency. Meanwhile, Spain lost rule over New Granada in 1819 and over Central America in 1821, when the First Mexican Empire
First Mexican Empire
was proclaimed.

RENEWED BRITISH PRESENCE

As internecine conflicts seized both Gran Colombia
Colombia
and Central America post-independence, the potential of any regional power to threaten the Miskito kingdom declined. Miskito Kings renewed their alliance with Great Britain, and Belize
Belize
replaced Jamaica
Jamaica
as the principal British connection to the kingdom. George Frederic Augustus I's 1816 coronation in Belize
Belize
was imitated by his successor Robert Charles Frederic in 1845.

Economic Expansion

View of Black River in the (fictional) Territory of Poyais Fort Wellington on the Black River

The Miskito kings allowed the settlement of foreigners in their lands as long as their sovereignty was respected, opportunity that was seized by British merchants and Garifuna people from Trujillo, Honduras
Honduras
. Between 1820 and 1837 the Scottish con man Gregor MacGregor pretended to have been named " Cacique of Poyais " by George Frederic Augustus I and sold forged land rights to eager settlers and investors in Britain and France
France
. Most settlers suffered from the lack of infrastructure and died from tropical diseases , MacGregor having led them to believe that the area was already developed and just in need of skilled workers. In the 1830s and 40s King
King
Robert Charles Frederic also appointed small traders, notably William Hodgson and brothers Peter and Samuel Shepherd, as his agents to administer his claims to tribute and taxes from lands as far south as Panama
Panama
. Dwellings in Bluefields in 1845

At the same time, the mahogany trade peaked in Europe, but the supply in Belize, a main exporter, was becoming scarce. The Miskito Kingdom became an alternative source to Belize-based traders and wood cutting companies, who acquired concessions and land grants from Robert Charles Frederic. In 1837 Britain formally recognized the Mosquito Kingdom as an independent state, and took diplomatic measures to prevent the new nations that left the imploding Federal Republic of Central America in 1838–1841 from interferring with the kingdom.

The expansion of the economy attracted and benefitted from the arrival of capital from the United States, and immigrants from the States, the West Indies
West Indies
, Europe, Syria
Syria
and China
China
. Especially abundant was the immigration of Afro-Caribbeans following the abolition of slavery in the British and French Caribbean in 1841, who settled mainly in and around Bluefields, merging with the descendants of the slaves that had not been evacuated in 1786 and giving origin to the Miskito Coast Creoles . Because of their greater knowledge of English, the Creoles soon became the workers most sought by foreign companies, occupying the intermediate levels in the businesses and relegating the native Miskitu to the worst paid occupations at the base.

In August 1841, a British ship, without knowledge of London, carried the Miskito King
King
Robert Charles Frederic and the British Governor of Belize, Alexander MacDonald, to occupy Nicaragua's only Caribbean port in San Juan del Norte , placed at the mouth of the San Juan River and likely endpoint of a possible future transoceanic canal through Nicaragua
Nicaragua
, and claimed it for the Mosquito Kingdom. The commander of the port was kidnapped and abandoned in a deserted beach, and the civilian population was told to leave the place by March 1842. The Nicaraguan government protested and the British did not carry on the threatened evacuation of the port, but neither did they take action against MacDonald for the incident.

Second British Protectorate
Protectorate
And American Opposition

Mosquito Kingdom

Protectorate
Protectorate
of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom

1844–1860

Flag

ANTHEM God Save the Queen

CAPITAL Bluefields

LANGUAGES English Miskito

GOVERNMENT Monarchy
Monarchy

KING

• 1842–1860 George Augustus Frederic II

Consul-General Consul (after 1851)

• 1844–1848 Patrick Walker (first)

• 1849–1860 James Green (last)

HISTORY

Protectorate
Protectorate
declared 1844

• Annexation of San Juan del Norte 1848

• Bombardment of San Juan del Norte 1854

Treaty of Managua January 28, 1860

CURRENCY Pound Sterling
Pound Sterling

PRECEDED BY SUCCEEDED BY

Miskito people

Nicaragua
Nicaragua

Mosquito_coast#Treaty_of_Managua

Honduras
Honduras

In 1844 the British government declared a new protectorate over the Mosquito Kingdom and appointed a Consul-General of the Mosquito Coast, Patrick Walker with seat in Bluefields. The proclamation was motivated by the state of anarchy in the Mosquito Kingdom after the death of Robert Charles Frederic, but also by the impending American annexation of Texas and the British desire to build a canal through Central America before the United States did.

The protectorate was claimed to extend from Cape Honduras
Honduras
in the north to the mouth of the San Juan River in the south, including San Juan del Norte. Nicaragua
Nicaragua
protested again and sent forces to San Juan del Norte, which the Miskito King
King
George Augustus Frederic II replied to with an ultimatum demanding all Nicaraguan forces to leave before January 1, 1848. Nicaragua
Nicaragua
appealed to the United States, but the Americans, then at war with Mexico , did not answer. After the ultimatum expired, Miskito-British forces led by the King
King
and Patrick Walker, and backed by two British warships, seized San Juan del Norte. They also destroyed Serapaqui , where the British prisoners captured during a first attempt on San Juan del Norte were interned, and advanced to Lake Nicaragua
Nicaragua
, during which Walker drowned. On March 7 Nicaragua
Nicaragua
signed a peace treaty where it ceded San Juan del Norte to the Mosquito Kingdom, who renamed it Greytown after Charles Edward Grey , governor of Jamaica
Jamaica
.

With the Mexican-American War concluded, the new US delegate in Central America, E. G. Squier , tried to get Nicaragua, El Salvador and Honduras
Honduras
to form a common front against the British, who were now threatening to annex Tiger Island (_El Tigre_) in Honduras' Pacific coast. After British and American forces nearly clashed in El Tigre, both governments reprimanded the commanders of their forces there and concluded the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty on April 18, 1850. In this document the two powers pledged themselves to guarantee the neutrality and equal use of the proposed canal, and to not "occupy, or fortify, or colonize, or assume or exercise any dominion over Nicaragua, Costa Rica , the Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast
or any part of Central America", nor make use of any protectorate or alliance, present or future, to such ends.

The United States assumed that this meant the immediate British evacuation of the Mosquito Coast, while the British argued that it only bound them to not expand further in Central America and that both the 1844 protectorate and the 1848 peace treaty were still valid. On November 21, the American steamer _Prometheus_ was fired upon by a British warship for not paying port tariffs at Greytown. One of the passengers was Cornelius Vanderbilt , business magnate and one of the richest people in the United States. The British government apologized after the United States sent two armed sloops to the area.

More incidents happened in the following years. In 1852, Britain occupied the Bay Islands off the coast of Honduras
Honduras
and rebuffed the American protests claiming that they had been part of Belize
Belize
before the treaty. The American representative in Nicaragua, Solon Borland , considered the treaty breached and argued openly for the US annexation of Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and the rest of Central America, for which he was forced to resign. In 1853 the buildings of the US-owned Accessory Transit Company in Greytown were looted and destroyed by the locals. In 1854, an American steamer captain killed a Greytown Creole, and Borland, who had remained in Greytown after his resignation, stopped the arrest for murder by threatening the marshal and his men with a rifle, arguing that they had no power to arrest an American citizen. Though he held no office, Borland ordered 50 American passengers bound for New York to remain on land and "protect US interests" while he sailed to the United States for help. In an example of gunboat diplomacy , the Americans sent then the USS _Cyane_ and demanded 24,000 dollars in damages, an apology and a pledge of good behavior in the future. When the terms weren't met, the crew bombarded Greytown , then landed and burnt the town to the ground. Damage was extensive but no one was killed. With its attention seized by the ongoing Crimean War and the firm opposition of Britain's merchant class to a war with the United States, the British government only protested and demanded an apology that was never received.

By 1859 British opinion was no longer supportive of their nation's presence in the Mosquito Coast. The British government returned the Bay Islands and ceded the northern part of the Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast
to Honduras, negotiating with Guatemala
Guatemala
to enlarge the British territory in Belize
Belize
as compensation. The next year, Britain signed the Treaty of Managua , ceding the rest of the Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast
to Nicaragua.

Arrival Of The Moravian Church

In the 1840s, two British citizens who travelled Europe advertising the sale of land in Cabo Gracias a Dios attracted the interest of Prince Charles of Prussia
Prince Charles of Prussia
. Charles' first plan was to establish a Prussian settlement in the area and sent three German merchants to study this possibility on the ground. Their dictamen was against colonization, but their suggestion to evangelize the Mosquito Coast was taken up by the Prince of Schönburg-Waldenburg , who delegated the task in the Moravian Church
Moravian Church
. The first missionaries arrived in 1848 with a letter of recommendation from Lord Palmerston and began to work in 1849 in Bluefields, targeting the royal family and the Creoles before expanding to the rest of the Kingdom.

TREATY OF MANAGUA

Mosquito Reserve

_Reserva Mosquitia_

Autonomous territory of Nicaragua

1860–1894

Flag Coat of arms

ANTHEM Hermosa Soberana

CAPITAL Bluefields

LANGUAGES Spanish Miskito

GOVERNMENT Monarchy
Monarchy

HEREDITARY CHIEF

• 1860-1865 George Augustus Frederic II (first)

• 1890-1894 Robert Henry Clarence (last)

HISTORY

Treaty of Managua January 28, 1860

• Annexation to Nicaragua 1894

CURRENCY Nicaraguan peso Pound sterling
Pound sterling

PRECEDED BY SUCCEEDED BY

Second British protectorate

Nicaragua
Nicaragua

Britain and Nicaragua
Nicaragua
signed the Treaty of Managua in January 28, 1860, which transferred suzerainty over the Caribbean coast between Cabo Gracias a Dios and Greytown to Nicaragua. Attempts to decide the sovereignty over the northern bank of the Wanks/ Coco River which cuts Cabo Gracias a Dios in half, began in 1869, but would not be settled until ninety-one years later when the International Court of Justice decided in favor of Honduras.

The 1860 treaty also recognized that the Mosquito Kingdom, now reduced to the territory around Bluefields, would become an autonomous Miskito reserve. The municipal constitution of the reserve, signed on September 13, 1861, confirmed George Augustus Frederic II as ruler of the territory and its inhabitants, but only as hereditary chief and not king, a title that, along those of general, admiral and governor, was abolished; and that the hereditary chief would be advised by a council of 41 members elected for a period of eight years. The composition of this council was not limited to Miskito: instead, the first council included a number of Moravian missionaries and its first session started with an oration in this denomination. In compensation for his losses, George Augustus Frederic II would be paid £1000 yearly and until 1870 by the Nicaraguan government.

The death of George Augustus Frederic II in 1865, after only half that time had passed, led to a dispute between Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and the reserve's government. As indicated in its name, the position of hereditary chief was not completely elective like the title of King that preceded it, but had to be occupied by a member of George Augustus Frederic II's lineage of full Miskito ancestry. The council argued that none of George Augustus Frederic II's wives was Miskito and that none of their children was eligible as a result. The election of William Henry Clarence as new chief, George Augustus Frederic II's nephew by his second sister, was not recognized by Nicaragua. William Henry Clarence asked for support to Great Britain, accusing Nicaragua
Nicaragua
of not abiding to the terms of the 1860 treaty and threatening the Miskitu's autonomy, and complaining both about increasing Nicaraguan immigration and the political instability in Nicaragua
Nicaragua
proper, which threatened the peace within the reserve.

In 1881 Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and Britain agreed to subject the most disputed points of the 1860 treaty to the arbitration of the Emperor Francis Joseph I of Austria-Hungary . His decision, released on June 2, agreed largely with the interests of the Miskito—and by extension, the British. The arbitration decided that:

* Sovereignty over the Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast
belonged to Nicaragua, but it was largely limited by the autonomy of the Miskito, as recognized in the 1860 treaty. * Nicaragua
Nicaragua
had the right to fly its flag in any part of the Mosquito Coast. * Nicaragua
Nicaragua
could maintain a Commissioner
Commissioner
on the Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast
to defend her national interests. * The Miskito could also fly their own flag on the Mosquito Coast, so long as said flag included some sign of Nicaraguan suzerainty. A compromise was reached by using the flag used during the British protectorate (designed by Patrick Walker), but with the Union Flag
Union Flag
on the canton replaced by the flag of Nicaragua
Nicaragua
. * Nicaragua
Nicaragua
could not make concessions to the exploitation of natural resources in the Mosquito Coast. That right alone corresponded to the Miskito government. * Nicaragua
Nicaragua
could not regulate the Miskito's trade, nor tax importations to or exportations from the Mosquito Coast. * Nicaragua
Nicaragua
had to pay the money overdue to the Miskito king. * Nicaragua
Nicaragua
could not limit the goods imported or exported through the port of San Juan del Norte (Greytown), unless these goods went to or came from Nicaraguan territory outside the reserve.

From 1883, the land and capital in the reserve began to be aglutinated by an increasingly small number of US citizens.

Annexation To Nicaragua

See also: Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Crisis of 1895

When, in 1894, Rigoberto Cabezas led a campaign to annex the reserve, natives responded with vigorous protest, an appeal to Britain to protect them, and more militant resistance – to little avail. The situation was such that, from July 6 to August 7, the US occupied Bluefields to 'protect US interests'. After enjoying almost complete autonomy for fourteen years, on 20 November 1894 their territory formally became incorporated into that of the republic of Nicaragua
Nicaragua
by Nicaraguan president José Santos Zelaya . The former Mosquito Coast was established as the Nicaraguan department of Zelaya . During the 1980s, the department was dissolved and substituted by the North Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAN) and South Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAS), autonomous regions with a certain degree of self-government. Those regions were renamed the North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region (RACCN) and the South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region (RACCS) in 2014.

MISKITO UNDER NICARAGUA

The Miskito continued to enjoy a certain autonomy under Nicaragua, though there was considerable tension between the claims of the government and those of the indigenous people. This tension was expressed openly during Sandinista rule, which sought greater state control. The Miskito were strong supporters of U.S. efforts to undermine the Sandinistas and were important allies of the Contras .

MISKITO SEPARATISM

Miskito dissidents declared the independence of the unrecognized Communitarian Nation of Moskitia in 2009. The movement is led by Reverend Hector Williams, who was elected as "Wihta Tara" (Great Judge) of Moskitia by the Council of Elders, its governing body composed of traditional leaders from within the Miskito community. The council advocates for independence and has considered a referendum, seeking international recognition. It also addresses the needs of the impoverished Moskitian communities, such as drug addiction among youth as the coast is slowly gaining influence as a corridor for drug trafficking. However, the allure of possible Narco funding might be a tempting method of supporting independence should the movement find no support.

The movement was backed by a 400-man "indigenous army" made up of veterans of the contras , which captured the YAMATA party headquarters in 2009.

MISKITO KINGS

* c. 1650–c. 1687 Oldman * c. 1687–1718 Jeremy I * 1718–1729 H.M. Jeremy II * 1729–1739 H.M. Peter I * 1739–1755 H.M. Edward I * 1755–1776 H.M. George I * 1776–1801 H.M. George II Frederic * 1801–1824 H.M. George Frederic Augustus I * 1824–1842 H.M. Robert Charles Frederic * 1842–1865 H.M. George Augustus Frederic II * 1865–1879 H.E. William Henry Clarence , Hereditary Chief of Miskito * 1879–1888 H.E. George William Albert Hendy , Hereditary Chief of Miskito * 1888–1889 H.E. Andrew Hendy , Hereditary Chief of Miskito * 1889–1890 H.E. Jonathan Charles Frederick , Hereditary Chief of Miskito * 1890–1908 H.E. Robert Henry Clarence , Hereditary Chief of Miskito

INHABITANTS

The Mosquito Coast
The Mosquito Coast
of Nicaragua
Nicaragua
has a population of 118,000 inhabitants, consisting of 57% Miskito , 22% Creoles (Afro-Europeans), 15% Ladinos , 4% Sumu (Amerindian), 1% Garifuna (Afro-Indians), 0.5% Chinese and 0.5% Rama (Amerindian).

MISKITO CREOLE LADINO SUMO GARIFUNA CHINESE RAMA

57% 22% 15% 4% 1% 0.5% 0.5%

RELIGION

Anglicanism and the Moravian Church
Moravian Church
gained a significant following in the Mosquito Coast.

SEE ALSO

* Honduras
Honduras
portal * Nicaragua
Nicaragua
portal * United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal

* Garifuna people * Miskito * La Mosquitia

FOOTNOTES

* ^ "Mosquito Coast". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2007-08-03. * ^ Naylor, Robert A.; _Penny Ante Imperialism: The Mosquito Shore and the Bay of Honduras, 1600–1914: A Case Study in British Informal Empire_, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, London, 1989, pp. 95–102, 110–112, 144–57 * ^ Offen, Karl (2002). "The Sambo and Tawira Miskitu: The Colonial Origins and Geography of Intra-Miskitu Differentiation in Eastern Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and Honduras". _Ethnohistory_. 49 (2): 319–372 . doi :10.1215/00141801-49-2-319 . * ^ Añoveros, Jesus Maria Garcia (1988). "La presencia franciscana en la Taguzgalpa y la Tologalpa (La Mosquitia)". _Mesoamérica_ (in Spanish). 9: 58–63. * ^ _A_ _B_ Sorsby, William Shuman; _The British Superintendency of the Mosquito Shore, 1749–1787_, Ph.D. thesis, Faculty of Arts, University College, London, 1969 * ^ Kupperman, Karen Ordal ; _Providence Island: The Other Puritan Colony, 1631–41_, Cambridge University Press, 1993 * ^ Sloane, Hans ; _A Voyage to the Islands of Madera, Barbados, Nieves, S. Christophers and Jamaica
Jamaica
_, B. M., London, 1707, pp. lxxvi–lxxvii. According to a conversation held with Jeremy, the future king in about 1688. * ^ M. W.; "The Mosqueto Indian and his Golden River," in Churchill, Ansham ; _A Collection of Voyages and Travels_, London, 1732, vol. 6, p. 288 * ^ Helms, Mary (1983). "Miskito Slaving and Culture Contact: Ethnicity and Opportunity in an Expanding Population". _Journal of Anthropological Research_. 39 (2): 179–197. JSTOR 3629966 . * ^ Romero Vargas, German; _Las Sociedades del Atlántico de Nicaragua
Nicaragua
en los siglos XVII y XVIII_, Banco Nicaraguënse, Managua, 1995, p. 165 * ^ M. W.; "The Mosqueto Indian and His Golden River," in Churchill, Anshaw; _A Collection of Voyages and Travels_, London, 1728, vol. 6, pp. 285–290 * ^ M. W.; "Mosketo Indian", p. 293 * ^ Offen, Karl (2002). "The Sambo and Tawira Miskitu: The Colonial Origins and Geography of Intra-Miskitu Differentiation in Eastern Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and Honduras". _Ethnohistory_. 49 (2): 319–372. doi :10.1215/00141801-49-2-319 . * ^ Olien, Michael (1998). "General, Governor and Admiral: Three Miskito Lines of Succession". _Ethnohistory_. 45 (2): 278–318. JSTOR 483061 . doi :10.2307/483061 . * ^ Floyd, Troy S.; _The Anglo-Spanish Struggle for Mosquitia_, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque (NM), 1967, pp. 68–69 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ Scheina, Robert L.; _Latin America's Wars_, vol. 1, _The Age of the_ caudillo_, 1791–1899_, Potomac Books, Inc., Washington (DC), 2003 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ García, Claudia; _Etnogénesis, hibridación y consolidación de la identidad del pueblo miskitu_ CSIC Press, 2007 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Ezpeleta, Joseph de ; _Nota del Virrey Ezpeleta sobre Pacificación de la Costa de Mosquitos_, 1790, in Pereira, Ricardo S.; _Documentos sobre límites de los Estados-Unidos de Colombia: copiados de los originales que se encuentran en el Archivo de Indias de Sevilla, y acompañados de breves consideraciones sobre el verdadero Uti possidetis juris de 1810_, Camacho Roldan y Tamayo, Bogotá, Colombia, 1883, ISBN 9781141811274 Cap. XII * ^ Pedrote, Enrique S.; _El Coronel Hodgson y la Expedición a la Costa de Mosquitos_, Anuario de Estudios Americanos, vol. 23, 1967, pp. 1205–1235 * ^ Sorsby, William Shuman; _Spanish Colonization of the Mosquito Coast, 1787–1800_, Revista de Historia de América, vol. 73/74, 1972, pp. 145–153 * ^ Dawson, Frank; _The Evacuation of the Mosquito Shore and the English Who Stayed Behind, 1786–1800_, The Americas, vol. 55, no. 1, 1998, pp. 63–89 * ^ Henderson, George; _An Account of the British Settlement of Honduras
Honduras
_, R. Baldwin, London, 1811 (2nd ed.), p. 219 * ^ Pereira, Ricardo S.; _Documentos sobre límites de los Estados-Unidos de Colombia: copiados de los originales que se encuentran en el Archivo de Indias de Sevilla, y acompañados de breves consideraciones sobre el verdadero Uti possidetis juris de 1810_, Camacho Roldan y Tamayo, Bogotá, Colombia, 1883, ISBN 9781141811274 Cap. XII * ^ _Correspondence Respecting the Mosquito Shore _, House of Commons of Great Britain, London, 1848, p. 46. The names of the signatories are printed on pp. 46-47. * ^ _The Honduras
Honduras
Almanack for the year of our Lord 1829_, Legislative Assembly, Belize, p. 56 * ^ Naylor, Robert A.; _Penny Ante Imperialism: The Mosquito Shore and the Bay of Honduras, 1600–1914: A Case Study in British Informal Empire_, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, London, 1989, pp. 99–100 * ^ His grants to them are found in _British and Foreign State Papers (1849–50)_, vol. 38, London, 1862, pp. 687 and 689 * ^ Naylor, Robert A. (1967). "The Mahogany
Mahogany
Trade as a Factor in the British Return to the Mosquito Shore in the Second Quarter of the Nineteenth Century". _ Jamaica
Jamaica
Historical Journal_. 7: 63–64. * ^ Naylor, Robert A.; _Penny Ante Imperialism: The Mosquito Shore and the Bay of Honduras, 1600–1914: A Case Study in British Informal Empire_, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, London, 1989, pp. 103–117; 122–123 on the concessions * ^ http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Nicaragua.htm * ^ Pletcher, David M.; _The diplomacy of trade and investment: American economic expansion in the Hemisphere, 1865-1900_, University of Missouri Press, 1998 * ^ _Memorial Submitted by the Government of Nicaragua, vol. I: Maritime delimitation between Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and Honduras
Honduras
in the Caribbean Sea ( Nicaragua
Nicaragua
v. Honduras)_, International Court of Justice, 21 March 2001 * ^ Varela, Raúl; _Jefes Hereditarios Miskitos_, Pueblos Originarios de América: Biografías * ^ Hale, Charles R. (1994). "Resistance and Contradiction: Miskitu Indians and the Nicaraguan State, 1894-1987". Stanford (CA): Stanford University. p. 37. Retrieved 2014-10-01. * ^ Gibbs, Stephen (3 August 2009). "Nicaragua\'s Miskitos seek independence". _BBC News_. Retrieved 2010-05-12. * ^ " Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast
Bites Nicaragua\'s Ortega". _Time_. 1 May 2009.

* ^ _A_ _B_ Rogers, Tim (2011-05-10). "Drugs dilemma on Nicaragua\'s Mosquito coast". _BBC News_. * ^ Rogers, Tim (2011-04-14). "Narco-Dividends: White Lobsters on the Mosquito Coast". _Time_. * ^ _Mosquito bite as a swarm of Miskitos takes over the coast of Nicaragua_, SchNEWS, no. 677, 2009-05-29 * ^ "Lenguas indigenas" (PDF). Salamanca: El Rincón del Vago. Retrieved 2014-10-01.

SOURCES AND REFERENCES

INTERNET RESOURCES

* http://www.flag.de/FOTW/flags/ni-mc.html – Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast
flag * RoyalArk-Mosquitos * Douglas, James (1867). "Account of the attempt to form a settlement in 1823, on the Mosquito Shore". _Transactions, New Series_. Literary and Historical Society of Quebec (5). Retrieved 2013-04-27.

PRINTED SOURCES

* Dozier, Craig; _Nicaragua's Mosquito Shore: The Years of British and American Presence_, University of Alabama Press, 1985 * Floyd, Troy S.; _The Anglo-Spanish Struggle for Mosquitia_, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque (NM), 1967 * Hale, Charles R. (1994). "Resistance and Contradiction: Miskitu Indians and the Nicaraguan State, 1894-1987". Stanford (CA): Stanford University. * Helms, Mary (1969). "The Cultural Ecology of a Colonial Tribe". _Ethnology_. 8 (1): 76–84. doi :10.2307/3772938 . * Helms, Mary (1983). "Miskito Slaving and Culture Contact: Ethnicity and Opportunity in an Expanding Population". _Journal of Anthropological Research_. 39 (2): 179–197. JSTOR 3629966 . * Helms, Mary (1986). "Of Kings and Contexts: Ethnohistorical Interpretations of Miskito Political Structure and Function". _American Ethnologist_. 13 (3): 506–523. doi :10.1525/ae.1986.13.3.02a00070 . * Ibarra Rojas, Eugenia; _Del arco y la flecha a las armas de fuego. Los indios mosquitos y la historia centroamericana_, Editorial Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, 2011 * Naylor, Robert A.; _Penny Ante Imperialism: The Mosquito Shore and the Bay of Honduras, 1600–1914: A Case Study in British Informal Empire_, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, London, 1989 * Offen, Karl (2002). "The Sambo and Tawira Miskitu: The Colonial Origins and Geography of Intra-Miskitu Differentiation in Eastern Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and Honduras". _Ethnohistory_. 49 (2): 319–372. doi :10.1215/00141801-49-2-319 . * Olien, Michael; _The Miskito Kings and the Line of Succession_, Journal of Anthropological Research, vol. 39, no. 2, 1983, pp. 198–241 * Olien, Michael; _Micro/Macro-Level Linkages: Regional Political Structure on the Mosquito Coast, 1845–1864_, Ethnohistory, vol. 34, no. 3, 1987, pp. 256–287 * Olien, Michael; _General, Governor and Admiral: Three Miskito Lines of Succession_, Ethnohistory, vol. 45, no. 2, 1998, pp. 278–318 * Potthast, Barbara; _Die Mosquitoküste im Spannungsfeld Britischer und Spanischer Politik, 1502–1821_, Bölau., Cologne, 1988 * Romero Vargas, Germán; _Las Sociedades del Atlántico de Nicaragua
Nicaragua
en los siglos XVII y XVIII_, Banco Nicaraguënse, Managua, 1995

Coordinates : 13°22′44″N 83°35′02″W / 13.379°N 83.584°W / 13.379; -83.584

* v * t * e

_ British Empire
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EUROPE

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_ * 1921–1937 Irish Free State
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* 1579 New Albion * 1583–1907 Newfoundland * 1605–1979 *_Saint Lucia _ * 1607–1776 Virginia * Since 1619 Bermuda
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Saint Kitts
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Nevis
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Montserrat
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Antigua
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Anguilla
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North-Western Territory
* 1860–1981 *_British Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda _ * 1862–1863 Stickeen * 1866–1871 British Columbia * 1867–1931 *_ Dominion
Dominion
of Canada _2 * 1871–1964 Honduras
Honduras
* 1882–1983 *_ Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis
Nevis
_ * 1889–1962 _Trinidad and Tobago _ * 1907–1949 Newfoundland 3 * 1958–1962 West Indies
West Indies
Federation

* 1. Occupied jointly with the United States. * 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster . See Name of Canada . * 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a _de jure _ Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

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* 1631–1641 Providence Island * 1651–1667 Willoughbyland * 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands 4 * 1831–1966 _Guiana _ * Since 1833 Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
5 * Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 5

* 4. Now a department of Colombia
Colombia
. * 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

AFRICA

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

* Since 1658 Saint Helena
Saint Helena
14 * 1792–1961 _Sierra Leone _ * 1795–1803 Cape Colony
Cape Colony

* Since 1815 Ascension Island
Ascension Island
14 * Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
14 * 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope * 1807–1808 Madeira * 1810–1968 _ Mauritius
Mauritius
_ * 1816–1965 The Gambia * 1856–1910 Natal * 1862–1906 Lagos * 1868–1966 Basutoland * 1874–1957 Gold Coast * 1882–1922 Egypt

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Zanzibar
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Seychelles
_ * 1910–1931 _South Africa _ * 1914–1960 Nigeria * 1915–1931 South-West Africa * 1919–1961 Cameroons 6 * 1920–1963 _Kenya _ * 1922–1961 Tanganyika 6 * 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
7 * 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

* 6. League of Nations mandate . * 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia
Rhodesia
) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement
Lancaster House Agreement
. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

ASIA

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

* 1685–1824 Bencoolen * 1702–1705 Pulo Condore * 1757–1947 Bengal * 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite * 1781-1784 and 1795-1819 Padang
Padang
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Federated Malay States
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_

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Cyprus
) * Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory (before as part of Mauritius
Mauritius
and the Seychelles
Seychelles
)

8 League of Nations mandate . Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

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* 1788–1901 New South Wales * 1803–1901 Van Diemen\'s Land /Tasmania * 1807–1863 Auckland Islands 9 * 1824–1980 New Hebrides * 1824–1901 Queensland * 1829–1901 Swan River /Western Australia * 1836–1901 South Australia * since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

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Gilbert and Ellice Islands
11 * 1893–1978 Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
12

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* 9. Now part of the *_ Realm of New Zealand _. * 10. Suspended member. * 11. Now _ Kiribati _ and *_ Tuvalu
Tuvalu
_. * 12. Now the *_ Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
_. * 13. Now *_ Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
_.

ANTARCTICA AND SOUTH ATLANTIC

* Since 1658 Saint Helena
Saint Helena
14 * Since 1815 Ascension Island
Ascension Island
14 * Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
14 * Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory 15 * 1841–1933 _ Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
_ (transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia ) * 1841–1947 _ Ross Dependency _ (transferred to the Realm of New Zealand )

* 14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha ; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. * 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

* v * t * e

Honduras
Honduras
articles

HISTORY

* Pre-Columbian history * Spanish conquest of Honduras
Honduras
* Captaincy General (Guatemalan) * Federal Republic of Central America * History to 1838 * 1838–1932 * 1932–1982 * since 1982 * 2009 constitutional crisis

GEOGRAPHY

* Cities * Ecoregions * Fauna * Flora * Islands * Mountains * National parks * Rivers * Volcanoes * World Heritage Sites

POLITICS

* Administrative divisions * Constitution * Elections * Foreign relations * Human rights * Law enforcement * Military * National Congress * Political parties * Presidents * Supreme Court

ECONOMY

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SOCIETY

* Crime * Demographics * Education * Health * Languages * Religion * Water supply and sanitation

CULTURE

* Anthem * Coat of arms * Cuisine * Flag * Literature * Media * Music * Public holidays * Sport

* Outline * Index

* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

Nicaragua
Nicaragua
articles

HISTORY

* Nicarao * Spanish conquest * Federal Republic of Central America (1823–38) * Mosquito Coast * United States occupation (1909–33) * Somoza Dynasty (1936–79) * Sandinistas v. Contras * Sandinista period (1979–90) * Post- Sandinista period (1990–)

GEOGRAPHY

* Earthquakes * Ecoregions * Fauna * Islands * Lakes * Mountains * Municipalities * Protected areas * Rivers * Volcanoes * Water resources

POLITICS

* Administrative divisions * Constitution * Elections * Foreign relations * Government * Human rights * Law enforcement * Military * National Assembly * Political parties * Politics * President * Territorial disputes

ECONOMY

* Agriculture * Banking * Central Bank * Córdoba (currency) * Economic history * Energy * Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Canal * Stock Exchange * Telecommunications * Tourism * Transport

SOCIETY

* Corruption * Demographics * Education * Ethnic groups * Languages * Religion * Water supply and sanitation

CULTURE

* Cuisine * Film * Literature * Music * Media * Museums * National symbols * Public holidays

* Outline * Index * Bibliography

* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

Monarchies in the Americas
Monarchies in the Americas

CURRENT

INDIGENOUS MONARCHIES

* Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda * The Bahamas * Barbados * Belize
Belize
* Canada * Grenada * Jamaica
Jamaica
* Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis
Nevis
* Saint Lucia * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

SETTLED MONARCHIES

* Denmark * Netherlands * United Kingdom
United Kingdom

FORMER

INDIGENOUS MONARCHIES

* Araucania and Patagonia * Aztec

* Inca

* Neo-Inca

* Maya * Miskito * Taíno

COLONIAL MONARCHIES

* Courland and Semigallia * France
France
* Portugal * Russia * Spain * Sweden

IBERO-AMERICAN MONARCHIES

* Brazil (1822–89)

* Haiti

* 1804–06 * 1811–20 * 1849–59

* Mexico

* 1822–23 * 1864–67

RELATED

* List of monarchs in the Americas * List of the last monarchs in the Americas

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