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Portrait of Moses Hess in 1846

Moses (Moshe) Hess (January or June 21, 1812 – April 6, 1875) was a French-Jewish philosopher and a founder of Labor Zionism. His socialist theories, predicated on racial struggle, led to conflict with Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.[1] A devoted Spinozist, Hess was profoundly influenced by Spinoza's life and philosophy.[2][3]