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MOSES (/ˈmoʊzɪz, -zɪs/ ; Hebrew : מֹשֶׁה‎‎, Modern _Moshe_ Tiberian _Mōšéh_ ISO 259-3 _Moše_; Syriac : ܡܘܫܐ‎ _Moushe_; Arabic : موسى‎‎ _Mūsā_; Greek : Mωϋσῆς _Mōÿsēs_ in both the Septuagint and the New Testament
New Testament
) is a prophet in the Abrahamic religions . According to the Hebrew Bible , he was a former Egyptian prince who later in life became religious leader of Hebrews
Hebrews
and lawgiver , to whom the authorship of the Torah
Torah
, or acquisition of the Torah
Torah
from Heaven is traditionally attributed. Also called _Moshe Rabbenu_ in Hebrew (מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ, _lit. _ " Moses
Moses
our Teacher"), he is the most important prophet in Judaism
Judaism
. He is also an important prophet in Christianity
Christianity
, Islam
Islam
, the Bahá\'í Faith , and a number of other Abrahamic religions .

According to the Book of Exodus , Moses
Moses
was born in a time when his people, the Israelites
Israelites
, an enslaved minority, were increasing in numbers and the Egyptian Pharaoh
Pharaoh
was worried that they might ally themselves with Egypt's enemies. Moses' Hebrew mother, Jochebed , secretly hid him when the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
ordered all newborn Hebrew boys to be killed in order to reduce the population of the Israelites. Through the Pharaoh's daughter (identified as Queen Bithia in the Midrash ), the child was adopted as a foundling from the Nile river and grew up with the Egyptian royal family. After killing an Egyptian slavemaster (because the slavemaster was smiting a Hebrew), Moses
Moses
fled across the Red Sea
Red Sea
to Midian
Midian
, where he encountered The Angel of the Lord, speaking to him from within a burning bush on Mount Horeb (which he regarded as the Mountain of God).

God
God
sent Moses
Moses
back to Egypt to demand the release of the Israelites from slavery. Moses
Moses
said that he could not speak with assurance or eloquence, so God
God
allowed Aaron
Aaron
, his brother, to become his spokesperson. After the Ten Plagues , Moses
Moses
led the Exodus
Exodus
of the Israelites
Israelites
out of Egypt and across the Red Sea
Red Sea
, after which they based themselves at Mount Sinai , where Moses
Moses
received the Ten Commandments . After 40 years of wandering in the desert, Moses
Moses
died within sight of the Promised Land on Mount Nebo .

Scholarly consensus sees Moses
Moses
as a legendary figure and not a historical person. Rabbinical Judaism
Judaism
calculated a lifespan of Moses corresponding to 1391–1271 BCE ; Jerome
Jerome
gives 1592 BCE, and James Ussher 1571 BCE as his birth year.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name

* 2 Biblical narrative

* 2.1 Prophet
Prophet
and deliverer of Israel * 2.2 Lawgiver of Israel

* 3 Historicity

* 4 Moses
Moses
in Hellenistic literature

* 4.1 In Hecataeus * 4.2 In Artapanus * 4.3 In Strabo
Strabo
* 4.4 In Tacitus
Tacitus
* 4.5 In Longinus * 4.6 In Josephus
Josephus
* 4.7 In Numenius * 4.8 In Justin Martyr
Justin Martyr

* 5 Moses
Moses
in Abrahamic religions

* 5.1 Judaism
Judaism

* 5.2 Christianity
Christianity

* 5.2.1 Mormonism

* 5.3 Islam
Islam
* 5.4 Baha\'i Faith

* 6 Modern reception

* 6.1 Politics and law

* 6.1.1 American history

* 6.1.1.1 Pilgrims * 6.1.1.2 Founding Fathers of the United States

* 6.1.2 Slavery and civil rights

* 6.2 Literature * 6.3 In Freud

* 6.4 Art

* 6.4.1 Depiction in the American government * 6.4.2 Michelangelo\'s statue

* 6.5 Film and television

* 6.6 Criticism of Moses
Moses

* 6.6.1 Thomas Paine and Numbers 31:13-18

* 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 Citations * 10 Further reading * 11 External links

NAME

The Biblical account of Moses' birth provides him with a folk etymology to explain the ostensible meaning of his name. He is said to have received it from the Pharaoh's daughter: "he became her son. She named him Moses
Moses
(Moshe), saying, 'I drew him out (_meshitihu_) of the water.'" This explanation links it to a verb _mashah_, meaning "to draw out", which makes the Pharaoh's daughter's declaration a play on words. The princess made a grammatical mistake which is prophetic of his future role in legend, as someone who will "draw the people of Israel out of Egypt through the waters of the Red Sea."

Several etymologies have been proposed. An Egyptian root _msy_, "child of", has been considered as a possible etymology, arguably an abbreviation of a theophoric name , as for example in Egyptian names like Thutmoses ( Thoth created him ) and Ramesses (Ra created him ), with the god's name omitted. Abraham Yahuda , based on the spelling given in the Tanakh , argues that it combines "water" or "seed" and "pond, expanse of water", thus yielding the sense of "child of the Nile
Nile
" (_mw-še_).

The Hebrew etymology in the Biblical story may reflect an attempt to cancel out traces of Moses' Egyptian origins . The Egyptian character of his name was recognized as such by ancient Jewish writers like Philo of Alexandria and Josephus
Josephus
. Philo
Philo
linked Mōēsēs (Μωησής) to the Egyptian (Coptic ) word for water (_mou_/μῶυ), while Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews , claimed that the second element, _-esês_, meant 'those who are saved'. The problem of how an Egyptian princess, known to Josephus
Josephus
as Thermutis (identified as Tharmuth) and in later Jewish tradition as Bithiah , could have known Hebrew puzzled medieval Jewish commentators like Abraham ibn Ezra and Hezekiah ben Manoah , known also as Hizkuni. Hizkuni suggested she either converted or took a tip from Jochebed .

BIBLICAL NARRATIVE

_ Finding of Moses _ (detail), 1638, by Nicolas Poussin
Nicolas Poussin

PROPHET AND DELIVERER OF ISRAEL

Moses
Moses
before the Pharaoh, a 6th-century miniature from the Syriac Bible of Paris Moses
Moses
strikes water from the stone, by Francesco Bacchiacca Moses
Moses
holding up his arms during the battle, assisted by Aaron
Aaron
and Hur; painting by John Everett Millais
John Everett Millais

The Israelites
Israelites
had settled in the Land of Goshen in the time of Joseph and Jacob
Jacob
, but a new pharaoh arose who oppressed the children of Israel. At this time Moses
Moses
was born to his father Amram , son of Kehath the Levite , who entered Egypt with Jacob's household; his mother was Jochebed (also Yocheved), who was kin to Kehath. Moses
Moses
had one older (by seven years) sister, Miriam
Miriam
, and one older (by three years) brother, Aaron
Aaron
.

The Pharaoh
Pharaoh
had commanded that all male Hebrew children born would be drowned in the river Nile
Nile
, but Moses' mother placed him in an ark and concealed the ark in the bulrushes by the riverbank, where the baby was discovered and adopted by Pharaoh's daughter. One day after Moses had reached adulthood he killed an Egyptian who was beating a Hebrew. Moses, in order to escape the Pharaoh's death penalty , fled to Midian (a desert country south of Judah).

There, on Mount Horeb , God
God
revealed to Moses
Moses
his name YHWH
YHWH
(probably pronounced Yahweh
Yahweh
) and commanded him to return to Egypt and bring his chosen people (Israel) out of bondage and into the Promised Land ( Canaan
Canaan
). Moses
Moses
returned to carry out God's command, but God
God
caused the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
to refuse, and only after God
God
had subjected Egypt to ten plagues did the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
relent. Moses
Moses
led the Israelites
Israelites
to the border of Egypt, but there God
God
hardened the Pharaoh's heart once more, so that he could destroy the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
and his army at the Red Sea
Red Sea
Crossing as a sign of his power to Israel and the nations.

From Egypt, Moses
Moses
led the Israelites
Israelites
to biblical Mount Sinai , where he was given the Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments
from God, written on stone tablets . However, since Moses
Moses
remained a long time on the mountain, some of the people feared that he might be dead, so they made a statue of a golden calf and worshiped it , thus disobeying and angering God
God
and Moses. Moses, out of anger, broke the tablets, and later ordered the elimination of those who had worshiped the golden statue, which was melted down and fed to the idolaters . He also wrote the ten commandments on a new set of tablets. Later at Mount Sinai, Moses
Moses
and the elders entered into a covenant, by which Israel would become the people of YHWH, obeying his laws, and YHWH
YHWH
would be their god. Moses delivered the laws of God
God
to Israel, instituted the priesthood under the sons of Moses' brother Aaron
Aaron
, and destroyed those Israelites
Israelites
who fell away from his worship. In his final act at Sinai, God
God
gave Moses instructions for the Tabernacle
Tabernacle
, the mobile shrine by which he would travel with Israel to the Promised Land.

From Sinai, Moses
Moses
led the Israelites
Israelites
to the Desert of Paran on the border of Canaan. From there he sent twelve spies into the land. The spies returned with samples of the land's fertility, but warned that its inhabitants were giants . The people were afraid and wanted to return to Egypt, and some rebelled against Moses
Moses
and against God. Moses
Moses
told the Israelites
Israelites
that they were not worthy to inherit the land, and would wander the wilderness for forty years until the generation who had refused to enter Canaan
Canaan
had died, so that it would be their children who would possess the land.

When the forty years had passed, Moses
Moses
led the Israelites
Israelites
east around the Dead Sea to the territories of Edom and Moab
Moab
. There they escaped the temptation of idolatry, received God's blessing through Balaam
Balaam
the prophet, and massacred the Midianites , who by the end of the Exodus journey had become the enemies of the Israelites. Moses
Moses
was twice given notice that he would die before entry to the Promised Land: in Numbers 27:13, once he had seen the Promised Land from a viewpoint on Mount Abarim , and again in Numbers 31:1 once battle with the Midianites had been won.

On the banks of the Jordan River , in sight of the land, Moses assembled the tribes . After recalling their wanderings he delivered God's laws by which they must live in the land, sang a song of praise and pronounced a blessing on the people, and passed his authority to Joshua
Joshua
, under whom they would possess the land. Moses
Moses
then went up Mount Nebo to the top of Pisgah , looked over the promised land of Israel spread out before him, and died, at the age of one hundred and twenty. More humble than any other man (Num. 12:3), "there hath not arisen a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom YHWH
YHWH
knew face to face" (Deuteronomy 34:10). The New Testament
New Testament
states that after Moses' death, Michael the Archangel
Archangel
and the Devil
Devil
disputed over his body ( Epistle of Jude
Epistle of Jude
1:9). Moses
Moses
lifts up the brass serpent , curing the Israelites
Israelites
from poisonous snake bites in a painting by Benjamin West

LAWGIVER OF ISRAEL

Further information: Law of Moses , Mosaic authorship , Deuteronomist , Book of Deuteronomy § Deuteronomic code , and 613 Mitzvot
613 Mitzvot
_ Moses Breaking the Tablets of the Law _ by Rembrandt
Rembrandt

Moses
Moses
is honoured among Jews
Jews
today as the "lawgiver of Israel", and he delivers several sets of laws in the course of the four books. The first is the Covenant Code ( Exodus
Exodus
20:19–23:33), the terms of the covenant which God
God
offers to the Israelites
Israelites
at biblical Mount Sinai. Embedded in the covenant are the Decalogue (the Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments
, Exodus
Exodus
20:1–17) and the Book of the Covenant ( Exodus
Exodus
20:22–23:19). The entire Book of Leviticus constitutes a second body of law, the Book of Numbers begins with yet another set, and the Book of Deuteronomy another.

Moses
Moses
has traditionally been regarded as the author of those four books and the Book of Genesis , which together comprise the Torah
Torah
, the first and most revered section of the Hebrew Bible .

HISTORICITY

The scholarly consensus is that the figure of Moses
Moses
is legendary , and not historical , although a "Moses-like figure" may have existed somewhere in the southern Transjordan in the mid-13th century BC. Certainly no Egyptian sources mention Moses
Moses
or the events of Exodus-Deuteronomy, nor has any archaeological evidence been discovered in Egypt or the Sinai wilderness to support the story in which he is the central figure. The story of his discovery picks up a familiar motif in ancient Near Eastern mythological accounts of the ruler who rises from humble origins: Thus Sargon of Akkad 's Sumerian account of his origins runs;

My mother, the high priestess, conceived; in secret she bore me She set me in a basket of rushes, with bitumen she sealed my lid She cast me into the river which rose over me.

The tradition of Moses
Moses
as a lawgiver and culture hero of the Israelites
Israelites
may go back to the 7th-century BCE sources of the Deuteronomist , which might conserve earlier traditions. Kenneth Kitchen , described as a distinguished but lonely voice among British Egyptologists on the subject, argues that there is an historic core behind the Exodus, with Egyptian corvée labour exacted from Hebrews during the imperialist control exercised by the Egyptian Empire over Canaan
Canaan
from the time of the Thutmosides down to the revolt against Merneptah and Rameses III . William Albright believed in the essential historicity of the biblical tales of Moses
Moses
and the Exodus, accepting however that the core narrative had been overlaid by legendary accretions. Biblical minimalists such as Philip R. Davies and Niels Peter Lemche regard all biblical books, and the stories of an Exodus, united monarchy , exile and return as fictions composed by a social elite in Yehud in the Persian period or even later , the purpose being to legitimize a return to indigenous roots.

Despite the imposing fame associated with Moses, no source mentions him until he emerges in texts associated with the Babylonian exile . A theory developed by Cornelius Tiele in 1872, which had proved influential, argued that Yahweh
Yahweh
was a Midianite god, introduced to the Israelites
Israelites
by Moses, whose father-in-law Jethro was a Midianite priest. It was to such a Moses
Moses
that Yahweh
Yahweh
reveals his real name, hidden from the Patriarchs who knew him only as El Shaddai . Against this view is the modern consensus that most of the Israelites
Israelites
were native to Palestine . Martin Noth argued that the Pentateuch uses the figure of Moses, originally linked to legends of a Transjordan conquest, as a narrative bracket or late reductional device to weld together 4 of the 5, originally independent, themes of that work. Manfred Görg and Rolf Krauss, the latter in a somewhat sensationalist manner, have suggested that the Moses
Moses
story is a distortion or transmogrification of the historical pharaoh Amenmose (ca. 1200 BCE), who was dismissed from office and whose name was later simplified to _msy_ (Mose). Aidan Dodson regards this hypothesis as "intriguing, but beyond proof." Memorial of Moses, Mount Nebo , Jordan

The name King Mesha of Moab
Moab
has been linked to that of Moses. Mesha also is associated with narratives of an exodus and a conquest, and several motifs in stories about him are shared with the Exodus
Exodus
tale and that regarding Israel's war with Moab
Moab
(2 Kings :3). Moab
Moab
rebels against oppression, like Moses, leads his people out of Israel, as Moses
Moses
does from Egypt, and his first-born son is slaughtered at the wall of Kir-hareseth as the firstborn of Israel are condemned to slaughter in the Exodus
Exodus
story, "an infernal passover that delivers Mesha while wrath burns against his enemies".

An Egyptian version of the tale that crosses over with the Moses story is found in Manetho who, according to the summary in Josephus
Josephus
, wrote that a certain Osarseph , a Heliopolitan priest, became overseer of a band of lepers , when Amenophis , following indications by Amenhotep, son of Hapu , had all the lepers in Egypt quarantined in order to cleanse the land so that he might see the gods. The lepers are bundled into Avaris , the former capital of the Hyksos
Hyksos
, where Osarseph prescribes for them everything forbidden in Egypt, while proscribing everything permitted in Egypt. They invite the Hyksos
Hyksos
to reinvade Egypt, rule with them for 13 years – Osarseph then assumes the name Moses
Moses
- and are then driven out.

MOSES IN HELLENISTIC LITERATURE

Further information: Moses in Judeo-Hellenistic literature

Non-biblical writings about Jews, with references to the role of Moses, first appear at the beginning of the Hellenistic period , from 323 BCE to about 146 BCE. Shmuel notes that "a characteristic of this literature is the high honour in which it holds the peoples of the East in general and some specific groups among these peoples."

In addition to the Judeo-Roman or Judeo-Hellenic historians Artapanus , Eupolemus , Josephus
Josephus
, and Philo
Philo
, a few non-Jewish historians including Hecataeus of Abdera (quoted by Diodorus Siculus ), Alexander Polyhistor , Manetho , Apion , Chaeremon of Alexandria , Tacitus
Tacitus
and Porphyry also make reference to him. The extent to which any of these accounts rely on earlier sources is unknown. Moses
Moses
also appears in other religious texts such as the Mishnah
Mishnah
(c. 200 CE), Midrash (200–1200 CE), and the Quran
Quran
(c. 610–53).

The figure of Osarseph in Hellenistic historiography is a renegade Egyptian priest who leads an army of lepers against the pharaoh and is finally expelled from Egypt, changing his name to Moses.

IN HECATAEUS

The earliest existing reference to Moses
Moses
in Greek literature occurs in the Egyptian history of Hecataeus of Abdera (4th century BCE). All that remains of his description of Moses
Moses
are two references made by Diodorus Siculus , wherein, writes historian Arthur Droge, "he describes Moses
Moses
as a wise and courageous leader who left Egypt and colonized Judaea ." Among the many accomplishments described by Hecataeus, Moses
Moses
had founded cities, established a temple and religious cult, and issued laws:

After the establishment of settled life in Egypt in early times, which took place, according to the mythical account, in the period of the gods and heroes, the first... to persuade the multitudes to use written laws was Mneves , a man not only great of soul but also in his life the most public-spirited of all lawgivers whose names are recorded.

Droge also points out that this statement by Hecataeus was similar to statements made subsequently by Eupolemus .

IN ARTAPANUS

The Jewish historian Artapanus of Alexandria (2nd century BCE), portrayed Moses
Moses
as a cultural hero, alien to the Pharaonic court. According to theologian John Barclay, the Moses
Moses
of Artapanus "clearly bears the destiny of the Jews, and in his personal, cultural and military splendor, brings credit to the whole Jewish people."

Jealousy of Moses' excellent qualities induced Chenephres to send him with unskilled troops on a military expedition to Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, where he won great victories. After having built the city of Hermopolis , he taught the people the value of the ibis as a protection against the serpents, making the bird the sacred guardian spirit of the city; then he introduced circumcision . After his return to Memphis , Moses taught the people the value of oxen for agriculture, and the consecration of the same by Moses
Moses
gave rise to the cult of Apis . Finally, after having escaped another plot by killing the assailant sent by the king, Moses
Moses
fled to Arabia , where he married the daughter of Raguel , the ruler of the district.

Artapanus goes on to relate how Moses
Moses
returns to Egypt with Aaron, and is imprisoned, but miraculously escapes through the name of YHWH in order to lead the Exodus. This account further testifies that all Egyptian temples of Isis
Isis
thereafter contained a rod, in remembrance of that used for Moses' miracles. He describes Moses
Moses
as 80 years old, "tall and ruddy, with long white hair, and dignified."

Some historians, however, point out the "apologetic nature of much of Artapanus' work," with his addition of extra-biblical details, such as his references to Jethro: the non-Jewish Jethro expresses admiration for Moses' gallantry in helping his daughters, and chooses to adopt Moses
Moses
as his son.

IN STRABO

Strabo
Strabo
, a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher, in his _ Geographica _ (c. 24 CE), wrote in detail about Moses, whom he considered to be an Egyptian who deplored the situation in his homeland, and thereby attracted many followers who respected the deity. He writes, for example, that Moses
Moses
opposed the picturing of the deity in the form of man or animal, and was convinced that the deity was an entity which encompassed everything – land and sea:

35. An Egyptian priest named Moses, who possessed a portion of the country called the Lower Egypt , being dissatisfied with the established institutions there, left it and came to Judaea with a large body of people who worshipped the Divinity. He declared and taught that the Egyptians and Africans entertained erroneous sentiments, in representing the Divinity under the likeness of wild beasts and cattle of the field; that the Greeks
Greeks
also were in error in making images of their gods after the human form. For God
God
may be this one thing which encompasses us all, land and sea, which we call heaven, or the universe, or the nature of things....

36. By such doctrine Moses
Moses
persuaded a large body of right-minded persons to accompany him to the place where Jerusalem
Jerusalem
now stands....

In Strabo's writings of the history of Judaism
Judaism
as he understood it, he describes various stages in its development: from the first stage, including Moses
Moses
and his direct heirs; to the final stage where "the Temple of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
continued to be surrounded by an aura of sanctity." Strabo's "positive and unequivocal appreciation of Moses' personality is among the most sympathetic in all ancient literature." His portrayal of Moses
Moses
is said to be similar to the writing of Hecataeus who "described Moses
Moses
as a man who excelled in wisdom and courage."

Egyptologist Jan Assmann concludes that Strabo
Strabo
was the historian "who came closest to a construction of Moses' religion as monotheistic and as a pronounced counter-religion." It recognized "only one divine being whom no image can represent... the only way to approach this god is to live in virtue and in justice."

IN TACITUS

The Roman historian Tacitus
Tacitus
(c. 56–120 CE) refers to Moses
Moses
by noting that the Jewish religion was monotheistic and without a clear image. His primary work, wherein he describes Jewish philosophy , is his _Histories _ (c. 100), where, according to Arthur Murphy, as a result of the Jewish worship of one God, "pagan mythology fell into contempt." Tacitus
Tacitus
states that, despite various opinions current in his day regarding the Jews' ethnicity, most of his sources are in agreement that there was an Exodus
Exodus
from Egypt. By his account, the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Bocchoris , suffering from a plague , banished the Jews
Jews
in response to an oracle of the god Zeus
Zeus
- Amun
Amun
.

A motley crowd was thus collected and abandoned in the desert. While all the other outcasts lay idly lamenting, one of them, named MOSES, advised them not to look for help to gods or men, since both had deserted them, but to trust rather in themselves, and accept as divine the guidance of the first being, by whose aid they should get out of their present plight.

In this version, Moses
Moses
and the Jews
Jews
wander through the desert for only six days, capturing the Holy Land
Holy Land
on the seventh.

IN LONGINUS

The Septuagint , the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible, influenced Longinus , who may have been the author of the great book of literary criticism, _ On the Sublime _. The date of composition is unknown, but it is commonly assigned to the late Ist century C.E.

The writer quotes Genesis in a "style which presents the nature of the deity in a manner suitable to his pure and great being," however he does not mention Moses
Moses
by name, calling him 'no chance person' (οὐχ ὁ τυχὼν ἀνήρ) but "the Lawgiver" (θεσμοθέτης, thesmothete ) of the Jews," a term that puts him on a par with Lycurgus and Minos . Aside from a reference to Cicero
Cicero
, Moses
Moses
is the only non-Greek writer quoted in the work, contextually he is put on a par with Homer
Homer
, and he is described "with far more admiration than even Greek writers who treated Moses with respect, such as Hecataeus and Strabo
Strabo
.

IN JOSEPHUS

In Josephus
Josephus
' (37 – c. 100 CE) _ Antiquities of the Jews _, Moses
Moses
is mentioned throughout. For example Book VIII Ch. IV, describes Solomon\'s Temple , also known as the First Temple, at the time the Ark of the Covenant was first moved into the newly built temple:

When King Solomon
Solomon
had finished these works, these large and beautiful buildings, and had laid up his donations in the temple, and all this in the interval of seven years, and had given a demonstration of his riches and alacrity therein; ...he also wrote to the rulers and elders of the Hebrews, and ordered all the people to gather themselves together to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, both to see the temple which he had built, and to remove the ark of God
God
into it; and when this invitation of the whole body of the people to come to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was everywhere carried abroad, ...The Feast of Tabernacles happened to fall at the same time, which was kept by the Hebrews
Hebrews
as a most holy and most eminent feast. So they carried the ark and the tabernacle which Moses
Moses
had pitched, and all the vessels that were for ministration to the sacrifices of God, and removed them to the temple. ...Now the ark contained nothing else but those two tables of stone that preserved the ten commandments , which God
God
spake to Moses
Moses
in Mount Sinai , and which were engraved upon them...

According to Feldman, Josephus
Josephus
also attaches particular significance to Moses' possession of the "cardinal virtues of wisdom, courage, temperance, and justice." He also includes piety as an added fifth virtue. In addition, he "stresses Moses' willingness to undergo toil and his careful avoidance of bribery. Like Plato
Plato
's philosopher-king , Moses
Moses
excels as an educator."

IN NUMENIUS

Numenius , a Greek philosopher who was a native of Apamea , in Syria, wrote during the latter half of the 2nd century CE. Historian
Historian
Kennieth Guthrie writes that "Numenius is perhaps the only recognized Greek philosopher who explicitly studied Moses, the prophets, and the life of Jesus
Jesus
..." He describes his background:

Numenius was a man of the world; he was not limited to Greek and Egyptian mysteries , but talked familiarly of the myths of Brahmins and Magi
Magi
. It is however his knowledge and use of the Hebrew scriptures which distinguished him from other Greek philosophers. He refers to Moses
Moses
simply as "the prophet", exactly as for him Homer
Homer
is the poet. Plato
Plato
is described as a Greek Moses.

IN JUSTIN MARTYR

The Christian saint and religious philosopher Justin Martyr (103–165 CE) drew the same conclusion as Numenius , according to other experts. Theologian Paul Blackham notes that Justin considered Moses
Moses
to be "more trustworthy, profound and truthful because he is _older_ than the Greek philosophers ." He quotes him:

I will begin, then, with our first prophet and lawgiver, Moses... that you may know that, of all your teachers, whether sages, poets, historians, philosophers, or lawgivers, by far the oldest, as the Greek histories show us, was Moses, who was our first religious teacher.

MOSES IN ABRAHAMIC RELIGIONS

JUDAISM

Most of what is known about Moses
Moses
from the Bible
Bible
comes from the books of Exodus
Exodus
, Leviticus , Numbers and Deuteronomy . The majority of scholars consider the compilation of these books to go back to the Persian period , 538–332 BCE, but based on earlier written and oral traditions. There is a wealth of stories and additional information about Moses
Moses
in the Jewish apocrypha and in the genre of rabbinical exegesis known as Midrash , as well as in the primary works of the Jewish oral law , the Mishnah
Mishnah
and the Talmud
Talmud
. Moses
Moses
is also given a number of bynames in Jewish tradition. The Midrash identifies Moses
Moses
as one of seven biblical personalities who were called by various names. Moses' other names were: Jekuthiel (by his mother), Heber (by his father ), Jered (by Miriam
Miriam
), Avi Zanoah (by Aaron), Avi Gedor (by Kohath ), Avi Soco (by his wet-nurse), Shemaiah ben Nethanel (by people of Israel). Moses
Moses
is also attributed the names Toviah (as a first name), and Levi
Levi
(as a family name) (Vayikra Rabbah 1:3), Heman, Mechoqeiq (lawgiver) and Ehl Gav Ish (Numbers 12:3).

Jewish historians who lived at Alexandria
Alexandria
, such as Eupolemus , attributed to Moses
Moses
the feat of having taught the Phoenicians their alphabet , similar to legends of Thoth . Artapanus of Alexandria explicitly identified Moses
Moses
not only with Thoth/ Hermes
Hermes
, but also with the Greek figure Musaeus (whom he called "the teacher of Orpheus "), and ascribed to him the division of Egypt into 36 districts, each with its own liturgy. He named the princess who adopted Moses
Moses
as Merris, wife of Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Chenephres.

To Orthodox Jews
Jews
, Moses
Moses
is called _Moshe Rabbenu, `Eved HaShem, Avi haNeviim zya"a_: "Our Leader Moshe, Servant of God, Father of all the Prophets (may his merit shield us, amen)". In the orthodox view, Moses
Moses
received not only the Torah, but also the revealed (written and oral) and the hidden (the _`hokhmat nistar_ teachings, which gave Judaism
Judaism
the Zohar
Zohar
of the Rashbi , the Torah
Torah
of the Ari haQadosh and all that is discussed in the Heavenly Yeshiva between the Ramhal and his masters). He is also considered the greatest prophet.

" Moses
Moses
was one hundred and twenty (120) years old when he died" (Deut. 34:7), and no one knows his burial place to this day (Deut. 34:6).

Arising in part from his age and that "his eye had not dimmed, and his vigor had not diminished," the phrase "may you live to 120 " has become a common blessing among Jews, especially since 120 is elsewhere stated as the maximum age for Noah
Noah
's descendants (one interpretation of Genesis 6:3).

PROPHET MOSES

Moses
Moses
striking the rock

PROPHET, SAINT, SEER, LAWGIVER, APOSTLE TO PHARAOH, REFORMER

BORN Goshen , Lower Egypt

DIED Mount Nebo , Moab
Moab

VENERATED IN Judaism
Judaism
, Christianity
Christianity
, Islam
Islam
, Bahá\'í Faith

FEAST ORTHODOX CHURCH "> Moses
Moses
appearing at the Transfiguration of Jesus
Jesus

Moses
Moses
is mentioned more often in the New Testament
New Testament
than any other Old Testament figure. For Christians , Moses
Moses
is often a symbol of God\'s law , as reinforced and expounded on in the teachings of Jesus
Jesus
. New Testament writers often compared Jesus' words and deeds with Moses' to explain Jesus' mission. In Acts 7:39–43, 51–53, for example, the rejection of Moses
Moses
by the Jews
Jews
who worshiped the golden calf is likened to the rejection of Jesus
Jesus
by the Jews
Jews
that continued in traditional Judaism.

Moses
Moses
also figures in several of Jesus' messages. When he met the Pharisee Nicodemus at night in the third chapter of the Gospel of John , he compared Moses' lifting up of the bronze serpent in the wilderness, which any Israelite
Israelite
could look at and be healed, to his own lifting up (by his death and resurrection ) for the people to look at and be healed. In the sixth chapter, Jesus
Jesus
responded to the people's claim that Moses
Moses
provided them _manna _ in the wilderness by saying that it was not Moses, but God, who provided. Calling himself the "bread of life ", Jesus
Jesus
stated that He was provided to feed God's people.

Moses, along with Elijah , is presented as meeting with Jesus
Jesus
in all three Gospel accounts of the Transfiguration of Jesus in Matthew 17 , Mark 9 , and Luke 9 , respectively. Jesus
Jesus
refers to the scribes and the Pharisees of the Temple as "seated in the chair of Moses" (Greek : επι της μωυσεως καθεδρας, _epi tēs Mōuseōs kathedras_)

Later Christians found numerous other parallels between the life of Moses
Moses
and Jesus
Jesus
to the extent that Jesus
Jesus
was likened to a "second Moses." For instance, Jesus' escape from the slaughter by Herod in Bethlehem is compared to Moses' escape from Pharaoh's designs to kill Hebrew infants. Such parallels, unlike those mentioned above, are not pointed out in Scripture. See the article on typology .

His relevance to modern Christianity
Christianity
has not diminished. Moses
Moses
is considered to be a saint by several churches; and is commemorated as a prophet in the respective Calendars of Saints of the Eastern Orthodox Church , the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, and the Lutheran churches on September 4. In Eastern Orthodox liturgics for September 4, Moses
Moses
is commemorated as the "Holy Prophet
Prophet
and God-seer Moses, on Mount Nebo". The Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
also commemorates him on the Sunday of the Forefathers , two Sundays before the Nativity .

The Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
commemorates him as one of the Holy Forefathers in their Calendar of Saints on July 30.

Mormonism

Main article: Book of Moses

Members of The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
of Latter-day Saints (colloquially called Mormons ) generally view Moses
Moses
in the same way that other Christians do. However, in addition to accepting the biblical account of Moses, Mormons include Selections from the Book of Moses
Moses
as part of their scriptural canon. This book is believed to be the translated writings of Moses, and is included in the Pearl of Great Price .

Latter-day Saints are also unique in believing that Moses
Moses
was taken to heaven without having tasted death (translated ). In addition, Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery stated that on April 3, 1836, Moses appeared to them in the Kirtland Temple (located in Kirtland, Ohio
Kirtland, Ohio
) in a glorified, immortal, physical form and bestowed upon them the "keys of the gathering of Israel from the four parts of the earth, and the leading of the ten tribes from the land of the north."

ISLAM

Main article: Moses
Moses
in Islam
Islam
See also: Biblical narratives and the Qur\'an § Moses
Moses
(Mūsā موسى) Maqam El- Nabi Musa , Jericho .

Moses
Moses
is mentioned more in the Quran
Quran
than any other individual and his life is narrated and recounted more than that of any other Islamic prophet . In general, Moses
Moses
is described in ways which parallel the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
, and "his character exhibits some of the main themes of Islamic theology ," including the "moral injunction that we are to submit ourselves to God."

Moses
Moses
is defined in the Quran
Quran
as both prophet (_nabi_) and messenger (_rasul _), the latter term indicating that he was one of those prophets who brought a scripture and law to his people.

Huston Smith describes an account in the Quran
Quran
of meetings in heaven between Moses
Moses
and Muhammad, which Huston states were "one of the crucial events in Muhammad's life," and resulted in Muslims observing 5 daily prayers .

Moses
Moses
is mentioned 502 times in the Quran; passages mentioning Moses include 2 .49–61, 7 .103–160, 10 .75–93, 17 .101–104, 20 .9–97, 26 .10–66, 27 .7–14, 28 .3–46, 40 .23–30, 43 .46–55, 44 .17–31, and 79 .15–25. and many others. Most of the key events in Moses' life which are narrated in the Bible
Bible
are to be found dispersed through the different Surahs of the Quran, with a story about meeting Khidr
Khidr
which is not found in the Bible. _ The Finding of Moses_ , painting by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema , 1904

In the Moses
Moses
story related by the Quran, Jochebed is commanded by God to place Moses
Moses
in an ark and cast him on the waters of the Nile, thus abandoning him completely to God's protection. The Pharaoh's wife Asiya , not his daughter, found Moses
Moses
floating in the waters of the Nile. She convinced the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
to keep him as their son because they were not blessed with any children.

The Quran's account has emphasized Moses' mission to invite the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
to accept God's divine message as well as give salvation to the Israelites. According to the Quran, Moses
Moses
encourages the Israelites
Israelites
to enter Canaan, but they are unwilling to fight the Canaanites, fearing certain defeat. Moses
Moses
responds by pleading to Allah that he and his brother Aaron
Aaron
be separated from the rebellious Israelites. After which the Israelites
Israelites
are made to wander for 40 years.

According to Islamic tradition, Moses
Moses
is buried at Maqam El-Nabi Musa , Jericho
Jericho
.

BAHA\'I FAITH

Moses
Moses
is one of the most important prophets in the Bahá\'í Faith . He is considered to be a messenger from God
God
who is equally authentic as those sent in other eras. An epithet of Moses
Moses
in Baha'i scriptures is _Interlocutor of God,_ or alternatively the One Who Conversed with God.

Important figures in the Baha’i religion, such as Abdul’l-Baha , have highlighted the fact that Moses, like Abraham
Abraham
, had none of the makings of a great man of history , but through God's assistance he was able achieve many great things. He is described as having been "for a long time a shepherd in the wilderness," of having had a stammer , and of being "much hated and detested" by the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
and the ancient Egyptians of his time. He is said to have been raised in an oppressive household, and to have been known, in Egypt, as a man who had committed murder – though he had done so in order to prevent an act of cruelty.

Nevertheless, like Abraham, through the assistance of God, he achieved great things and gained renown even beyond the Levant
Levant
. Chief among these achievements was the freeing of his people, the Hebrews, from bondage in Egypt and leading "them to the Holy Land." He is viewed as the one who bestowed on Israel 'the religious and the civil law' which gave them "honour among all nations," and which spread their fame to different parts of the world.

Furthermore, through the law, Moses
Moses
is believed to have led the Hebrews
Hebrews
'to the highest possible degree of civilization at that period.’ Abdul’l-Baha asserts that the ancient Greek philosophers regarded "the illustrious men of Israel as models of perfection." Chief among these philosophers, he says, was Socrates
Socrates
who "visited Syria, and took from the children of Israel the teachings of the Unity of God
God
and of the immortality of the soul."

Moses
Moses
is further described as paving the way for Baha\'ullah and his ultimate revelation, and as a teacher of truth, whose teachings were in line with the customs of his time.

MODERN RECEPTION

POLITICS AND LAW

Statue of Moses
Moses
at the Library of Congress
Library of Congress

In a metaphorical sense in the Christian tradition, a "Moses" has been referred to as the leader who delivers the people from a terrible situation. Among the Presidents of the United States known to have used the symbolism of Moses
Moses
were Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
, Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
, Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
, Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
, George W. Bush and Barack Obama
Barack Obama
, who referred to his supporters as "the Moses
Moses
generation."

In subsequent years, theologians linked the Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments
with the formation of early democracy . Scottish theologian William Barclay described them as "the universal foundation of all things… the law without which nationhood is impossible. …Our society is founded upon it. Pope Francis addressed the United States Congress
United States Congress
in 2015 stating that all people need to "keep alive their sense of unity by means of just legislation... the figure of Moses
Moses
leads us directly to God
God
and thus to the transcendent dignity of the human being.

American History

Pilgrims John Carver , William Bradford , and Miles Standish , at prayer during their voyage to America. Painting by Robert Walter Weir .

Pilgrims

References to Moses
Moses
were used by the Puritans
Puritans
, who relied on the story of Moses
Moses
to give meaning and hope to the lives of Pilgrims seeking religious and personal freedom in America. John Carver was the first governor of Plymouth colony and first signer of the Mayflower Compact , which he wrote in 1620 during the ship _ Mayflower
Mayflower
'_s three-month voyage. He inspired the Pilgrims with a "sense of earthly grandeur and divine purpose," notes historian Jon Meacham , and was called the " Moses
Moses
of the Pilgrims." Early American writer James Russell Lowell noted the similarity of the founding of America by the Pilgrims to that of ancient Israel by Moses:

Next to the fugitives whom Moses
Moses
led out of Egypt, the little shipload of outcasts who landed at Plymouth are destined to influence the future of the world.

Following Carver's death the following year, William Bradford was made governor. He feared that the remaining Pilgrims would not survive the hardships of the new land, with half their people having already died within months of arriving. Bradford evoked the symbol of Moses
Moses
to the weakened and desperate Pilgrims to help calm them and give them hope: "Violence will break all. Where is the meek and humble spirit of Moses?" William G. Dever explains the attitude of the Pilgrims: "We considered ourselves the 'New Israel,' particularly we in America. And for that reason we knew who we were, what we believed in and valued, and what our 'manifest destiny ' was."

Founding Fathers Of The United States

First proposed seal of the United States, 1776

On July 4, 1776, immediately after the Declaration of Independence was officially passed, the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
asked John Adams
John Adams
, Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
, and Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
to design a seal that would clearly represent a symbol for the new United States. They chose the symbol of Moses
Moses
leading the Israelites
Israelites
to freedom. The Founding Fathers of the United States inscribed the words of Moses
Moses
on the Liberty Bell : "Proclaim Liberty thro' all the Land to all the Inhabitants thereof." (Levit. 25)

Upon the death of George Washington
George Washington
in 1799, two thirds of his eulogies referred to him as "America's Moses," with one orator saying that "Washington has been the same to us as Moses
Moses
was to the Children of Israel."

Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
, in 1788, saw the difficulties that some of the newly independent American states were having in forming a government, and proposed that until a new code of laws could be agreed to, they should be governed by "the laws of Moses," as contained in the Old Testament. He justified his proposal by explaining that the laws had worked in biblical times: "The Supreme Being … having rescued them from bondage by many miracles, performed by his servant Moses, he personally delivered to that chosen servant, in the presence of the whole nation, a constitution and code of laws for their observance.

John Adams
John Adams
, 2nd President of the United States , stated why he relied on the laws of Moses
Moses
over Greek philosophy for establishing the United States Constitution
United States Constitution
: "As much as I love, esteem, and admire the Greeks, I believe the Hebrews
Hebrews
have done more to enlighten and civilize the world. Moses
Moses
did more than all their legislators and philosophers. Swedish historian Hugo Valentin credited Moses
Moses
as the "first to proclaim the rights of man ."

Slavery And Civil Rights

Historian
Historian
Gladys L. Knight describes how leaders who emerged during slavery time and after often personified the Moses
Moses
symbol. "The symbol of Moses
Moses
was empowering in that it served to amplify a need for freedom." Therefore, when Abraham
Abraham
Lincoln was assassinated in 1865 after freeing the slaves , Black Americans said they had lost "their Moses". Lincoln biographer Charles Carleton Coffin writes, "The millions whom Abraham
Abraham
Lincoln delivered from slavery will ever liken him to Moses, the deliverer of Israel." Similarly, Harriet Tubman
Harriet Tubman
, who rescued approximately seventy enslaved family and friends, was also described as the "Moses" of her people.

In the 1960s, a leading figure in the civil rights movement was Martin Luther King Jr. , who was called "a modern Moses," and often referred to Moses
Moses
in his speeches: "The struggle of Moses, the struggle of his devoted followers as they sought to get out of Egypt. This is something of the story of every people struggling for freedom."

LITERATURE

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_ Wikiquote has quotations related to: MOSES _

Thomas Mann 's novella _ The Tables of the Law _ (1944) is a retelling of the story of the Exodus
Exodus
from Egypt, with Moses
Moses
as its main character.

IN FREUD

Freud believed that Moses
Moses
was a former adherent to the religion of the sun disc Aten instituted by the pharaoh Akhenaten
Akhenaten
(shown above), a notion now discredited by modern scholars.

Sigmund Freud , in his last book, _ Moses
Moses
and Monotheism _ in 1939, postulated that Moses
Moses
was an Egyptian nobleman who adhered to the monotheism of Akhenaten
Akhenaten
. Following a theory proposed by a contemporary biblical critic , Freud believed that Moses
Moses
was murdered in the wilderness, producing a collective sense of patricidal guilt that has been at the heart of Judaism
Judaism
ever since. " Judaism
Judaism
had been a religion of the father, Christianity
Christianity
became a religion of the son", he wrote. The possible Egyptian origin of Moses
Moses
and of his message has received significant scholarly attention.

Opponents of this view observe that the religion of the Torah
Torah
seems different from Atenism in everything except the central feature of devotion to a single god, although this has been countered by a variety of arguments, e.g. pointing out the similarities between the Hymn to Aten and Psalm 104 . Freud's interpretation of the historical Moses
Moses
is not well accepted among historians , and is considered pseudohistory by many.

ART

Further information: Finding of Moses _ Sculpture in the U.S. House of Representatives .

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Depiction In The American Government

Moses
Moses
is depicted in several U.S. government buildings because of his legacy as a lawgiver. In the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
stands a large statue of Moses
Moses
alongside a statue of the Paul the Apostle . Moses
Moses
is one of the 23 lawgivers depicted in marble bas-reliefs in the chamber of the U.S. House of Representatives
U.S. House of Representatives
in the United States Capitol
United States Capitol
. The plaque's overview states: " Moses
Moses
(c. 1350–1250 B.C.) Hebrew prophet and lawgiver; transformed a wandering people into a nation; received the Ten Commandments."

The other twenty-two figures have their profiles turned to Moses, which is the only forward-facing bas-relief. Statue by Michelangelo Buonarotti — in Basilica San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome
Rome

Moses
Moses
appears eight times in carvings that ring the Supreme Court Great Hall ceiling. His face is presented along with other ancient figures such as Solomon
Solomon
, the Greek god Zeus
Zeus
and the Roman goddess of wisdom, Minerva
Minerva
. The Supreme Court Building's east pediment depicts Moses
Moses
holding two tablets. Tablets representing the Ten Commandments can be found carved in the oak courtroom doors, on the support frame of the courtroom's bronze gates and in the library woodwork. A controversial image is one that sits directly above the Chief Justice of the United States ' head. In the center of the 40-foot-long Spanish marble carving is a tablet displaying Roman numerals I through X, with some numbers partially hidden.

Michelangelo\'s Statue

Michelangelo
Michelangelo
's statue of Moses
Moses
in the Church of San Pietro in Vincoli , Rome
Rome
, is one of the most familiar masterpieces in the world. The horns the sculptor included on Moses' head are the result of a mistranslation of the Hebrew Bible into the Latin
Latin
Vulgate
Vulgate
Bible with which Michelangelo
Michelangelo
was familiar. The Hebrew word taken from _Exodus_ means either a "horn" or an "irradiation." Experts at the Archaeological Institute of America show that the term was used when Moses
Moses
"returned to his people after seeing as much of the Glory of the Lord as human eye could stand," and his face "reflected radiance." In early Jewish art , moreover, Moses
Moses
is often "shown with rays coming out of his head."

Another author explains, "When Saint
Saint
Jerome
Jerome
translated the Old Testament into Latin
Latin
, he thought no one but Christ
Christ
should glow with rays of light — so he advanced the secondary translation. However, writer J. Stephen Lang points out that Jerome's version actually described Moses
Moses
as "giving off hornlike rays," and he "rather clumsily translated it to mean 'having horns.'" It has also been noted that he had Moses
Moses
seated on a throne , yet Moses
Moses
was never given the title of a King nor ever sat on such thrones.

FILM AND TELEVISION

Moses
Moses
was portrayed by Theodore Roberts in Cecil B. DeMille 's 1923 silent film _The Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments
_. Moses
Moses
appeared as the central character in the 1956 DeMille movie, also called _The Ten Commandments _, in which he was portrayed by Charlton Heston . A television remake was produced in 2006.

Burt Lancaster played _Moses_ in the 1975 television miniseries _ Moses the Lawgiver _.

In the 1981 comedy film _ History of the World, Part I _, Moses
Moses
was portrayed by Mel Brooks .

Sir Ben Kingsley was the narrator of the 2007 animated film, _The Ten Commandments _.

Moses
Moses
appeared as the central character in the 1998 DreamWorks Pictures' animated movie , _ The Prince of Egypt _. He was voiced by Val Kilmer .

Christian Bale portrayed Moses
Moses
in Ridley Scott 's 2014 film _Exodus: Gods and Kings _ which portrayed Moses
Moses
and Rameses II as being raised by Seti I as cousins.

Guilherme Winter portrayed Moses
Moses
in Alexandre Avancini and Vivian De Oliveira 2015-2016 Brazilian miniseries Moisés y los diez mandamientos (original title: Os Dez Mandamentos )

CRITICISM OF MOSES

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Thomas Paine And Numbers 31:13-18

In the late eighteenth century, the deist Thomas Paine commented at length on Moses' Laws in _ The Age of Reason _ (1794, 1795, and 1807). Paine considered Moses
Moses
to be a "detestable villain ", and cited Numbers 31:13–18 as an example of his "unexampled atrocities". In the passage, the Jewish army had returned from conquering the Midianites , and Moses
Moses
has gone down to meet it:

And Moses, and Eleazar
Eleazar
the priest, and all the princes of the congregation, went forth to meet them without the camp; and Moses
Moses
was wroth with the officers of the host, with the captains over thousands, and captains over hundreds, which came from the battle; and Moses
Moses
said unto them, Have ye saved all the women alive? behold, these caused the children of Israel, through the counsel of Balaam
Balaam
, to commit trespass against the Lord in the matter of Peor , and there was a plague among the congregation of the Lord. Now, therefore, kill every male among the little ones, and kill every woman that hath known a man by lying with him; but all the women-children, that have not known a man by lying with him , keep alive for yourselves.

The prominent atheist Richard Dawkins
Richard Dawkins
also made reference to these verses in his 2006 book, _The God
God
Delusion _, concluding that Moses was "not a great role model for modern moralists".

However, some Jewish sources defend Moses' role. The Chasam Sofer emphasizes that this war was not fought at Moses' behest, but was commanded by God
God
as an act of revenge against the Midianite women, who, according to the Biblical account, had seduced the Israelites
Israelites
and led them to sin. Rabbi
Rabbi
Joel Grossman argued that the story is a "powerful fable of lust and betrayal ", and that Moses' execution of the women was a symbolic condemnation of those who seek to turn sex and desire to evil purposes. Alan Levin, an educational specialist with the Reform movement, has similarly suggested that the story should be taken as a cautionary tale , to "warn successive generations of Jews
Jews
to watch their own idolatrous behavior".

SEE ALSO

* Ahmose Pen-Nekhebet * Ahmose I * Ahmose-ankh * Ahmose, son of Ebana * Comparison of the founders of religious traditions * Crossing the Red Sea
Red Sea
* The Exodus * Hyksos
Hyksos
* Moses
Moses
in Islam
Islam
* Ramose (prince) * Table of prophets of Abrahamic religions * Thutmose (prince)

NOTES

* ^ Saint
Saint
Augustine records the names of the kings when Moses
Moses
was born in the _City of God
God
_:

* "When Saphrus reigned as the fourteenth king of Assyria
Assyria
, and Orthopolis as the twelfth of Sicyon , and Criasus as the fifth of Argos
Argos
, Moses
Moses
was born in Eygpt,..."

Orthopolis reigned as the 12th King of Sicyon for 63 years, from 1596–1533; and Criasus reigned as the 5th King of Argos
Argos
for 54 years, from 1637–1583.

* ^ According to Manetho the place of his birth was at the ancient city of Heliopolis . * ^ According to the Orthodox Menaion , September 4 was the day that Moses
Moses
saw the Land of Promise .

CITATIONS

* ^ Numbers 12:1 * ^ "Moses". _Random House Webster\'s Unabridged Dictionary _. * ^ Deuteronomy 34:10 * ^ Maimonides
Maimonides
, _13 principles of faith _, 7th principle . * ^ Exodus
Exodus
1:10 * ^ Douglas K. Stuart (15 June 2006). _Exodus: An Exegetical and Theological Exposition of Holy Scripture_. B&H Publishing Group. p. 110-113. * ^ Exod. 4:10 * ^ _A_ _B_ William G. Dever 'What Remains of the House That Albright Built?,' in George Ernest Wright, Frank Moore Cross, Edward Fay Campbell, Floyd Vivian Filson (eds.) _The Biblical Archaeologist,_ American Schools of Oriental Research, Scholars Press, Vol. 56, No 1, 2 March 1993 pp.25-35, p.33: 'the overwhelming scholarly consensus today is that Moses
Moses
is a mythical figure.' * ^ Seder Olam Rabbah * ^ Jerome
Jerome
's _Chronicon _ (4th century) gives 1592 for the birth of Moses * ^ The 17th-century Ussher chronology calculates 1571 BC (_Annals of the World_, 1658 paragraph 164) * ^ St Augustine . _The City of God
God
. Book XVIII. Chapter 8 - Who Were Kings When Moses
Moses
Was Born, And What Gods Began To Be Worshipped Then._ * ^ Hoeh, Herman L (1967), _Compendium of World History_ (dissertation), 1, The Faculty of the Ambassador College, Graduate School of Theology, 1962 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Christopher B. Hays, _Hidden Riches: A Sourcebook for the Comparative Study of the Hebrew Bible and Ancient Near East_, Presbyterian Publishing Corp, 2014 p. 116. * ^ Naomi E. Pasachoff, Robert J. Littman, _A Concise History of the Jewish People_, Rowman & Littlefield, (1995) 2005 p.5. * ^ Exodus
Exodus
2:10 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Lorena Miralles Maciá, "Judaizing a Gentile Biblical Character through Fictive Biographical Reports: The Case of Bityah, Pharaoh's Daughter, Moses' Mother, according to Rabbinic Interpretations", in Constanza Cordoni, Gerhard Langer (eds.), _Narratology, Hermeneutics, and Midrash: Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Narratives from Late Antiquity through to Modern Times_, Vandenhoeck James, Strong (1882), "Mo'ses", _Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature _, VI.— ME-NEV, New York: Harper & Brothers, pp. 677–87 . * ^ Schmidt, Nathaniel (Feb 1896), "Moses: His Age and His Work. II", _The Biblical World_, 7 (2): 105–19, esp. 108, It was the prophet\'s call . It was a real ecstatic experience , like that of David
David
under the baka-tree, Elijah on the mountain, Isaiah
Isaiah
in the temple, Ezekiel
Ezekiel
on the Khebar , Jesus
Jesus
in the Jordan , Paul on the Damascus road . It was the perpetual mystery of the divine touching the human. . * ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). _The Legends of the Jews
Jews
Vol III : Chapter I_ (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. * ^ Rad, Gerhard von; Hanson, K. C; Neill, Stephen (2012). _Moses_. Cambridge, U.K.: James Clarke. ISBN 978-0-227-17379-4 . Retrieved 2017-06-09. * ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). _The Legends of the Jews
Jews
Vol III : The Symbolical Significance of the Tabernacle_ (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. * ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). _The Legends of the Jews
Jews
Vol III : Ingratitude Punished_ (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. * ^ Hamilton 2011 , p. xxv. * ^ Cite error: The named reference Eerdmans was invoked but never defined (see the help page ). * ^ Meyers 2005 , pp. 5–6. * ^ Timothy D. Finlay, _The Birth Report Genre in the Hebrew Bible,_ Forschungen zum Alten Testament, Vol.12 Mohr Siebeck, 2005 p.236 * ^ J.K. Hoffmeier, 'The Egyptian Origins of Israel: Recent Developments in Historiography,' in Thomas E. Levy, Thomas Schneider, William H.C. Propp (eds.) _Israel\'s Exodus
Exodus
in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience,_ Springer, 2015 pp.196-208 p.202. * ^ Kenneth Kitchen, _On the Reliability of the Old Testament,_ Rev.ed. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003 pp.241ff. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ George W. Coats, _Moses: Heroic Man, Man of God,_ A pp.29-30,Noth). * ^ Michael R.Stead, _The Intertextuality of Zechariah 1–8: Ideals and Realities,_ T3:11; Numbers 10:29); Exodus
Exodus
6:2-3 * ^ Mark S. Smith, _The Early History of God: Yahweh
Yahweh
and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel,_ Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2002 p.34. * ^ Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst (eds.) _Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible,_ Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2nd edition 1999 p.912. * ^ Eckart Otto, _Mose: Geschichte und Legende,_ C.H.Beck, 2006 pp.25-27. * ^ Manfred Görg, "Mose – Name und Namensträger. Versuch einer historischen Annäherung" in _Mose. Ägypten und das Alte Testament_, edited by E. Otto, Verlag Katholisches Bibelwerk, Stuttgart, 2000. * ^ Rolf Krauss, _Das Moses-Rätsel. Auf den Spuren einer biblischen Erfindung,_ Ullstein Verlag, München 2001. * ^ Jan Assmann ,\'Tagsüber parliert er als Ägyptologe, nachts reißt er die Bibel auf,\' Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung 2 February 2002. * ^ Aidan Dodson, _Poisoned Legacy: The Fall of the 19th Egyptian Dynasty_ American University in Cairo Press 2010 p.72. * ^ Peter J. Leithart, _1 & 2 Kings,_ Brazos Press, 2006 pp.178ff., 181-2. * ^ Jan Assmann , _ Moses
Moses
the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt in Western Monotheism,_ Harvard University Press, 2009 pp.31-34. * ^ Shmuel 1976 , p. 1102. * ^ Shmuel 1976 , p. 1103. * ^ Hammer, Reuven (1995), _The Classic Midrash: Tannaitic Commentaries on the Bible_, Paulist Press, p. 15 . * ^ 1989 , p. 18. * ^ _A_ _B_ Droge 1989 , p. 18. * ^ Barclay, John M. G. _ Jews
Jews
in the Mediterranean Diaspora: From Alexander to Trajan (323 BCE – 117 CE)_, University of California Press (1996) p. 130 * ^ "Moses". _Jewish Encyclopedia_. Retrieved 2010-03-02. * ^ Feldman 1998 , p. 40. * ^ Feldman 1998 , p. 133. * ^ Shmuel 1976 , p. 1132. * ^ Strabo. _The Geography_, 16.2.35-36, Translated by H.C. Hamilton and W. Falconer in 1854, pp. 177–78, * ^ _A_ _B_ Shmuel 1976 , p. 1133. * ^ Assmann 1997 , p. 38. * ^ Tacitus, Cornelius. _The works of Cornelius Tacitus: With an essay on his life and genius_ by Arthur Murphy, Thomas Wardle Publ. (1842) p. 499 * ^ _A_ _B_ Tacitus, Cornelius. _Tacitus, The Histories, Volume 2_, Book V. Chapters 5, 6 p. 208. * ^ Henry J. M. Day, _Lucan and the Sublime: Power, Representation and Aesthetic Experience,_ Cambridge University Press, 2013 p.12. * ^ Louis H. Felkdman, _Jew and Gentile in the Ancient World: Attitudes and Interactions from Alexander to Justinian,_ Princeton University Press 1996 p.239. * ^ Feldman, Louis H (1998), _Josephus's Interpretation of the Bible_, University of California Press, p. 133 . * ^ Shmuel 1976 , p. 1140. * ^ Josephus, Flavius (1854), "IV", _The works: Comprising the Antiquities of the Jews_, VIII, trans. by William Whiston, pp. 254–55 . * ^ Feldman 1998 , p. 130. * ^ Guthrie 1917 , p. 194. * ^ Guthrie 1917 , p. 101. * ^ _A_ _B_ Blackham 2005 , p. 39. * ^ Van Seters 2004 , p. 194. * ^ Cite error: The named reference Finkelstein.2C_I._p.68 was invoked but never defined (see the help page ). * ^ Jean-Louis Ska, _The Exegesis of the Pentateuch: Exegetical Studies and Basic Questions,_ Forschungen zum Alten Testament, Vol 66, Mohr Siebeck, 2009 p.260. * ^ Midrash Rabbah, Ki Thissa, XL. 3-3, Lehrman, p. 463 * ^ Yalkut Shimoni, Shemot 166 to Chronicles I 4:18, 24:6; also see Vayikra Rabbah 1:3; Chasidah p.345 * ^ Rashi to Bava Batra 15s, Chasidah p. 345 * ^ Bava Batra 15a on Deuteronomy 33:21, Chasidah p. 345 * ^ Rashi to Berachot 54a, Chasidah p. 345 * ^ Eusebius , _ Praeparatio evangelica _ ix. 26 * ^ Eusebius, l.c. ix. 27 * ^ Honorifics for the dead in Judaism
Judaism
. * ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). _The Legends of the Jews
Jews
Vol. III : Moses
Moses
excels all pious men_ (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. * ^ " Judaism
Judaism
101: Moses, Aaron
Aaron
and Miriam". Jew FAQ. Retrieved 2010-03-02. * ^ Larkin, William J. (1995). _Acts (IVP New Testament
New Testament
Commentary Series)_. Intervarsity Press Academic. ISBN 978-0830818051 . * ^ " Bible
Bible
Gateway passage: Acts 7 - New International Version". _ Bible
Bible
Gateway_. Retrieved 2017-01-08. * ^ Matthew 23:2 * ^ Great Synaxaristes : (in Greek) _Ὁ Προφήτης Μωϋσῆς._ 4 Σεπτεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ. * ^ _Holy Prophet
Prophet
and God-seer Moses._ OCA - Lives of the Saints. * ^ _"September 4: The Holy God-seer Moses
Moses
the Prophet
Prophet
and Aaron His Brother"._ In: The Menaion: Volume 1, The Month of September. Transl. from the Greek by the Holy Transfiguration Monastery. Boston, Massachusetts, 2005. p. 67. * ^ _THE SUNDAY OF THE HOLY FOREFATHERS._ St John's Orthodox Church, Colchester, Essex, England. * ^ Skinner, Andrew C. (1992), "Moses", in Ludlow, Daniel H , _ Encyclopedia of Mormonism _, New York: Macmillan Publishing , pp. 958–959, ISBN 0-02-879602-0 , OCLC
OCLC
24502140 * ^ Taylor, Bruce T. (1992), "Book of Moses", in Ludlow, Daniel H , _ Encyclopedia of Mormonism _, New York: Macmillan Publishing , pp. 216–217, ISBN 0-02-879602-0 , OCLC
OCLC
24502140 * ^ The Doctrine and Covenants
Doctrine and Covenants
110:11 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Keeler 2005 , pp. 55–66. * ^ Keeler 2005 , pp. 55–56, describes Moses
Moses
from the Muslim perspective: "Among prophets, Moses
Moses
has been described as the one 'whose career as a messenger of God, lawgiver and leader of his community most closely parallels and foreshadows that of Muhammad', and as 'the figure that in the Koran was presented to Muhammad
Muhammad
above all others as the supreme model of saviour and ruler of a community, the man chosen to present both knowledge of the one God, and a divinely revealed system of law'. We find him clearly in this role of Muhammad's forebear in a well-known tradition of the miraculous ascension of the Prophet, where Moses
Moses
advises Muhammad
Muhammad
from his own experience as messenger and lawgiver." * ^ Smith, Huston (1991), _The World\'s Religions_, Harper Collins, p. 245, ISBN 9780062508119 . * ^ Quran
Quran
28:7 * ^ Quran
Quran
79:17–19 * ^ Quran
Quran
20:47–48 * ^ Quran
Quran
5:20 * ^ _Historical Context of the Bábi and Bahá\'í Faiths_, Bahá'i . * ^ Buck, Christopher (1999), _Paradise and Paradigm: Key Symbols in Persian Christianity
Christianity
and the Baháí̕ Faith_ . * ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1988). _Epistle to the Son of the Wolf_. Wilmette, Illinois: Baháí Publishing Trust. p. 104. ISBN 9780877430483 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Clifford, Laura (1937). _Some Answered Questions_. New York: Baha'i Publishing Trust. pp. 14–15. * ^ McMullen, Michael (2000), _The Bahá'í: The Religious Construction of a Global Identity_, p. 256 . * ^ Ifil, Gwen (2009), _The Breakthrough: Politics and Race in the Age of Obama_, Random House, p. 58 . * ^ Barclay, William (1998) , _The Ten Commandments_, Westminster John Knox Press, p. 4 . * ^ " Pope Francis addresses Congress", _Vox_, Sept. 24, 2015 * ^ _A_ _B_ Meacham 2006 , p. 40. * ^ Talbot, Archie Lee (1930), _A New Plymouth Colony at Kennebeck_, Brunswick: Library of Congress
Library of Congress
. * ^ Lowell, James Russell (1913), _The Round Table_, Boston: Gorham Press, pp. 217–18, Next to the fugitives whom Moses
Moses
led out of Egypt, the little shipload of outcasts who landed at Plymouth are destined to influence the future of the world. The spiritual thirst of mankind has for ages been quenched at Hebrew fountains; but the embodiment in human institutions of truths uttered by the Son of Man eighteen centuries ago was to be mainly the work of Puritan thought and Puritan self-devotion. …If their municipal regulations smack somewhat of Judaism, yet there can be no nobler aim or more practical wisdom than theirs; for it was to make the law of man a living counterpart of the law of God, in their highest conception of it. * ^ Arber, Edward (1897), _The Story of the Pilgrim Fathers_, Houghton, Mifflin & Co., p. 345 . * ^ Dever 2006 , pp. ix, 234. * ^ Moses, Adolph (1903), _Yahvism and Other Discourses_, Louisville Council of Jewish Women, p. 93, animated by the true spirit of the Hebrew prophets and law-givers. They walked by the light of the Scriptures , and were resolved to form a Commonwealth in accordance with the social laws and ideas of the Bible
Bible
. …they were themselves the true descendants of Israel, spiritual children of the prophets. . * ^ Feiler 2009 , p. 35. * ^ Feiler 2009 , p. 102. * ^ Franklin, Benjamin (1834), Franklin, William Temple, ed., _Memoirs_ (ebook)format= requires url= (help ), 2, Philadelphia: McCarty & Davis, p. 504 . * ^ Franklin 1834 , p. 211. * ^ Shuldiner, David
David
Philip (1999), _Of Moses
Moses
and Marx_, Greenwood, p. 35 . * ^ Knight, Gladys L. _Icons of African American Protest_ Vol I, Greenwood (2009) p. 183 * ^ Hodes, Martha (2015). _Mourning Lincoln_. Yale University Press. pp. 164, 237. ISBN 9780300213560 . * ^ Coffin, Charles Carleton (2012) , _ Abraham
Abraham
Lincoln_ (reprint), Ulan Press, p. 534 . * ^ Jones, Joyce Stokes; Galvin, Michele Jones (1999–2012), _Beyond the Underground. Aunt Harriet, Moses
Moses
of Her People_ .

* ^ King, Martin Luther Jr (2000) , _The Papers_, Univ. of California Press, p. 155,

I want to preach this morning from the subject, 'The Birth of a New Nation.' And I would like to use as a basis for our thinking together, a story that has long since been stenciled on the mental sheets of succeeding generations. It is the story of the Exodus, the story of the flight of the Hebrew people from the bondage of Egypt, through the wilderness and finally, to the Promised Land. …The struggle of Moses, the struggle of his devoted followers as they sought to get out of Egypt.

And I've looked over. And I've seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land. * ^ _A_ _B_ Assmann 1997 . * ^ Yerushalmi, Y, _Freud's Moses_ (monograph) . * ^ "Order of the Aten Temple". Atenism. * ^ Atwell, James E. (2000). "An Egyptian Source for Genesis 1". _ Journal of Theological Studies _. 51 (2): 441–77. doi :10.1093/jts/51.2.441 . * ^ Bernstein, Richard J. (1998). _Freud and the Legacy of Moses_. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-63096-7 . * ^ " Moses
Moses
relieve portrait", _Architect of the Capitol_ * ^ "Relief Portraits of Lawgivers: Moses". Architect of the Capitol. 2009-02-13. Retrieved 2010-03-02. * ^ _Courtroom Friezes: North and South Walls: Information Sheet_ (PDF), Supreme Court of the United States . * ^ "In the Supreme Court itself, Moses
Moses
and his law on display", _Religion News Service_, Christian index . * ^ MacLean, Margaret. (ed) _Art and Archaeology_, Vol. VI, Archaeological Institute of America (1917) p. 97 * ^ Devore, Gary M. (2008). _Walking Tours of Ancient Rome: A Secular Guidebook to the Eternal City_. Mercury Guides. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-615-19497-4 . * ^ Thomason, Dustin; Caldwell, Ian (2005). _The Rule of Four_. New York: Random House. p. 151. ISBN 0-440-24135-9 . * ^ Gross, Kenneth (2005). _The Dream of the Moving Statue_. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press. p. 245. ISBN 0-271-02900-5 . * ^ Lang, J. Stephen (2003). _What the Good Book Didn't Say: Popular Myths and Misconceptions About the Bible_. New York: Citadel Press. p. 114. ISBN 0-8065-2460-X . * ^ Boitani, Piero (1999). _The Bible
Bible
and its Rewritings_. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 126. ISBN 0-19-818487-5 . * ^ "History of the World: Part I". IMDb. * ^ "Prince of Egypt". IMDb. * ^ "Exodus: Gods and Kings". _IMDB_. * ^ Paine, Thomas (1796) _ The Age of Reason , part II_. * ^ Numbers 31:13–18 * ^ Dawkins, Richard (2006). _The God
God
Delusion_ Chapter 7. Bantam Press. ISBN 0-59305548-9 * ^ _Aliya-by-Aliya Sedra Summary_, Torah
Torah
Tidbits, OU . * ^ Grossman, Joel (2008), "Matot" Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine .. Temple Beth Am Library Minyan. * ^ Levin, Alan J. "Some messages are hard to deliver". My Jewish Learning.

FURTHER READING

* Asch, Sholem (1958), _Moses_, New York: Putnam, ISBN 0-7426-9137-3 . * Assmann, Jan (1997), _ Moses
Moses
the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt in Western Monotheism_, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-58738-3 . * Barenboim, Peter (2005), _Biblical Roots of Separation of Power_, Moscow: Letny Sad, ISBN 5-94381-123-0 . * Barzel, Hillel (1974), "Moses: Tragedy and Sublimity", in Gros Louis, Kenneth RR; Ackerman, James S; Warshaw, Thayer S, _Literary Interpretations of Biblical Narratives_, Nashville: Abingdon Press, pp. 120–40, ISBN 0-687-22131-5 . * Blackham, Paul (2005), "The Trinity in the Hebrew Scriptures", in Metzger, Paul Louis, _Trinitarian Soundings in Systematic Theology_ (essay), Continuum International . * Buber, Martin (1958), _Moses: The Revelation and the Covenant_, New York: Harper . * Card, Orson Scott (1998), _Stone Tables_, Deseret Book Co, ISBN 1-57345-115-0 . * Chasidah, Yishai (1994), "Moses", _Encyclopedia of Biblical Personalities: Anthologized from the Talmud, Midrash and Rabbinic Writings_, Brooklyn: Shaar Press, pp. 340–99 . * Cohen, Joel (2003), _Moses: A Memoir_, Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, ISBN 0-8091-0558-6 . * Churchill, Winston (November 8, 1931), "Moses", _Sunday Chronicle_, National Churchill Museum, Thoughts, 205 . * Daiches, David
David
(1975), _Moses: The Man and his Vision_, New York: Praeger, ISBN 0-275-33740-5 . * Dever, William G (2002), _What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It?_, William B. Eerdmans, ISBN 0-8028-2126-X . * ——— (2006) , _Who Were the Early Israelites, and Where Did They Come From?_, Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans * Dozeman, Thomas B (2009), _Commentary on Exodus_, William B Eerdmans, ISBN 9780802826176 * Droge, Arthur J (1989), _ Homer
Homer
or Moses?: Early Christian Interpretations of the History of Culture_, Mohr Siebeck . * Fast, Howard (1958), _Moses, Prince of Egypt_, New York: Crown . * Feiler, Bruce (2009), _America's Prophet: Moses
Moses
and the American Story_, William Morrow . * Feldman, Louis H (1998), _Josephus's Interpretation of the Bible_, University of California Press . * Finkelstein, Israel ; Silberman, Neil Asher (2001), _The Bible Unearthed_, New York: Free Press, ISBN 0-684-86912-8 . * ———; ——— (2001b), _The Bible
Bible
Unearthed_, New York: Simon & Schuster . * Franklin, Benjamin (1834), Franklin, William Temple, ed., _Memoirs_ (ebook)format= requires url= (help ), 2, Philadelphia: McCarty & Davis . * Freud, Sigmund (1967), _ Moses
Moses
and Monotheism_, New York: Vintage, ISBN 0-394-70014-7 . * Gregory of Nyssa (1978), _The Life of Moses_, The Classics of Western Spirituality, Transl. Abraham
Abraham
J. Malherbe and Everett Ferguson. Preface by John Meyendorff , Paulist Press, ISBN 978-0-80912112-0 . 208 pp. * Guthrie, Kenneth Sylvan (1917), _Numenius of Apamea: The Father of Neo-Platonism_, George Bell & Sons * Halter, Marek (2005), _Zipporah, Wife of Moses_, New York: Crown, ISBN 1-4000-5279-3 . * Hoffmeier, James K (1996), " Moses
Moses
and the _Exodus_", _Israel in Egypt: The Evidence for the Authenticity of the Exodus
Exodus
Tradition_, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 135–63 . * Hamilton, Victor (2011), _Exodus: An Exegetical Commentary_, Baker Books, ISBN 9781441240095 . * Ingraham, Joseph Holt (2006) , _The Pillar of Fire: Or Israel in Bondage_ (reprint), Ann Arbor, MC : Scholarly Publishing Office, University of Michigan
Michigan
Library, ISBN 1-4255-6491-7 . * Keeler, Annabel (2005), " Moses
Moses
from a Muslim
Muslim
Perspective", in Solomon, Norman; Harries, Richard; Winter, Tim, _Abraham\'s Children: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conversation_, T&T Clark, pp. 55–66, ISBN 9780567081711 . * Kirsch, Jonathan . _Moses: A Life._ New York: Ballantine, 1998. ISBN 0-345-41269-9 . * Kohn, Rebecca. _Seven Days to the Sea: An Epic Novel of the Exodus_. New York: Rugged Land, 2006. ISBN 1-59071-049-5 . * Freedman, H, ed. (1983), _ Midrash Rabbah_ (10 volumes)format= requires url= (help ), Lehman, S.M. (translator), London: The Soncino Press . * Mann, Thomas (1943), "Thou Shalt Have No Other Gods Before Me", _The Ten Commandments_, New York: Simon & Schuster, pp. 3–70 . * Meacham, Jon (2006), _American Gospel: God, the Founding Fathers, and the Making of a Nation_, Random House . * Salibi, Kamal (1985), "The Bible
Bible
Came from Arabia", _Jonathan Cape_, London . * Meyers, Carol (2005). _Exodus_. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521002912 . * Sandmel, Samuel
Samuel
(1973), _Alone Atop the Mountain_, Garden City, NY: Doubleday, ISBN 0-385-03877-1 . * Van Seters, John (2004), "Moses", in Barton, John, _The Biblical World_, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 9780415350914 * ——— (1994), _The Life of Moses: The Yahwist as Historian
Historian
in Exodus-Numbers_, Peeters Publishers, ISBN 90-390-0112-X . * Shmuel, Safrai (1976), Stern, M, ed., _The Jewish People in the First Century_, Van Gorcum Fortress Press * Ska, Jean Louis (2009), _The Exegesis of the Pentateuch: Exegetical Studies and Basic Questions_, Mohr Siebeck, pp. 30–31, 260, ISBN 978-3-16-149905-0 * Smith, Huston (1991), _The World\'s Religions_, Harper Collins, ISBN 9780062508119 * Southon, Arthur Eustace (1954) , _On Eagles' Wings_ (reprint), New York: McGraw-Hill . * van der Toorn, K.; Becking, Bob; van der Horst, Pieter Willem (1999), _Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible_, ISBN 9780802824912 . * Wiesel, Elie (1976), "Moses: Portrait of a Leader", _Messengers of God: Biblical Portraits & Legends_, New York: Random House, pp. 174–210, ISBN 0-394-49740-6 . * Wildavsky, Aaron
Aaron
(2005), _ Moses
Moses
as Political Leader_, Jerusalem: Shalem Press, ISBN 965-7052-31-9 . * Wilson, Dorothy Clarke (1949), _Prince of Egypt_, Philadelphia: Westminster Press .

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* _ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Singer, Isidore ; et al., eds.

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