MOSES (/ˈmoʊzɪz, -zɪs/ ; Hebrew : מֹשֶׁה, Modern
_Moshe_ Tiberian _Mōšéh_
ISO 259-3 _Moše_; Syriac : ܡܘܫܐ
_Moushe_; Arabic : موسى _Mūsā_; Greek : Mωϋσῆς
_Mōÿsēs_ in both the
Septuagint and the
New Testament ) is a
prophet in the
Abrahamic religions . According to the
Hebrew Bible ,
he was a former Egyptian prince who later in life became religious
Hebrews and lawgiver , to whom the authorship of the
or acquisition of the
Torah from Heaven is traditionally attributed.
Also called _Moshe Rabbenu_ in Hebrew (מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ,
_lit. _ "
Moses our Teacher"), he is the most important prophet in
Judaism . He is also an important prophet in
the Bahá\'í Faith , and a number of other
Abrahamic religions .
According to the
Book of Exodus ,
Moses was born in a time when his
Israelites , an enslaved minority, were increasing in
numbers and the Egyptian
Pharaoh was worried that they might ally
themselves with Egypt's enemies. Moses' Hebrew mother,
secretly hid him when the
Pharaoh ordered all newborn Hebrew boys to
be killed in order to reduce the population of the Israelites. Through
the Pharaoh's daughter (identified as Queen Bithia in the
the child was adopted as a foundling from the
Nile river and grew up
with the Egyptian royal family. After killing an Egyptian slavemaster
(because the slavemaster was smiting a Hebrew),
Moses fled across the
Red Sea to
Midian , where he encountered The Angel of the Lord,
speaking to him from within a burning bush on
Mount Horeb (which he
regarded as the Mountain of God).
Moses back to Egypt to demand the release of the Israelites
Moses said that he could not speak with assurance or
Aaron , his brother, to become his
spokesperson. After the Ten Plagues ,
Moses led the
Exodus of the
Israelites out of Egypt and across the
Red Sea , after which they
based themselves at
Mount Sinai , where
Moses received the Ten
Commandments . After 40 years of wandering in the desert,
within sight of the
Promised Land on
Mount Nebo .
Scholarly consensus sees
Moses as a legendary figure and not a
historical person. Rabbinical
Judaism calculated a lifespan of Moses
corresponding to 1391–1271 BCE ;
Jerome gives 1592 BCE, and James
Ussher 1571 BCE as his birth year.
* 1 Name
* 2 Biblical narrative
Prophet and deliverer of Israel
* 2.2 Lawgiver of Israel
Moses in Hellenistic literature
* 4.1 In Hecataeus
* 4.2 In Artapanus
* 4.3 In
* 4.4 In
* 4.5 In Longinus
* 4.6 In
* 4.7 In Numenius
* 4.8 In
* 5.2.1 Mormonism
* 5.4 Baha\'i Faith
* 6 Modern reception
* 6.1 Politics and law
* 6.1.1 American history
* 220.127.116.11 Pilgrims
Founding Fathers of the United States
* 6.1.2 Slavery and civil rights
* 6.2 Literature
* 6.3 In Freud
* 6.4 Art
* 6.4.1 Depiction in the American government
* 6.4.2 Michelangelo\'s statue
* 6.5 Film and television
* 6.6 Criticism of
Thomas Paine and Numbers 31:13-18
* 7 See also
* 8 Notes
* 9 Citations
* 10 Further reading
* 11 External links
The Biblical account of Moses' birth provides him with a folk
etymology to explain the ostensible meaning of his name. He is said
to have received it from the Pharaoh's daughter: "he became her son.
She named him
Moses (Moshe), saying, 'I drew him out (_meshitihu_) of
the water.'" This explanation links it to a verb _mashah_, meaning
"to draw out", which makes the Pharaoh's daughter's declaration a play
on words. The princess made a grammatical mistake which is prophetic
of his future role in legend, as someone who will "draw the people of
Israel out of Egypt through the waters of the Red Sea."
Several etymologies have been proposed. An Egyptian root _msy_,
"child of", has been considered as a possible etymology, arguably an
abbreviation of a theophoric name , as for example in Egyptian names
like Thutmoses (
Thoth created him ) and Ramesses (Ra created him ),
with the god's name omitted.
Abraham Yahuda , based on the spelling
given in the
Tanakh , argues that it combines "water" or "seed" and
"pond, expanse of water", thus yielding the sense of "child of the
Nile " (_mw-še_).
The Hebrew etymology in the Biblical story may reflect an attempt to
cancel out traces of Moses' Egyptian origins . The Egyptian character
of his name was recognized as such by ancient Jewish writers like
Philo of Alexandria and
Philo linked Mōēsēs
(Μωησής) to the Egyptian (Coptic ) word for water
(_mou_/μῶυ), while Josephus, in his
Antiquities of the Jews ,
claimed that the second element, _-esês_, meant 'those who are
saved'. The problem of how an Egyptian princess, known to
Thermutis (identified as Tharmuth) and in later Jewish tradition as
Bithiah , could have known Hebrew puzzled medieval Jewish
Abraham ibn Ezra and
Hezekiah ben Manoah , known
also as Hizkuni. Hizkuni suggested she either converted or took a tip
Finding of Moses _ (detail), 1638, by
PROPHET AND DELIVERER OF ISRAEL
Moses before the Pharaoh, a 6th-century miniature from the
Syriac Bible of Paris
Moses strikes water from the stone, by
Moses holding up his arms during the
battle, assisted by
Aaron and Hur; painting by
John Everett Millais
John Everett Millais
Israelites had settled in the
Land of Goshen in the time of
Jacob , but a new pharaoh arose who oppressed the children
of Israel. At this time
Moses was born to his father
Amram , son of
Levite , who entered Egypt with Jacob's household; his
Jochebed (also Yocheved), who was kin to Kehath.
one older (by seven years) sister,
Miriam , and one older (by three
Pharaoh had commanded that all male Hebrew children born would be
drowned in the river
Nile , but Moses' mother placed him in an ark and
concealed the ark in the bulrushes by the riverbank, where the baby
was discovered and adopted by Pharaoh's daughter. One day after Moses
had reached adulthood he killed an Egyptian who was beating a Hebrew.
Moses, in order to escape the Pharaoh's death penalty , fled to Midian
(a desert country south of Judah).
Mount Horeb ,
God revealed to
Moses his name
Yahweh ) and commanded him to return to Egypt and bring his
chosen people (Israel) out of bondage and into the Promised Land
Moses returned to carry out God's command, but
Pharaoh to refuse, and only after
God had subjected Egypt to ten
plagues did the
Moses led the
Israelites to the border
of Egypt, but there
God hardened the Pharaoh's heart once more, so
that he could destroy the
Pharaoh and his army at the
Red Sea Crossing
as a sign of his power to Israel and the nations.
Moses led the
Israelites to biblical
Mount Sinai , where
he was given the
Ten Commandments from God, written on stone tablets .
Moses remained a long time on the mountain, some of the
people feared that he might be dead, so they made a statue of a golden
calf and worshiped it , thus disobeying and angering
God and Moses.
Moses, out of anger, broke the tablets, and later ordered the
elimination of those who had worshiped the golden statue, which was
melted down and fed to the idolaters . He also wrote the ten
commandments on a new set of tablets. Later at Mount Sinai,
the elders entered into a covenant, by which Israel would become the
people of YHWH, obeying his laws, and
YHWH would be their god. Moses
delivered the laws of
God to Israel, instituted the priesthood under
the sons of Moses' brother
Aaron , and destroyed those
fell away from his worship. In his final act at Sinai,
God gave Moses
instructions for the
Tabernacle , the mobile shrine by which he would
travel with Israel to the Promised Land.
Moses led the
Israelites to the
Desert of Paran on the
border of Canaan. From there he sent twelve spies into the land. The
spies returned with samples of the land's fertility, but warned that
its inhabitants were giants . The people were afraid and wanted to
return to Egypt, and some rebelled against
Moses and against God.
Moses told the
Israelites that they were not worthy to inherit the
land, and would wander the wilderness for forty years until the
generation who had refused to enter
Canaan had died, so that it would
be their children who would possess the land.
When the forty years had passed,
Moses led the
Israelites east around
Dead Sea to the territories of
Moab . There they escaped
the temptation of idolatry, received God's blessing through
prophet, and massacred the Midianites , who by the end of the Exodus
journey had become the enemies of the Israelites.
Moses was twice
given notice that he would die before entry to the Promised Land: in
Numbers 27:13, once he had seen the
Promised Land from a viewpoint on
Abarim , and again in Numbers 31:1 once battle with the
Midianites had been won.
On the banks of the
Jordan River , in sight of the land, Moses
assembled the tribes . After recalling their wanderings he delivered
God's laws by which they must live in the land, sang a song of praise
and pronounced a blessing on the people, and passed his authority to
Joshua , under whom they would possess the land.
Moses then went up
Mount Nebo to the top of Pisgah , looked over the promised land of
Israel spread out before him, and died, at the age of one hundred and
twenty. More humble than any other man (Num. 12:3), "there hath not
arisen a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom
YHWH knew face
to face" (Deuteronomy 34:10). The
New Testament states that after
Moses' death, Michael the
Archangel and the
Devil disputed over his
Epistle of Jude
Epistle of Jude 1:9).
Moses lifts up the brass serpent ,
Israelites from poisonous snake bites in a painting by
LAWGIVER OF ISRAEL
Law of Moses ,
Mosaic authorship , Deuteronomist
Book of Deuteronomy § Deuteronomic code , and
613 Mitzvot _
Moses Breaking the Tablets of the Law _ by
Moses is honoured among
Jews today as the "lawgiver of Israel", and
he delivers several sets of laws in the course of the four books. The
first is the
Covenant Code (
Exodus 20:19–23:33), the terms of the
God offers to the
Israelites at biblical Mount Sinai.
Embedded in the covenant are the
Ten Commandments ,
Exodus 20:1–17) and the Book of the Covenant (
Book of Leviticus constitutes a second body of law, the
Book of Numbers begins with yet another set, and the Book of
Moses has traditionally been regarded as the author of those four
books and the
Book of Genesis , which together comprise the
the first and most revered section of the
Hebrew Bible .
The scholarly consensus is that the figure of
Moses is legendary ,
and not historical , although a "Moses-like figure" may have existed
somewhere in the southern Transjordan in the mid-13th century BC.
Certainly no Egyptian sources mention
Moses or the events of
Exodus-Deuteronomy, nor has any archaeological evidence been
discovered in Egypt or the Sinai wilderness to support the story in
which he is the central figure. The story of his discovery picks up a
familiar motif in ancient Near Eastern mythological accounts of the
ruler who rises from humble origins: Thus
Sargon of Akkad 's Sumerian
account of his origins runs;
My mother, the high priestess, conceived; in secret she bore me
She set me in a basket of rushes, with bitumen she sealed my lid
She cast me into the river which rose over me.
The tradition of
Moses as a lawgiver and culture hero of the
Israelites may go back to the 7th-century BCE sources of the
Deuteronomist , which might conserve earlier traditions. Kenneth
Kitchen , described as a distinguished but lonely voice among British
Egyptologists on the subject, argues that there is an historic core
behind the Exodus, with Egyptian corvée labour exacted from Hebrews
during the imperialist control exercised by the Egyptian Empire over
Canaan from the time of the Thutmosides down to the revolt against
Rameses III . William Albright believed in the
essential historicity of the biblical tales of
Moses and the Exodus,
accepting however that the core narrative had been overlaid by
legendary accretions. Biblical minimalists such as Philip R. Davies
Niels Peter Lemche regard all biblical books, and the stories of
an Exodus, united monarchy , exile and return as fictions composed by
a social elite in Yehud in the Persian period or even later , the
purpose being to legitimize a return to indigenous roots.
Despite the imposing fame associated with Moses, no source mentions
him until he emerges in texts associated with the Babylonian exile .
A theory developed by
Cornelius Tiele in 1872, which had proved
influential, argued that
Yahweh was a Midianite god, introduced to the
Israelites by Moses, whose father-in-law Jethro was a Midianite
priest. It was to such a
Yahweh reveals his real name,
hidden from the Patriarchs who knew him only as
El Shaddai . Against
this view is the modern consensus that most of the
native to Palestine .
Martin Noth argued that the Pentateuch uses the
figure of Moses, originally linked to legends of a Transjordan
conquest, as a narrative bracket or late reductional device to weld
together 4 of the 5, originally independent, themes of that work.
Manfred Görg and Rolf Krauss, the latter in a somewhat
sensationalist manner, have suggested that the
Moses story is a
distortion or transmogrification of the historical pharaoh Amenmose
(ca. 1200 BCE), who was dismissed from office and whose name was later
simplified to _msy_ (Mose). Aidan Dodson regards this hypothesis as
"intriguing, but beyond proof." Memorial of Moses,
Mount Nebo ,
The name King
Moab has been linked to that of Moses. Mesha
also is associated with narratives of an exodus and a conquest, and
several motifs in stories about him are shared with the
and that regarding Israel's war with
Moab (2 Kings :3).
against oppression, like Moses, leads his people out of Israel, as
Moses does from Egypt, and his first-born son is slaughtered at the
wall of Kir-hareseth as the firstborn of Israel are condemned to
slaughter in the
Exodus story, "an infernal passover that delivers
Mesha while wrath burns against his enemies".
An Egyptian version of the tale that crosses over with the Moses
story is found in
Manetho who, according to the summary in
wrote that a certain
Osarseph , a Heliopolitan priest, became overseer
of a band of lepers , when Amenophis , following indications by
Amenhotep, son of Hapu , had all the lepers in Egypt quarantined in
order to cleanse the land so that he might see the gods. The lepers
are bundled into
Avaris , the former capital of the
Hyksos , where
Osarseph prescribes for them everything forbidden in Egypt, while
proscribing everything permitted in Egypt. They invite the
reinvade Egypt, rule with them for 13 years –
Osarseph then assumes
Moses - and are then driven out.
MOSES IN HELLENISTIC LITERATURE
Moses in Judeo-Hellenistic literature
Non-biblical writings about Jews, with references to the role of
Moses, first appear at the beginning of the
Hellenistic period , from
323 BCE to about 146 BCE. Shmuel notes that "a characteristic of this
literature is the high honour in which it holds the peoples of the
East in general and some specific groups among these peoples."
In addition to the Judeo-Roman or Judeo-Hellenic historians Artapanus
Josephus , and
Philo , a few non-Jewish historians
Hecataeus of Abdera (quoted by
Diodorus Siculus ), Alexander
Chaeremon of Alexandria ,
Porphyry also make reference to him. The extent to which any of these
accounts rely on earlier sources is unknown.
Moses also appears in
other religious texts such as the
Mishnah (c. 200 CE), Midrash
(200–1200 CE), and the
Quran (c. 610–53).
The figure of
Osarseph in Hellenistic historiography is a renegade
Egyptian priest who leads an army of lepers against the pharaoh and is
finally expelled from Egypt, changing his name to Moses.
The earliest existing reference to
Moses in Greek literature occurs
in the Egyptian history of
Hecataeus of Abdera (4th century BCE). All
that remains of his description of
Moses are two references made by
Diodorus Siculus , wherein, writes historian Arthur Droge, "he
Moses as a wise and courageous leader who left Egypt and
colonized Judaea ." Among the many accomplishments described by
Moses had founded cities, established a temple and
religious cult, and issued laws:
After the establishment of settled life in Egypt in early times,
which took place, according to the mythical account, in the period of
the gods and heroes, the first... to persuade the multitudes to use
written laws was Mneves , a man not only great of soul but also in his
life the most public-spirited of all lawgivers whose names are
Droge also points out that this statement by Hecataeus was similar to
statements made subsequently by
The Jewish historian
Artapanus of Alexandria (2nd century BCE),
Moses as a cultural hero, alien to the Pharaonic court.
According to theologian John Barclay, the
Moses of Artapanus "clearly
bears the destiny of the Jews, and in his personal, cultural and
military splendor, brings credit to the whole Jewish people."
Jealousy of Moses' excellent qualities induced Chenephres to send him
with unskilled troops on a military expedition to
Ethiopia , where he
won great victories. After having built the city of
Hermopolis , he
taught the people the value of the ibis as a protection against the
serpents, making the bird the sacred guardian spirit of the city; then
he introduced circumcision . After his return to Memphis , Moses
taught the people the value of oxen for agriculture, and the
consecration of the same by
Moses gave rise to the cult of Apis .
Finally, after having escaped another plot by killing the assailant
sent by the king,
Moses fled to Arabia , where he married the daughter
of Raguel , the ruler of the district.
Artapanus goes on to relate how
Moses returns to Egypt with Aaron,
and is imprisoned, but miraculously escapes through the name of YHWH
in order to lead the Exodus. This account further testifies that all
Egyptian temples of
Isis thereafter contained a rod, in remembrance of
that used for Moses' miracles. He describes
Moses as 80 years old,
"tall and ruddy, with long white hair, and dignified."
Some historians, however, point out the "apologetic nature of much of
Artapanus' work," with his addition of extra-biblical details, such
as his references to Jethro: the non-Jewish Jethro expresses
admiration for Moses' gallantry in helping his daughters, and chooses
Moses as his son.
Strabo , a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher, in his
Geographica _ (c. 24 CE), wrote in detail about Moses, whom he
considered to be an Egyptian who deplored the situation in his
homeland, and thereby attracted many followers who respected the
deity. He writes, for example, that
Moses opposed the picturing of the
deity in the form of man or animal, and was convinced that the deity
was an entity which encompassed everything – land and sea:
35. An Egyptian priest named Moses, who possessed a portion of the
country called the
Lower Egypt , being dissatisfied with the
established institutions there, left it and came to Judaea with a
large body of people who worshipped the Divinity. He declared and
taught that the
Egyptians and Africans entertained erroneous
sentiments, in representing the Divinity under the likeness of wild
beasts and cattle of the field; that the
Greeks also were in error in
making images of their gods after the human form. For
God may be this
one thing which encompasses us all, land and sea, which we call
heaven, or the universe, or the nature of things....
36. By such doctrine
Moses persuaded a large body of right-minded
persons to accompany him to the place where
Jerusalem now stands....
In Strabo's writings of the history of
Judaism as he understood it,
he describes various stages in its development: from the first stage,
Moses and his direct heirs; to the final stage where "the
Jerusalem continued to be surrounded by an aura of
sanctity." Strabo's "positive and unequivocal appreciation of Moses'
personality is among the most sympathetic in all ancient literature."
His portrayal of
Moses is said to be similar to the writing of
Hecataeus who "described
Moses as a man who excelled in wisdom and
Jan Assmann concludes that
Strabo was the historian "who
came closest to a construction of Moses' religion as monotheistic and
as a pronounced counter-religion." It recognized "only one divine
being whom no image can represent... the only way to approach this
god is to live in virtue and in justice."
The Roman historian
Tacitus (c. 56–120 CE) refers to
noting that the Jewish religion was monotheistic and without a clear
image. His primary work, wherein he describes
Jewish philosophy , is
his _Histories _ (c. 100), where, according to Arthur Murphy, as a
result of the Jewish worship of one God, "pagan mythology fell into
Tacitus states that, despite various opinions current in
his day regarding the Jews' ethnicity, most of his sources are in
agreement that there was an
Exodus from Egypt. By his account, the
Pharaoh Bocchoris , suffering from a plague , banished the
response to an oracle of the god
A motley crowd was thus collected and abandoned in the desert. While
all the other outcasts lay idly lamenting, one of them, named MOSES,
advised them not to look for help to gods or men, since both had
deserted them, but to trust rather in themselves, and accept as divine
the guidance of the first being, by whose aid they should get out of
their present plight.
In this version,
Moses and the
Jews wander through the desert for
only six days, capturing the
Holy Land on the seventh.
Septuagint , the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible, influenced
Longinus , who may have been the author of the great book of literary
On the Sublime _. The date of composition is unknown, but
it is commonly assigned to the late Ist century C.E.
The writer quotes Genesis in a "style which presents the nature of
the deity in a manner suitable to his pure and great being," however
he does not mention
Moses by name, calling him 'no chance person'
(οὐχ ὁ τυχὼν ἀνήρ) but "the Lawgiver"
(θεσμοθέτης, thesmothete ) of the Jews," a term that puts
him on a par with Lycurgus and
Minos . Aside from a reference to
Moses is the only non-Greek writer quoted in the work,
contextually he is put on a par with
Homer , and he is described
"with far more admiration than even Greek writers who treated Moses
with respect, such as Hecataeus and
Josephus ' (37 – c. 100 CE) _
Antiquities of the Jews _,
mentioned throughout. For example Book VIII Ch. IV, describes
Solomon\'s Temple , also known as the First Temple, at the time the
Ark of the Covenant was first moved into the newly built temple:
Solomon had finished these works, these large and beautiful
buildings, and had laid up his donations in the temple, and all this
in the interval of seven years, and had given a demonstration of his
riches and alacrity therein; ...he also wrote to the rulers and elders
of the Hebrews, and ordered all the people to gather themselves
Jerusalem , both to see the temple which he had built, and
to remove the ark of
God into it; and when this invitation of the
whole body of the people to come to
Jerusalem was everywhere carried
abroad, ...The Feast of Tabernacles happened to fall at the same time,
which was kept by the
Hebrews as a most holy and most eminent feast.
So they carried the ark and the tabernacle which
Moses had pitched,
and all the vessels that were for ministration to the sacrifices of
God, and removed them to the temple. ...Now the ark contained nothing
else but those two tables of stone that preserved the ten commandments
God spake to
Mount Sinai , and which were engraved
According to Feldman,
Josephus also attaches particular significance
to Moses' possession of the "cardinal virtues of wisdom, courage,
temperance, and justice." He also includes piety as an added fifth
virtue. In addition, he "stresses Moses' willingness to undergo toil
and his careful avoidance of bribery. Like
Plato 's philosopher-king ,
Moses excels as an educator."
Numenius , a Greek philosopher who was a native of Apamea , in Syria,
wrote during the latter half of the 2nd century CE.
Guthrie writes that "Numenius is perhaps the only recognized Greek
philosopher who explicitly studied Moses, the prophets, and the life
Jesus ..." He describes his background:
Numenius was a man of the world; he was not limited to Greek and
Egyptian mysteries , but talked familiarly of the myths of Brahmins
Magi . It is however his knowledge and use of the Hebrew
scriptures which distinguished him from other Greek philosophers. He
Moses simply as "the prophet", exactly as for him
Plato is described as a Greek Moses.
IN JUSTIN MARTYR
The Christian saint and religious philosopher Justin Martyr
(103–165 CE) drew the same conclusion as Numenius , according to
other experts. Theologian Paul Blackham notes that Justin considered
Moses to be "more trustworthy, profound and truthful because he is
_older_ than the Greek philosophers ." He quotes him:
I will begin, then, with our first prophet and lawgiver, Moses...
that you may know that, of all your teachers, whether sages, poets,
historians, philosophers, or lawgivers, by far the oldest, as the
Greek histories show us, was Moses, who was our first religious
MOSES IN ABRAHAMIC RELIGIONS
Most of what is known about
Moses from the
Bible comes from the books
Exodus , Leviticus , Numbers and Deuteronomy . The majority of
scholars consider the compilation of these books to go back to the
Persian period , 538–332 BCE, but based on earlier written and oral
traditions. There is a wealth of stories and additional information
Moses in the
Jewish apocrypha and in the genre of rabbinical
exegesis known as
Midrash , as well as in the primary works of the
Jewish oral law , the
Mishnah and the
Moses is also given a
number of bynames in Jewish tradition. The
one of seven biblical personalities who were called by various names.
Moses' other names were: Jekuthiel (by his mother), Heber (by his
father ), Jered (by
Miriam ), Avi Zanoah (by Aaron), Avi Gedor (by
Kohath ), Avi Soco (by his wet-nurse), Shemaiah ben Nethanel (by
people of Israel).
Moses is also attributed the names Toviah (as a
first name), and
Levi (as a family name) (Vayikra Rabbah 1:3), Heman,
Mechoqeiq (lawgiver) and Ehl Gav Ish (Numbers 12:3).
Jewish historians who lived at
Alexandria , such as
Moses the feat of having taught the Phoenicians their
alphabet , similar to legends of
Thoth . Artapanus of Alexandria
Moses not only with Thoth/
Hermes , but also with
the Greek figure Musaeus (whom he called "the teacher of
and ascribed to him the division of Egypt into 36 districts, each with
its own liturgy. He named the princess who adopted
Moses as Merris,
Moses is called _Moshe Rabbenu, `Eved HaShem, Avi
haNeviim zya"a_: "Our Leader Moshe, Servant of God, Father of all the
Prophets (may his merit shield us, amen)". In the orthodox view,
Moses received not only the Torah, but also the revealed (written and
oral) and the hidden (the _`hokhmat nistar_ teachings, which gave
Zohar of the Rashbi , the
Torah of the Ari haQadosh and
all that is discussed in the Heavenly Yeshiva between the Ramhal and
his masters). He is also considered the greatest prophet.
Moses was one hundred and twenty (120) years old when he died"
(Deut. 34:7), and no one knows his burial place to this day (Deut.
Arising in part from his age and that "his eye had not dimmed, and
his vigor had not diminished," the phrase "may you live to 120 " has
become a common blessing among Jews, especially since 120 is elsewhere
stated as the maximum age for
Noah 's descendants (one interpretation
of Genesis 6:3).
Moses striking the rock
PROPHET, SAINT, SEER, LAWGIVER, APOSTLE TO PHARAOH, REFORMER
Mount Nebo ,
Islam , Bahá\'í Faith
ORTHODOX CHURCH ">
Moses appearing at the Transfiguration of
Moses is mentioned more often in the
New Testament than any other Old
Testament figure. For Christians ,
Moses is often a symbol of God\'s
law , as reinforced and expounded on in the teachings of
Jesus . New
Testament writers often compared Jesus' words and deeds with Moses' to
explain Jesus' mission. In Acts 7:39–43, 51–53, for example, the
Moses by the
Jews who worshiped the golden calf is
likened to the rejection of
Jesus by the
Jews that continued in
Moses also figures in several of Jesus' messages. When he met the
Nicodemus at night in the third chapter of the Gospel of John
, he compared Moses' lifting up of the bronze serpent in the
wilderness, which any
Israelite could look at and be healed, to his
own lifting up (by his death and resurrection ) for the people to look
at and be healed. In the sixth chapter,
Jesus responded to the
people's claim that
Moses provided them _manna _ in the wilderness by
saying that it was not Moses, but God, who provided. Calling himself
the "bread of life ",
Jesus stated that He was provided to feed God's
Moses, along with
Elijah , is presented as meeting with
Jesus in all
three Gospel accounts of the
Transfiguration of Jesus in
Matthew 17 ,
Mark 9 , and
Luke 9 , respectively.
Jesus refers to the scribes and
Pharisees of the Temple as "seated in the chair of Moses" (Greek :
επι της μωυσεως καθεδρας, _epi tēs Mōuseōs
Later Christians found numerous other parallels between the life of
Jesus to the extent that
Jesus was likened to a "second
Moses." For instance, Jesus' escape from the slaughter by Herod in
Bethlehem is compared to Moses' escape from Pharaoh's designs to kill
Hebrew infants. Such parallels, unlike those mentioned above, are not
pointed out in Scripture. See the article on typology .
His relevance to modern
Christianity has not diminished.
considered to be a saint by several churches; and is commemorated as a
prophet in the respective Calendars of Saints of the Eastern Orthodox
Church , the Roman
Catholic Church , and the Lutheran churches on
September 4. In Eastern Orthodox liturgics for September 4,
commemorated as the "Holy
Prophet and God-seer Moses, on Mount Nebo".
Orthodox Church also commemorates him on the Sunday of the
Forefathers , two Sundays before the Nativity .
Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church commemorates him as one of the Holy
Forefathers in their Calendar of Saints on July 30.
Book of Moses
Members of The Church of
Christ of Latter-day Saints
Mormons ) generally view
Moses in the same way
that other Christians do. However, in addition to accepting the
biblical account of Moses,
Mormons include Selections from the Book of
Moses as part of their scriptural canon. This book is believed to be
the translated writings of Moses, and is included in the Pearl of
Great Price .
Latter-day Saints are also unique in believing that
Moses was taken
to heaven without having tasted death (translated ). In addition,
Joseph Smith and
Oliver Cowdery stated that on April 3, 1836, Moses
appeared to them in the
Kirtland Temple (located in
Kirtland, Ohio )
in a glorified, immortal, physical form and bestowed upon them the
"keys of the gathering of Israel from the four parts of the earth, and
the leading of the ten tribes from the land of the north."
Islam See also: Biblical narratives and the
Moses (Mūsā موسى) Maqam El-
Nabi Musa , Jericho
Moses is mentioned more in the
Quran than any other individual and
his life is narrated and recounted more than that of any other Islamic
prophet . In general,
Moses is described in ways which parallel the
Muhammad , and "his character exhibits some of the
main themes of Islamic theology ," including the "moral injunction
that we are to submit ourselves to God."
Moses is defined in the
Quran as both prophet (_nabi_) and messenger
(_rasul _), the latter term indicating that he was one of those
prophets who brought a scripture and law to his people.
Huston Smith describes an account in the
Quran of meetings in heaven
Moses and Muhammad, which Huston states were "one of the
crucial events in Muhammad's life," and resulted in Muslims observing
5 daily prayers .
Moses is mentioned 502 times in the Quran; passages mentioning Moses
include 2 .49–61, 7 .103–160, 10 .75–93, 17 .101–104, 20
.9–97, 26 .10–66, 27 .7–14, 28 .3–46, 40 .23–30, 43
.46–55, 44 .17–31, and 79 .15–25. and many others. Most of the
key events in Moses' life which are narrated in the
Bible are to be
found dispersed through the different Surahs of the Quran, with a
story about meeting
Khidr which is not found in the Bible. _ The
Finding of Moses_ , painting by
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema , 1904
Moses story related by the Quran,
Jochebed is commanded by God
Moses in an ark and cast him on the waters of the Nile, thus
abandoning him completely to God's protection. The Pharaoh's wife
Asiya , not his daughter, found
Moses floating in the waters of the
Nile. She convinced the
Pharaoh to keep him as their son because they
were not blessed with any children.
The Quran's account has emphasized Moses' mission to invite the
Pharaoh to accept God's divine message as well as give salvation to
the Israelites. According to the Quran,
Moses encourages the
Israelites to enter Canaan, but they are unwilling to fight the
Canaanites, fearing certain defeat.
Moses responds by pleading to
Allah that he and his brother
Aaron be separated from the rebellious
Israelites. After which the
Israelites are made to wander for 40
According to Islamic tradition,
Moses is buried at Maqam El-Nabi Musa
Moses is one of the most important prophets in the Bahá\'í Faith .
He is considered to be a messenger from
God who is equally authentic
as those sent in other eras. An epithet of
Moses in Baha'i scriptures
is _Interlocutor of God,_ or alternatively the One Who Conversed with
Important figures in the Baha’i religion, such as Abdul’l-Baha ,
have highlighted the fact that Moses, like
Abraham , had none of the
makings of a great man of history , but through God's assistance he
was able achieve many great things. He is described as having been
"for a long time a shepherd in the wilderness," of having had a
stammer , and of being "much hated and detested" by the
Egyptians of his time. He is said to have been raised in
an oppressive household, and to have been known, in Egypt, as a man
who had committed murder – though he had done so in order to prevent
an act of cruelty.
Nevertheless, like Abraham, through the assistance of God, he
achieved great things and gained renown even beyond the
Levant . Chief
among these achievements was the freeing of his people, the Hebrews,
from bondage in Egypt and leading "them to the Holy Land." He is
viewed as the one who bestowed on Israel 'the religious and the civil
law' which gave them "honour among all nations," and which spread
their fame to different parts of the world.
Furthermore, through the law,
Moses is believed to have led the
Hebrews 'to the highest possible degree of civilization at that
period.’ Abdul’l-Baha asserts that the ancient Greek philosophers
regarded "the illustrious men of Israel as models of perfection."
Chief among these philosophers, he says, was
Socrates who "visited
Syria, and took from the children of Israel the teachings of the Unity
God and of the immortality of the soul."
Moses is further described as paving the way for Baha\'ullah and his
ultimate revelation, and as a teacher of truth, whose teachings were
in line with the customs of his time.
POLITICS AND LAW
Moses at the
Library of Congress
Library of Congress
In a metaphorical sense in the Christian tradition, a "Moses" has
been referred to as the leader who delivers the people from a terrible
situation. Among the Presidents of the United States known to have
used the symbolism of
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman ,
Jimmy Carter ,
Ronald Reagan ,
Bill Clinton ,
George W. Bush and
Barack Obama , who
referred to his supporters as "the
In subsequent years, theologians linked the
Ten Commandments with the
formation of early democracy . Scottish theologian William Barclay
described them as "the universal foundation of all things… the law
without which nationhood is impossible. …Our society is founded upon
Pope Francis addressed the
United States Congress
United States Congress in 2015 stating
that all people need to "keep alive their sense of unity by means of
just legislation... the figure of
Moses leads us directly to
thus to the transcendent dignity of the human being.
Pilgrims John Carver , William Bradford , and
Miles Standish ,
at prayer during their voyage to America. Painting by Robert Walter
Moses were used by the
Puritans , who relied on the
Moses to give meaning and hope to the lives of Pilgrims
seeking religious and personal freedom in America. John Carver was the
first governor of
Plymouth colony and first signer of the Mayflower
Compact , which he wrote in 1620 during the ship _
three-month voyage. He inspired the Pilgrims with a "sense of earthly
grandeur and divine purpose," notes historian
Jon Meacham , and was
called the "
Moses of the Pilgrims." Early American writer James
Russell Lowell noted the similarity of the founding of America by the
Pilgrims to that of ancient Israel by Moses:
Next to the fugitives whom
Moses led out of Egypt, the little
shipload of outcasts who landed at Plymouth are destined to influence
the future of the world.
Following Carver's death the following year, William Bradford was
made governor. He feared that the remaining Pilgrims would not survive
the hardships of the new land, with half their people having already
died within months of arriving. Bradford evoked the symbol of
the weakened and desperate Pilgrims to help calm them and give them
hope: "Violence will break all. Where is the meek and humble spirit of
William G. Dever explains the attitude of the Pilgrims: "We
considered ourselves the 'New Israel,' particularly we in America. And
for that reason we knew who we were, what we believed in and valued,
and what our 'manifest destiny ' was."
Founding Fathers Of The United States
First proposed seal of the United States, 1776
On July 4, 1776, immediately after the Declaration of Independence
was officially passed, the
Continental Congress asked
John Adams ,
Thomas Jefferson , and
Benjamin Franklin to design a seal that would
clearly represent a symbol for the new United States. They chose the
Moses leading the
Israelites to freedom. The Founding
Fathers of the United States inscribed the words of
Moses on the
Liberty Bell : "Proclaim Liberty thro' all the Land to all the
Inhabitants thereof." (Levit. 25)
Upon the death of
George Washington in 1799, two thirds of his
eulogies referred to him as "America's Moses," with one orator saying
that "Washington has been the same to us as
Moses was to the Children
Benjamin Franklin , in 1788, saw the difficulties that some of the
newly independent American states were having in forming a government,
and proposed that until a new code of laws could be agreed to, they
should be governed by "the laws of Moses," as contained in the Old
Testament. He justified his proposal by explaining that the laws had
worked in biblical times: "The
Supreme Being … having rescued them
from bondage by many miracles, performed by his servant Moses, he
personally delivered to that chosen servant, in the presence of the
whole nation, a constitution and code of laws for their observance.
John Adams , 2nd President of the United States , stated why he
relied on the laws of
Moses over Greek philosophy for establishing the
United States Constitution
United States Constitution : "As much as I love, esteem, and admire
the Greeks, I believe the
Hebrews have done more to enlighten and
civilize the world.
Moses did more than all their legislators and
philosophers. Swedish historian
Hugo Valentin credited
Moses as the
"first to proclaim the rights of man ."
Slavery And Civil Rights
Historian Gladys L. Knight describes how leaders who emerged during
slavery time and after often personified the
Moses symbol. "The symbol
Moses was empowering in that it served to amplify a need for
freedom." Therefore, when
Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in 1865
after freeing the slaves , Black Americans said they had lost "their
Moses". Lincoln biographer
Charles Carleton Coffin writes, "The
Abraham Lincoln delivered from slavery will ever liken
him to Moses, the deliverer of Israel." Similarly,
Harriet Tubman ,
who rescued approximately seventy enslaved family and friends, was
also described as the "Moses" of her people.
In the 1960s, a leading figure in the civil rights movement was
Martin Luther King Jr. , who was called "a modern Moses," and often
Moses in his speeches: "The struggle of Moses, the
struggle of his devoted followers as they sought to get out of Egypt.
This is something of the story of every people struggling for
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Thomas Mann 's novella _
The Tables of the Law _ (1944) is a retelling
of the story of the
Exodus from Egypt, with
Moses as its main
Freud believed that
Moses was a former adherent to the religion
of the sun disc
Aten instituted by the pharaoh
above), a notion now discredited by modern scholars.
Sigmund Freud , in his last book, _
Monotheism _ in 1939,
Moses was an Egyptian nobleman who adhered to the
Akhenaten . Following a theory proposed by a
contemporary biblical critic , Freud believed that
Moses was murdered
in the wilderness, producing a collective sense of patricidal guilt
that has been at the heart of
Judaism ever since. "
Judaism had been a
religion of the father,
Christianity became a religion of the son", he
wrote. The possible Egyptian origin of
Moses and of his message has
received significant scholarly attention.
Opponents of this view observe that the religion of the
Atenism in everything except the central feature of
devotion to a single god, although this has been countered by a
variety of arguments, e.g. pointing out the similarities between the
Psalm 104 . Freud's interpretation of the
Moses is not well accepted among historians , and is
considered pseudohistory by many.
Finding of Moses _ Sculpture in the U.S.
House of Representatives .
The examples and perspective in this article MAY NOT REPRESENT A
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Depiction In The American Government
Moses is depicted in several U.S. government buildings because of his
legacy as a lawgiver. In the
Library of Congress
Library of Congress stands a large statue
Moses alongside a statue of the
Paul the Apostle .
Moses is one of
the 23 lawgivers depicted in marble bas-reliefs in the chamber of the
U.S. House of Representatives
U.S. House of Representatives in the
United States Capitol
United States Capitol . The
plaque's overview states: "
Moses (c. 1350–1250 B.C.) Hebrew prophet
and lawgiver; transformed a wandering people into a nation; received
the Ten Commandments."
The other twenty-two figures have their profiles turned to Moses,
which is the only forward-facing bas-relief. Statue by
Michelangelo Buonarotti — in Basilica San Pietro in Vincoli,
Moses appears eight times in carvings that ring the Supreme Court
Great Hall ceiling. His face is presented along with other ancient
figures such as
Solomon , the Greek god
Zeus and the Roman goddess of
Minerva . The Supreme Court Building's east pediment depicts
Moses holding two tablets. Tablets representing the Ten Commandments
can be found carved in the oak courtroom doors, on the support frame
of the courtroom's bronze gates and in the library woodwork. A
controversial image is one that sits directly above the Chief Justice
of the United States ' head. In the center of the 40-foot-long Spanish
marble carving is a tablet displaying
Roman numerals I through X, with
some numbers partially hidden.
Michelangelo 's statue of
Moses in the Church of San Pietro in
Rome , is one of the most familiar masterpieces in the
world. The horns the sculptor included on Moses' head are the result
of a mistranslation of the
Hebrew Bible into the
Michelangelo was familiar. The Hebrew word taken from
_Exodus_ means either a "horn" or an "irradiation." Experts at the
Archaeological Institute of America show that the term was used when
Moses "returned to his people after seeing as much of the Glory of the
Lord as human eye could stand," and his face "reflected radiance." In
early Jewish art , moreover,
Moses is often "shown with rays coming
out of his head."
Another author explains, "When
Jerome translated the Old
Latin , he thought no one but
Christ should glow with
rays of light — so he advanced the secondary translation. However,
writer J. Stephen Lang points out that Jerome's version actually
Moses as "giving off hornlike rays," and he "rather clumsily
translated it to mean 'having horns.'" It has also been noted that he
Moses seated on a throne , yet
Moses was never given the title of
a King nor ever sat on such thrones.
FILM AND TELEVISION
Moses was portrayed by
Theodore Roberts in
Cecil B. DeMille 's 1923
silent film _The
Ten Commandments _.
Moses appeared as the central
character in the 1956 DeMille movie, also called _The Ten Commandments
_, in which he was portrayed by
Charlton Heston . A television remake
was produced in 2006.
Burt Lancaster played _Moses_ in the 1975 television miniseries
Moses the Lawgiver _.
In the 1981 comedy film _
History of the World, Part I _,
Mel Brooks .
Ben Kingsley was the narrator of the 2007 animated film, _The Ten
Moses appeared as the central character in the 1998 DreamWorks
Pictures' animated movie , _
The Prince of Egypt _. He was voiced by
Val Kilmer .
Christian Bale portrayed
Ridley Scott 's 2014 film _Exodus:
Gods and Kings _ which portrayed
Rameses II as being raised
Seti I as cousins.
Guilherme Winter portrayed
Moses in Alexandre Avancini and Vivian De
Oliveira 2015-2016 Brazilian miniseries Moisés y los diez
mandamientos (original title:
Os Dez Mandamentos )
CRITICISM OF MOSES
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Thomas Paine And Numbers 31:13-18
In the late eighteenth century, the deist
Thomas Paine commented at
length on Moses' Laws in _
The Age of Reason _ (1794, 1795, and 1807).
Moses to be a "detestable villain ", and cited
Numbers 31:13–18 as an example of his "unexampled atrocities". In
the passage, the Jewish army had returned from conquering the
Midianites , and
Moses has gone down to meet it:
And Moses, and
Eleazar the priest, and all the princes of the
congregation, went forth to meet them without the camp; and
wroth with the officers of the host, with the captains over thousands,
and captains over hundreds, which came from the battle; and
unto them, Have ye saved all the women alive? behold, these caused the
children of Israel, through the counsel of
Balaam , to commit trespass
against the Lord in the matter of
Peor , and there was a plague among
the congregation of the Lord. Now, therefore, kill every male among
the little ones, and kill every woman that hath known a man by lying
with him; but all the women-children, that have not known a man by
lying with him , keep alive for yourselves.
The prominent atheist
Richard Dawkins also made reference to these
verses in his 2006 book, _The
God Delusion _, concluding that Moses
was "not a great role model for modern moralists".
However, some Jewish sources defend Moses' role. The Chasam Sofer
emphasizes that this war was not fought at Moses' behest, but was
God as an act of revenge against the Midianite women,
who, according to the Biblical account, had seduced the
led them to sin.
Rabbi Joel Grossman argued that the story is a
"powerful fable of lust and betrayal ", and that Moses' execution of
the women was a symbolic condemnation of those who seek to turn sex
and desire to evil purposes. Alan Levin, an educational specialist
with the Reform movement, has similarly suggested that the story
should be taken as a cautionary tale , to "warn successive generations
Jews to watch their own idolatrous behavior".
Ahmose, son of Ebana
Comparison of the founders of religious traditions
* Crossing the
* Table of prophets of
Saint Augustine records the names of the kings when
born in the _City of
* "When Saphrus reigned as the fourteenth king of
Assyria , and
Orthopolis as the twelfth of
Sicyon , and
Criasus as the fifth of
Moses was born in Eygpt,..."
Orthopolis reigned as the 12th King of
Sicyon for 63 years, from
Criasus reigned as the 5th King of
Argos for 54
years, from 1637–1583.
* ^ According to
Manetho the place of his birth was at the ancient
city of Heliopolis .
* ^ According to the Orthodox
Menaion , September 4 was the day
Moses saw the Land of Promise .
* ^ Numbers 12:1
* ^ "Moses". _Random House Webster\'s Unabridged Dictionary _.
* ^ Deuteronomy 34:10
Maimonides , _13 principles of faith _, 7th principle .
* ^ Douglas K. Stuart (15 June 2006). _Exodus: An Exegetical and
Theological Exposition of Holy Scripture_. B&H Publishing Group. p.
* ^ Exod. 4:10
* ^ _A_ _B_
William G. Dever 'What Remains of the House That
Albright Built?,' in George Ernest Wright, Frank Moore Cross, Edward
Fay Campbell, Floyd Vivian Filson (eds.) _The Biblical Archaeologist,_
American Schools of Oriental Research, Scholars Press, Vol. 56, No 1,
2 March 1993 pp.25-35, p.33: 'the overwhelming scholarly consensus
today is that
Moses is a mythical figure.'
Seder Olam Rabbah
Jerome 's _Chronicon _ (4th century) gives 1592 for the birth
* ^ The 17th-century
Ussher chronology calculates 1571 BC (_Annals
of the World_, 1658 paragraph 164)
* ^ St Augustine . _The City of
God . Book XVIII. Chapter 8 - Who
Were Kings When
Moses Was Born, And What Gods Began To Be Worshipped
* ^ Hoeh, Herman L (1967), _Compendium of World History_
(dissertation), 1, The Faculty of the Ambassador College, Graduate
School of Theology, 1962 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Christopher B. Hays, _Hidden Riches: A Sourcebook for
the Comparative Study of the
Hebrew Bible and Ancient Near East_,
Presbyterian Publishing Corp, 2014 p. 116.
* ^ Naomi E. Pasachoff, Robert J. Littman, _A Concise History of
the Jewish People_, Rowman & Littlefield, (1995) 2005 p.5.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Lorena Miralles Maciá, "Judaizing a Gentile
Biblical Character through Fictive Biographical Reports: The Case of
Bityah, Pharaoh's Daughter, Moses' Mother, according to Rabbinic
Interpretations", in Constanza Cordoni, Gerhard Langer (eds.),
_Narratology, Hermeneutics, and Midrash: Jewish, Christian, and Muslim
Narratives from Late Antiquity through to Modern Times_, Vandenhoeck
James, Strong (1882), "Mo'ses", _Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological
and Ecclesiastical Literature _, VI.— ME-NEV, New York: Harper &
Brothers, pp. 677–87 .
* ^ Schmidt, Nathaniel (Feb 1896), "Moses: His Age and His Work.
II", _The Biblical World_, 7 (2): 105–19, esp. 108, It was the
prophet\'s call . It was a real ecstatic experience , like that of
David under the baka-tree,
Elijah on the mountain,
Isaiah in the
Ezekiel on the Khebar ,
Jesus in the Jordan , Paul on the
Damascus road . It was the perpetual mystery of the divine touching
the human. .
* ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). _The Legends of the
Jews Vol III :
Chapter I_ (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish
* ^ Rad, Gerhard von; Hanson, K. C; Neill, Stephen (2012). _Moses_.
Cambridge, U.K.: James Clarke. ISBN 978-0-227-17379-4 . Retrieved
* ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). _The Legends of the
Jews Vol III : The
Symbolical Significance of the Tabernacle_ (Translated by Henrietta
Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.
* ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). _The Legends of the
Jews Vol III :
Ingratitude Punished_ (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia:
Jewish Publication Society.
* ^ Hamilton 2011 , p. xxv.
* ^ Cite error: The named reference Eerdmans was invoked but never
defined (see the help page ).
* ^ Meyers 2005 , pp. 5–6.
* ^ Timothy D. Finlay, _The Birth Report Genre in the Hebrew
Bible,_ Forschungen zum Alten Testament, Vol.12 Mohr Siebeck, 2005
* ^ J.K. Hoffmeier, 'The Egyptian Origins of Israel: Recent
Developments in Historiography,' in Thomas E. Levy, Thomas Schneider,
William H.C. Propp (eds.) _Israel\'s
Exodus in Transdisciplinary
Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience,_ Springer,
2015 pp.196-208 p.202.
* ^ Kenneth Kitchen, _On the Reliability of the Old Testament,_
Rev.ed. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003 pp.241ff.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ George W. Coats, _Moses: Heroic Man, Man of God,_ A
* ^ Michael R.Stead, _The Intertextuality of Zechariah 1–8:
Ideals and Realities,_ T3:11; Numbers 10:29);
* ^ Mark S. Smith, _The Early History of God:
Yahweh and the Other
Deities in Ancient Israel,_ Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2002 p.34.
* ^ Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst
(eds.) _Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible,_ Wm. B.
Eerdmans Publishing, 2nd edition 1999 p.912.
* ^ Eckart Otto, _Mose: Geschichte und Legende,_ C.H.Beck, 2006
* ^ Manfred Görg, "Mose – Name und Namensträger. Versuch einer
historischen Annäherung" in _Mose. Ägypten und das Alte Testament_,
edited by E. Otto, Verlag Katholisches Bibelwerk, Stuttgart, 2000.
* ^ Rolf Krauss, _Das Moses-Rätsel. Auf den Spuren einer
biblischen Erfindung,_ Ullstein Verlag, München 2001.
Jan Assmann ,\'Tagsüber parliert er als Ägyptologe, nachts
reißt er die Bibel auf,\'
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung 2 February
* ^ Aidan Dodson, _Poisoned Legacy: The Fall of the 19th Egyptian
Dynasty_ American University in Cairo Press 2010 p.72.
* ^ Peter J. Leithart, _1 & 2 Kings,_ Brazos Press, 2006 pp.178ff.,
Jan Assmann , _
Moses the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt in
Western Monotheism,_ Harvard University Press, 2009 pp.31-34.
* ^ Shmuel 1976 , p. 1102.
* ^ Shmuel 1976 , p. 1103.
* ^ Hammer, Reuven (1995), _The Classic Midrash: Tannaitic
Commentaries on the Bible_, Paulist Press, p. 15 .
* ^ 1989 , p. 18.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Droge 1989 , p. 18.
* ^ Barclay, John M. G. _
Jews in the Mediterranean Diaspora: From
Alexander to Trajan (323 BCE – 117 CE)_, University of California
Press (1996) p. 130
* ^ "Moses". _Jewish Encyclopedia_. Retrieved 2010-03-02.
* ^ Feldman 1998 , p. 40.
* ^ Feldman 1998 , p. 133.
* ^ Shmuel 1976 , p. 1132.
* ^ Strabo. _The Geography_, 16.2.35-36, Translated by H.C.
Hamilton and W. Falconer in 1854, pp. 177–78,
* ^ _A_ _B_ Shmuel 1976 , p. 1133.
* ^ Assmann 1997 , p. 38.
* ^ Tacitus, Cornelius. _The works of Cornelius Tacitus: With an
essay on his life and genius_ by Arthur Murphy, Thomas Wardle Publ.
(1842) p. 499
* ^ _A_ _B_ Tacitus, Cornelius. _Tacitus, The Histories, Volume 2_,
Book V. Chapters 5, 6 p. 208.
* ^ Henry J. M. Day, _Lucan and the Sublime: Power, Representation
and Aesthetic Experience,_ Cambridge University Press, 2013 p.12.
* ^ Louis H. Felkdman, _Jew and Gentile in the Ancient World:
Attitudes and Interactions from Alexander to Justinian,_ Princeton
University Press 1996 p.239.
* ^ Feldman, Louis H (1998), _Josephus's Interpretation of the
Bible_, University of California Press, p. 133 .
* ^ Shmuel 1976 , p. 1140.
* ^ Josephus, Flavius (1854), "IV", _The works: Comprising the
Antiquities of the Jews_, VIII, trans. by William Whiston, pp.
* ^ Feldman 1998 , p. 130.
* ^ Guthrie 1917 , p. 194.
* ^ Guthrie 1917 , p. 101.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Blackham 2005 , p. 39.
* ^ Van Seters 2004 , p. 194.
* ^ Cite error: The named reference Finkelstein.2C_I._p.68 was
invoked but never defined (see the help page ).
* ^ Jean-Louis Ska, _The
Exegesis of the Pentateuch: Exegetical
Studies and Basic Questions,_ Forschungen zum Alten Testament, Vol 66,
Mohr Siebeck, 2009 p.260.
Midrash Rabbah, Ki Thissa, XL. 3-3, Lehrman, p. 463
* ^ Yalkut Shimoni, Shemot 166 to Chronicles I 4:18, 24:6; also see
Vayikra Rabbah 1:3; Chasidah p.345
* ^ Rashi to Bava Batra 15s, Chasidah p. 345
* ^ Bava Batra 15a on Deuteronomy 33:21, Chasidah p. 345
* ^ Rashi to Berachot 54a, Chasidah p. 345
Eusebius , _
Praeparatio evangelica _ ix. 26
* ^ Eusebius, l.c. ix. 27
* ^ Honorifics for the dead in
* ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). _The Legends of the
Jews Vol. III :
Moses excels all pious men_ (Translated by Henrietta Szold)
Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.
* ^ "
Judaism 101: Moses,
Aaron and Miriam". Jew FAQ. Retrieved
* ^ Larkin, William J. (1995). _Acts (IVP
New Testament Commentary
Series)_. Intervarsity Press Academic. ISBN 978-0830818051 .
* ^ "
Bible Gateway passage: Acts 7 - New International Version".
Bible Gateway_. Retrieved 2017-01-08.
* ^ Matthew 23:2
* ^ Great Synaxaristes : (in Greek) _Ὁ Προφήτης
Μωϋσῆς._ 4 Σεπτεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ
* ^ _Holy
Prophet and God-seer Moses._ OCA - Lives of the Saints.
* ^ _"September 4: The Holy God-seer
Prophet and Aaron
His Brother"._ In: The Menaion: Volume 1, The Month of September.
Transl. from the Greek by the Holy Transfiguration Monastery. Boston,
Massachusetts, 2005. p. 67.
* ^ _THE SUNDAY OF THE HOLY FOREFATHERS._ St John's Orthodox
Church, Colchester, Essex, England.
* ^ Skinner, Andrew C. (1992), "Moses", in Ludlow, Daniel H ,
Encyclopedia of Mormonism _, New York:
Macmillan Publishing , pp.
958–959, ISBN 0-02-879602-0 ,
* ^ Taylor, Bruce T. (1992), "Book of Moses", in Ludlow, Daniel H ,
Encyclopedia of Mormonism _, New York:
Macmillan Publishing , pp.
216–217, ISBN 0-02-879602-0 ,
* ^ The
Doctrine and Covenants
Doctrine and Covenants 110:11
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Keeler 2005 , pp. 55–66.
* ^ Keeler 2005 , pp. 55–56, describes
Moses from the Muslim
perspective: "Among prophets,
Moses has been described as the one
'whose career as a messenger of God, lawgiver and leader of his
community most closely parallels and foreshadows that of Muhammad',
and as 'the figure that in the Koran was presented to
all others as the supreme model of saviour and ruler of a community,
the man chosen to present both knowledge of the one God, and a
divinely revealed system of law'. We find him clearly in this role of
Muhammad's forebear in a well-known tradition of the miraculous
ascension of the Prophet, where
Muhammad from his own
experience as messenger and lawgiver."
* ^ Smith, Huston (1991), _The World\'s Religions_, Harper Collins,
p. 245, ISBN 9780062508119 .
* ^ _Historical Context of the Bábi and Bahá\'í Faiths_, Bahá'i
* ^ Buck, Christopher (1999), _Paradise and Paradigm: Key Symbols
Christianity and the Baháí̕ Faith_ .
* ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1988). _Epistle to the Son of the Wolf_.
Wilmette, Illinois: Baháí Publishing Trust. p. 104. ISBN
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Clifford, Laura (1937). _Some Answered Questions_.
New York: Baha'i Publishing Trust. pp. 14–15.
* ^ McMullen, Michael (2000), _The Bahá'í: The Religious
Construction of a Global Identity_, p. 256 .
* ^ Ifil, Gwen (2009), _The Breakthrough: Politics and Race in the
Age of Obama_, Random House, p. 58 .
* ^ Barclay, William (1998) , _The Ten Commandments_, Westminster
John Knox Press, p. 4 .
* ^ "
Pope Francis addresses Congress", _Vox_, Sept. 24, 2015
* ^ _A_ _B_ Meacham 2006 , p. 40.
* ^ Talbot, Archie Lee (1930), _A New Plymouth Colony at
Library of Congress
Library of Congress .
* ^ Lowell, James Russell (1913), _The Round Table_, Boston: Gorham
Press, pp. 217–18, Next to the fugitives whom
Moses led out of
Egypt, the little shipload of outcasts who landed at Plymouth are
destined to influence the future of the world. The spiritual thirst of
mankind has for ages been quenched at Hebrew fountains; but the
embodiment in human institutions of truths uttered by the Son of Man
eighteen centuries ago was to be mainly the work of Puritan thought
and Puritan self-devotion. …If their municipal regulations smack
somewhat of Judaism, yet there can be no nobler aim or more practical
wisdom than theirs; for it was to make the law of man a living
counterpart of the law of God, in their highest conception of it.
* ^ Arber, Edward (1897), _The Story of the Pilgrim Fathers_,
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., p. 345 .
* ^ Dever 2006 , pp. ix, 234.
* ^ Moses, Adolph (1903), _Yahvism and Other Discourses_,
Louisville Council of Jewish Women, p. 93, animated by the true
spirit of the Hebrew prophets and law-givers. They walked by the light
of the Scriptures , and were resolved to form a Commonwealth in
accordance with the social laws and ideas of the
Bible . …they were
themselves the true descendants of Israel, spiritual children of the
* ^ Feiler 2009 , p. 35.
* ^ Feiler 2009 , p. 102.
* ^ Franklin, Benjamin (1834), Franklin, William Temple, ed.,
_Memoirs_ (ebook)format= requires url= (help ), 2, Philadelphia:
McCarty & Davis, p. 504 .
* ^ Franklin 1834 , p. 211.
* ^ Shuldiner,
David Philip (1999), _Of
Moses and Marx_, Greenwood,
p. 35 .
* ^ Knight, Gladys L. _Icons of African American Protest_ Vol I,
Greenwood (2009) p. 183
* ^ Hodes, Martha (2015). _Mourning Lincoln_. Yale University
Press. pp. 164, 237. ISBN 9780300213560 .
* ^ Coffin, Charles Carleton (2012) , _
Abraham Lincoln_ (reprint),
Ulan Press, p. 534 .
* ^ Jones, Joyce Stokes; Galvin, Michele Jones (1999–2012),
_Beyond the Underground. Aunt Harriet,
Moses of Her People_ .
* ^ King, Martin Luther Jr (2000) , _The Papers_, Univ. of
California Press, p. 155,
I want to preach this morning from the subject, 'The Birth of a New
Nation.' And I would like to use as a basis for our thinking together,
a story that has long since been stenciled on the mental sheets of
succeeding generations. It is the story of the Exodus, the story of
the flight of the Hebrew people from the bondage of Egypt, through the
wilderness and finally, to the Promised Land. …The struggle of
Moses, the struggle of his devoted followers as they sought to get out
And I've looked over. And I've seen the promised land. I may not get
there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people,
will get to the promised land. * ^ _A_ _B_ Assmann 1997 .
* ^ Yerushalmi, Y, _Freud's Moses_ (monograph) .
* ^ "Order of the
Aten Temple". Atenism.
* ^ Atwell, James E. (2000). "An Egyptian Source for Genesis 1".
Journal of Theological Studies _. 51 (2): 441–77. doi
* ^ Bernstein, Richard J. (1998). _Freud and the Legacy of Moses_.
New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-63096-7 .
* ^ "
Moses relieve portrait", _Architect of the Capitol_
* ^ "Relief Portraits of Lawgivers: Moses". Architect of the
Capitol. 2009-02-13. Retrieved 2010-03-02.
* ^ _Courtroom Friezes: North and South Walls: Information Sheet_
(PDF), Supreme Court of the United States .
* ^ "In the Supreme Court itself,
Moses and his law on display",
_Religion News Service_, Christian index .
* ^ MacLean, Margaret. (ed) _Art and Archaeology_, Vol. VI,
Archaeological Institute of America (1917) p. 97
* ^ Devore, Gary M. (2008). _Walking Tours of Ancient Rome: A
Secular Guidebook to the Eternal City_. Mercury Guides. p. 126. ISBN
* ^ Thomason, Dustin; Caldwell, Ian (2005). _The Rule of Four_. New
York: Random House. p. 151. ISBN 0-440-24135-9 .
* ^ Gross, Kenneth (2005). _The Dream of the Moving Statue_.
Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press. p. 245. ISBN 0-271-02900-5 .
* ^ Lang, J. Stephen (2003). _What the Good Book Didn't Say:
Popular Myths and Misconceptions About the Bible_. New York: Citadel
Press. p. 114. ISBN 0-8065-2460-X .
* ^ Boitani, Piero (1999). _The
Bible and its Rewritings_. Oxford:
Oxford Univ. Press. p. 126. ISBN 0-19-818487-5 .
* ^ "History of the World: Part I". IMDb.
* ^ "Prince of Egypt". IMDb.
* ^ "Exodus: Gods and Kings". _IMDB_.
* ^ Paine, Thomas (1796) _
The Age of Reason , part II_.
* ^ Numbers 31:13–18
* ^ Dawkins, Richard (2006). _The
God Delusion_ Chapter 7. Bantam
Press. ISBN 0-59305548-9
* ^ _Aliya-by-Aliya Sedra Summary_,
Torah Tidbits, OU .
* ^ Grossman, Joel (2008), "Matot" Archived 2016-03-04 at the
Wayback Machine .. Temple Beth Am Library Minyan.
* ^ Levin, Alan J. "Some messages are hard to deliver". My Jewish
* Asch, Sholem (1958), _Moses_, New York: Putnam, ISBN 0-7426-9137-3
* Assmann, Jan (1997), _
Moses the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt in
Western Monotheism_, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-58738-3 .
* Barenboim, Peter (2005), _Biblical Roots of Separation of Power_,
Moscow: Letny Sad, ISBN 5-94381-123-0 .
* Barzel, Hillel (1974), "Moses: Tragedy and Sublimity", in Gros
Louis, Kenneth RR; Ackerman, James S; Warshaw, Thayer S, _Literary
Interpretations of Biblical Narratives_, Nashville: Abingdon Press,
pp. 120–40, ISBN 0-687-22131-5 .
* Blackham, Paul (2005), "The Trinity in the Hebrew Scriptures", in
Metzger, Paul Louis, _Trinitarian Soundings in Systematic Theology_
(essay), Continuum International .
* Buber, Martin (1958), _Moses: The Revelation and the Covenant_,
New York: Harper .
* Card, Orson Scott (1998), _Stone Tables_, Deseret Book Co, ISBN
* Chasidah, Yishai (1994), "Moses", _Encyclopedia of Biblical
Personalities: Anthologized from the Talmud,
Midrash and Rabbinic
Writings_, Brooklyn: Shaar Press, pp. 340–99 .
* Cohen, Joel (2003), _Moses: A Memoir_, Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press,
ISBN 0-8091-0558-6 .
* Churchill, Winston (November 8, 1931), "Moses", _Sunday
Chronicle_, National Churchill Museum, Thoughts, 205 .
David (1975), _Moses: The Man and his Vision_, New York:
Praeger, ISBN 0-275-33740-5 .
* Dever, William G (2002), _What Did the Biblical Writers Know and
When Did They Know It?_, William B. Eerdmans, ISBN 0-8028-2126-X .
* ——— (2006) , _Who Were the Early Israelites, and Where Did
They Come From?_, Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans
* Dozeman, Thomas B (2009), _Commentary on Exodus_, William B
Eerdmans, ISBN 9780802826176
* Droge, Arthur J (1989), _
Homer or Moses?: Early Christian
Interpretations of the History of Culture_, Mohr Siebeck .
* Fast, Howard (1958), _Moses, Prince of Egypt_, New York: Crown .
* Feiler, Bruce (2009), _America's Prophet:
Moses and the American
Story_, William Morrow .
* Feldman, Louis H (1998), _Josephus's Interpretation of the Bible_,
University of California Press .
* Finkelstein, Israel ; Silberman, Neil Asher (2001), _The Bible
Unearthed_, New York: Free Press, ISBN 0-684-86912-8 .
* ———; ——— (2001b), _The
Bible Unearthed_, New York:
Simon & Schuster .
* Franklin, Benjamin (1834), Franklin, William Temple, ed.,
_Memoirs_ (ebook)format= requires url= (help ), 2, Philadelphia:
McCarty & Davis .
* Freud, Sigmund (1967), _
Moses and Monotheism_, New York: Vintage,
ISBN 0-394-70014-7 .
Gregory of Nyssa (1978), _The Life of Moses_, The Classics of
Western Spirituality, Transl.
Abraham J. Malherbe and Everett
Ferguson. Preface by
John Meyendorff , Paulist Press, ISBN
978-0-80912112-0 . 208 pp.
* Guthrie, Kenneth Sylvan (1917), _Numenius of Apamea: The Father of
Neo-Platonism_, George Bell & Sons
* Halter, Marek (2005), _Zipporah, Wife of Moses_, New York: Crown,
ISBN 1-4000-5279-3 .
* Hoffmeier, James K (1996), "
Moses and the _Exodus_", _Israel in
Egypt: The Evidence for the Authenticity of the
Exodus Tradition_, New
York: Oxford University Press, pp. 135–63 .
* Hamilton, Victor (2011), _Exodus: An Exegetical Commentary_, Baker
Books, ISBN 9781441240095 .
* Ingraham, Joseph Holt (2006) , _The Pillar of Fire: Or Israel in
Bondage_ (reprint), Ann Arbor, MC : Scholarly Publishing Office,
Michigan Library, ISBN 1-4255-6491-7 .
* Keeler, Annabel (2005), "
Moses from a
Muslim Perspective", in
Solomon, Norman; Harries, Richard; Winter, Tim, _Abraham\'s Children:
Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conversation_, T&T Clark, pp.
55–66, ISBN 9780567081711 .
* Kirsch, Jonathan . _Moses: A Life._ New York: Ballantine, 1998.
ISBN 0-345-41269-9 .
* Kohn, Rebecca. _Seven Days to the Sea: An Epic Novel of the
Exodus_. New York: Rugged Land, 2006. ISBN 1-59071-049-5 .
* Freedman, H, ed. (1983), _
Midrash Rabbah_ (10 volumes)format=
requires url= (help ), Lehman, S.M. (translator), London: The Soncino
* Mann, Thomas (1943), "Thou Shalt Have No Other Gods Before Me",
_The Ten Commandments_, New York: Simon & Schuster, pp. 3–70 .
* Meacham, Jon (2006), _American Gospel: God, the Founding Fathers,
and the Making of a Nation_, Random House .
* Salibi, Kamal (1985), "The
Bible Came from Arabia", _Jonathan
Cape_, London .
* Meyers, Carol (2005). _Exodus_. Cambridge University Press. ISBN
Samuel (1973), _Alone Atop the Mountain_, Garden City,
NY: Doubleday, ISBN 0-385-03877-1 .
* Van Seters, John (2004), "Moses", in Barton, John, _The Biblical
World_, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 9780415350914
* ——— (1994), _The Life of Moses: The Yahwist as
Exodus-Numbers_, Peeters Publishers, ISBN 90-390-0112-X .
* Shmuel, Safrai (1976), Stern, M, ed., _The Jewish People in the
First Century_, Van Gorcum Fortress Press
* Ska, Jean Louis (2009), _The
Exegesis of the Pentateuch:
Exegetical Studies and Basic Questions_, Mohr Siebeck, pp. 30–31,
260, ISBN 978-3-16-149905-0
* Smith, Huston (1991), _The World\'s Religions_, Harper Collins,
* Southon, Arthur Eustace (1954) , _On Eagles' Wings_ (reprint), New
York: McGraw-Hill .
* van der Toorn, K.; Becking, Bob; van der Horst, Pieter Willem
(1999), _Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible_, ISBN
* Wiesel, Elie (1976), "Moses: Portrait of a Leader", _Messengers of
God: Biblical Portraits & Legends_, New York: Random House, pp.
174–210, ISBN 0-394-49740-6 .
Aaron (2005), _
Moses as Political Leader_, Jerusalem:
Shalem Press, ISBN 965-7052-31-9 .
* Wilson, Dorothy Clarke (1949), _Prince of Egypt_, Philadelphia:
Westminster Press .
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* _ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the
public domain : Singer, Isidore ; et al., eds.