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Moses
Moses
(/ˈmoʊzɪz, -zɪs/)[2][Note 1] was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions. According to the Hebrew Bible, he was adopted by an Egyptian princess, and later in life became the leader of the Israelites
Israelites
and lawgiver, to whom the authorship of the Torah, or acquisition of the Torah
Torah
from Heaven is traditionally attributed. Also called Moshe Rabbenu in Hebrew (מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ, lit. " Moses
Moses
our Teacher"), he is the most important prophet in Judaism.[3][4] He is also an important prophet in Christianity, Islam, the Bahá'í Faith, and a number of other Abrahamic religions. According to the Book of Exodus, Moses
Moses
was born in a time when his people, the Israelites, an enslaved minority, were increasing in numbers and the Egyptian Pharaoh
Pharaoh
was worried that they might ally themselves with Egypt's enemies.[5] Moses' Hebrew mother, Jochebed, secretly hid him when the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
ordered all newborn Hebrew boys to be killed in order to reduce the population of the Israelites. Through the Pharaoh's daughter (identified as Queen Bithia in the Midrash), the child was adopted as a foundling from the Nile river
Nile river
and grew up with the Egyptian royal family. After killing an Egyptian slavemaster (because the slavemaster was smiting a Hebrew), Moses
Moses
fled across the Red Sea
Red Sea
to Midian, where he encountered The Angel of the Lord,[6] speaking to him from within a burning bush on Mount Horeb
Mount Horeb
(which he regarded as the Mountain of God). God
God
sent Moses
Moses
back to Egypt to demand the release of the Israelites from slavery. Moses
Moses
said that he could not speak eloquently,[7] so God allowed Aaron, his brother, to become his spokesperson. After the Ten Plagues, Moses
Moses
led the Exodus of the Israelites
Israelites
out of Egypt and across the Red Sea, after which they based themselves at Mount Sinai, where Moses
Moses
received the Ten Commandments. After 40 years of wandering in the desert, Moses
Moses
died within sight of the Promised Land
Promised Land
on Mount Nebo. Scholarly consensus sees Moses
Moses
as a legendary figure and not a historical person.[8] Rabbinic Judaism
Judaism
calculated a lifespan of Moses corresponding to 1391–1271 BCE;[9] Jerome
Jerome
gives 1592 BCE,[10] and James Ussher
James Ussher
1571 BCE as his birth year.[11][Note 2] In Book of Deuteronomy, Moses
Moses
was mentioned as "the man of God."[14]

Contents

1 Name 2 Biblical narrative

2.1 Prophet
Prophet
and deliverer of Israel 2.2 Lawgiver of Israel

3 Historicity 4 Moses
Moses
in Hellenistic literature

4.1 In Hecataeus 4.2 In Artapanus 4.3 In Strabo 4.4 In Tacitus 4.5 In Longinus 4.6 In Josephus 4.7 In Numenius 4.8 In Justin Martyr

5 Abrahamic religions

5.1 Judaism 5.2 Christianity

5.2.1 Mormonism

5.3 Islam 5.4 Baha'i Faith

6 Legacy

6.1 Politics and law

6.1.1 American history

6.1.1.1 Pilgrims 6.1.1.2 Founding Fathers of the United States

6.1.2 Slavery and civil rights

7 In popular culture

7.1 Criticism of Moses

8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Name The Biblical account of Moses' birth provides him with a folk etymology to explain the ostensible meaning of his name.[15][16] He is said to have received it from the Pharaoh's daughter: "he became her son. She named him Moses
Moses
(Moshe), saying, 'I drew him out (meshitihu) of the water.'"[17][18] This explanation links it to a verb mashah, meaning "to draw out", which makes the Pharaoh's daughter's declaration a play on words.[18][19] The princess made a grammatical mistake which is prophetic of his future role in legend, as someone who will "draw the people of Israel out of Egypt through the waters of the Red Sea."[20] Several etymologies have been proposed. An Egyptian root msy, "child of", has been considered as a possible etymology, arguably an abbreviation of a theophoric name, as for example in Egyptian names like Thutmoses ( Thoth
Thoth
created him) and Ramesses (Ra created him),[15] with the god's name omitted. Abraham
Abraham
Yahuda, based on the spelling given in the Tanakh, argues that it combines "water" or "seed" and "pond, expanse of water", thus yielding the sense of "child of the Nile" (mw-še).[21] The Hebrew etymology in the Biblical story may reflect an attempt to cancel out traces of Moses' Egyptian origins.[20] The Egyptian character of his name was recognized as such by ancient Jewish writers like Philo of Alexandria
Philo of Alexandria
and Josephus.[20] Philo
Philo
linked Mōēsēs (Μωησής) to the Egyptian (Coptic) word for water (mou/μῶυ), while Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews, claimed that the second element, -esês, meant 'those who are saved'. The problem of how an Egyptian princess, known to Josephus
Josephus
as Thermutis (identified as Tharmuth)[18] and in later Jewish tradition as Bithiah,[22] could have known Hebrew puzzled medieval Jewish commentators like Abraham ibn Ezra and Hezekiah ben Manoah, known also as Hizkuni. Hizkuni suggested she either converted or took a tip from Jochebed.[23][24] Biblical narrative Prophet
Prophet
and deliverer of Israel

Finding of Moses
Finding of Moses
(detail), 1638, by Nicolas Poussin

The Israelites
Israelites
had settled in the Land of Goshen
Land of Goshen
in the time of Joseph and Jacob, but a new pharaoh arose who oppressed the children of Israel. At this time Moses
Moses
was born to his father Amram, son of Kehath the Levite, who entered Egypt with Jacob's household; his mother was Jochebed
Jochebed
(also Yocheved), who was kin to Kehath. Moses
Moses
had one older (by seven years) sister, Miriam, and one older (by three years) brother, Aaron.[Note 3]

The Finding of Moses, painting by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1904

The Pharaoh
Pharaoh
had commanded that all male Hebrew children born would be drowned in the river Nile, but Moses' mother placed him in an ark and concealed the ark in the bulrushes by the riverbank, where the baby was discovered and adopted by Pharaoh's daughter, and raised as an Egyptian. One day after Moses
Moses
had reached adulthood he killed an Egyptian who was beating a Hebrew. Moses, in order to escape the Pharaoh's death penalty, fled to Midian
Midian
(a desert country south of Judah), where he married Zipporah.[citation needed]

Moses
Moses
strikes water from the stone, by Francesco Bacchiacca

There, on Mount Horeb, God
God
revealed to Moses
Moses
his name YHWH
YHWH
(probably pronounced Yahweh) and commanded him to return to Egypt and bring his chosen people (Israel) out of bondage and into the Promised Land (Canaan).[26] During the journey, God
God
tried to kill Moses, but Zipporah
Zipporah
saved his life. Moses
Moses
returned to carry out God's command, but God
God
caused the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
to refuse, and only after God
God
had subjected Egypt to ten plagues did the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
relent. Moses
Moses
led the Israelites to the border of Egypt, but there God
God
hardened the Pharaoh's heart once more, so that he could destroy the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
and his army at the Red Sea
Red Sea
Crossing as a sign of his power to Israel and the nations.[27]

Moses
Moses
before the Pharaoh, a 6th-century miniature from the Syriac Bible
Bible
of Paris

From Egypt, Moses
Moses
led the Israelites
Israelites
to biblical Mount Sinai, where he was given the Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments
from God, written on stone tablets. However, since Moses
Moses
remained a long time on the mountain, some of the people feared that he might be dead, so they made a statue of a golden calf and worshiped it, thus disobeying and angering God
God
and Moses. Moses, out of anger, broke the tablets, and later ordered the elimination of those who had worshiped the golden statue, which was melted down and fed to the idolaters.[28] He also wrote the ten commandments on a new set of tablets. Later at Mount Sinai, Moses
Moses
and the elders entered into a covenant, by which Israel would become the people of YHWH, obeying his laws, and YHWH
YHWH
would be their god. Moses delivered the laws of God
God
to Israel, instituted the priesthood under the sons of Moses' brother Aaron, and destroyed those Israelites
Israelites
who fell away from his worship. In his final act at Sinai, God
God
gave Moses instructions for the Tabernacle, the mobile shrine by which he would travel with Israel to the Promised Land.[29] From Sinai, Moses
Moses
led the Israelites
Israelites
to the Desert of Paran
Desert of Paran
on the border of Canaan. From there he sent twelve spies into the land. The spies returned with samples of the land's fertility, but warned that its inhabitants were giants. The people were afraid and wanted to return to Egypt, and some rebelled against Moses
Moses
and against God. Moses
Moses
told the Israelites
Israelites
that they were not worthy to inherit the land, and would wander the wilderness for forty years until the generation who had refused to enter Canaan
Canaan
had died, so that it would be their children who would possess the land.[30] When the forty years had passed, Moses
Moses
led the Israelites
Israelites
east around the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
to the territories of Edom
Edom
and Moab. There they escaped the temptation of idolatry, received God's blessing through Balaam
Balaam
the prophet, and massacred the Midianites, who by the end of the Exodus journey had become the enemies of the Israelites. Moses
Moses
was twice given notice that he would die before entry to the Promised Land: in Numbers 27:13, once he had seen the Promised Land
Promised Land
from a viewpoint on Mount Abarim, and again in Numbers 31:1 once battle with the Midianites had been won.[citation needed]

Moses
Moses
holding up his arms during the battle against Amalek, assisted by Aaron
Aaron
and Hur; painting by John Everett Millais

On the banks of the Jordan River, in sight of the land, Moses assembled the tribes. After recalling their wanderings he delivered God's laws by which they must live in the land, sang a song of praise and pronounced a blessing on the people, and passed his authority to Joshua, under whom they would possess the land. Moses
Moses
then went up Mount Nebo
Mount Nebo
to the top of Pisgah, looked over the promised land of Israel spread out before him, and died, at the age of one hundred and twenty. More humble than any other man (Num. 12:3), "there hath not arisen a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom YHWH
YHWH
knew face to face" (Deuteronomy 34:10). The New Testament
New Testament
states that after Moses' death, Michael the Archangel
Archangel
and the Devil
Devil
disputed over his body ( Epistle of Jude
Epistle of Jude
1:9).[citation needed] Lawgiver of Israel Further information: Law of Moses, Mosaic authorship, Deuteronomist, Book of Deuteronomy
Book of Deuteronomy
§ Deuteronomic code, and 613 Mitzvot

Moses Breaking the Tablets of the Law
Moses Breaking the Tablets of the Law
by Rembrandt

Moses
Moses
is honoured among Jews
Jews
today as the "lawgiver of Israel", and he delivers several sets of laws in the course of the four books. The first is the Covenant Code ( Exodus 20:19–23:33), the terms of the covenant which God
God
offers to the Israelites
Israelites
at biblical Mount Sinai. Embedded in the covenant are the Decalogue
Decalogue
(the Ten Commandments, Exodus 20:1–17) and the Book of the Covenant (Exodus 20:22–23:19).[31] The entire Book of Leviticus
Book of Leviticus
constitutes a second body of law, the Book of Numbers
Book of Numbers
begins with yet another set, and the Book of Deuteronomy
Book of Deuteronomy
another.[citation needed] Moses
Moses
has traditionally been regarded as the author of those four books and the Book of Genesis, which together comprise the Torah, the first and most revered section of the Hebrew Bible.[citation needed]

Moses
Moses
lifts up the brass serpent, curing the Israelites
Israelites
from poisonous snake bites in a painting by Benjamin West

Historicity The scholarly consensus is that the figure of Moses
Moses
is legendary, and not historical,[8] although a "Moses-like figure may have existed somewhere in the southern Transjordan in the mid-late 13th century B.C."[32] Certainly no Egyptian sources mention Moses
Moses
or the events of Exodus-Deuteronomy, nor has any archaeological evidence been discovered in Egypt or the Sinai wilderness to support the story in which he is the central figure.[33] The story of his discovery picks up a familiar motif in ancient Near Eastern mythological accounts of the ruler who rises from humble origins: Thus Sargon of Akkad's Akkadian
Akkadian
account of his origins runs;

My mother, the high priestess, conceived; in secret she bore me She set me in a basket of rushes, with bitumen she sealed my lid She cast me into the river which rose over me.[34]

The tradition of Moses
Moses
as a lawgiver and culture hero of the Israelites
Israelites
may go back to the 7th-century BCE sources of the Deuteronomist, which might conserve earlier traditions. Kenneth Kitchen, described as a distinguished but lonely voice among British Egyptologists on the subject,[35] argues that there is an historic core behind the Exodus, with Egyptian corvée labour exacted from Hebrews
Hebrews
during the imperialist control exercised by the Egyptian Empire over Canaan
Canaan
from the time of the Thutmosides down to the revolt against Merneptah
Merneptah
and Rameses III.[36] William Albright believed in the essential historicity of the biblical tales of Moses
Moses
and the Exodus, accepting however that the core narrative had been overlaid by legendary accretions.[37] Biblical minimalists such as Philip R. Davies and Niels Peter Lemche regard all biblical books, and the stories of an Exodus, united monarchy, exile and return as fictions composed by a social elite in Yehud in the Persian period or even later, the purpose being to legitimize a return to indigenous roots.[38] Despite the imposing fame associated with Moses, no source mentions him until he emerges in texts associated with the Babylonian exile.[37] A theory developed by Cornelius Tiele
Cornelius Tiele
in 1872, which had proved influential, argued that Yahweh
Yahweh
was a Midianite god, introduced to the Israelites
Israelites
by Moses, whose father-in-law Jethro was a Midianite priest.[39] It was to such a Moses
Moses
that Yahweh
Yahweh
reveals his real name, hidden from the Patriarchs who knew him only as El Shaddai.[40] Against this view is the modern consensus that most of the Israelites were native to Palestine.[41] Martin Noth argued that the Pentateuch uses the figure of Moses, originally linked to legends of a Transjordan conquest, as a narrative bracket or late reductional device to weld together 4 of the 5, originally independent, themes of that work.[37][42] Manfred Görg[43] and Rolf Krauss,[44] the latter in a somewhat sensationalist manner,[45] have suggested that the Moses story is a distortion or transmogrification of the historical pharaoh Amenmose (ca. 1200 BCE), who was dismissed from office and whose name was later simplified to msy (Mose). Aidan Dodson regards this hypothesis as "intriguing, but beyond proof."[46] The name King Mesha
Mesha
of Moab
Moab
has been linked to that of Moses. Mesha also is associated with narratives of an exodus and a conquest, and several motifs in stories about him are shared with the Exodus tale and that regarding Israel's war with Moab
Moab
(2 Kings 3). Moab
Moab
rebels against oppression, like Moses, leads his people out of Israel, as Moses
Moses
does from Egypt, and his first-born son is slaughtered at the wall of Kir-hareseth as the firstborn of Israel are condemned to slaughter in the Exodus story, "an infernal passover that delivers Mesha
Mesha
while wrath burns against his enemies".[47] An Egyptian version of the tale that crosses over with the Moses
Moses
story is found in Manetho who, according to the summary in Josephus, wrote that a certain Osarseph, a Heliopolitan priest, became overseer of a band of lepers, when Amenophis, following indications by Amenhotep, son of Hapu, had all the lepers in Egypt quarantined in order to cleanse the land so that he might see the gods. The lepers are bundled into Avaris, the former capital of the Hyksos, where Osarseph prescribes for them everything forbidden in Egypt, while proscribing everything permitted in Egypt. They invite the Hyksos
Hyksos
to reinvade Egypt, rule with them for 13 years – Osarseph then assumes the name Moses
Moses
- and are then driven out.[48] Moses
Moses
in Hellenistic literature Further information: Moses
Moses
in Judeo-Hellenistic literature

Memorial of Moses, Mount Nebo, Jordan

Non-biblical writings about Jews, with references to the role of Moses, first appear at the beginning of the Hellenistic period, from 323 BCE to about 146 BCE. Shmuel notes that "a characteristic of this literature is the high honour in which it holds the peoples of the East in general and some specific groups among these peoples."[49] In addition to the Judeo-Roman or Judeo-Hellenic historians Artapanus, Eupolemus, Josephus, and Philo, a few non-Jewish historians including Hecataeus of Abdera (quoted by Diodorus Siculus), Alexander Polyhistor, Manetho, Apion, Chaeremon of Alexandria, Tacitus
Tacitus
and Porphyry also make reference to him. The extent to which any of these accounts rely on earlier sources is unknown.[50] Moses
Moses
also appears in other religious texts such as the Mishnah
Mishnah
(c. 200 CE), Midrash
Midrash
(200–1200 CE),[51] and the Quran
Quran
(c. 610–53).[citation needed] The figure of Osarseph in Hellenistic historiography is a renegade Egyptian priest who leads an army of lepers against the pharaoh and is finally expelled from Egypt, changing his name to Moses.[citation needed] In Hecataeus The earliest existing reference to Moses
Moses
in Greek literature occurs in the Egyptian history of Hecataeus of Abdera (4th century BCE). All that remains of his description of Moses
Moses
are two references made by Diodorus Siculus, wherein, writes historian Arthur Droge, he "describes Moses
Moses
as a wise and courageous leader who left Egypt and colonized Judaea."[52] Among the many accomplishments described by Hecataeus, Moses
Moses
had founded cities, established a temple and religious cult, and issued laws:

After the establishment of settled life in Egypt in early times, which took place, according to the mythical account, in the period of the gods and heroes, the first... to persuade the multitudes to use written laws was Mneves [Moses], a man not only great of soul but also in his life the most public-spirited of all lawgivers whose names are recorded.[52]

Droge also points out that this statement by Hecataeus was similar to statements made subsequently by Eupolemus.[52] In Artapanus The Jewish historian Artapanus of Alexandria
Artapanus of Alexandria
(2nd century BCE), portrayed Moses
Moses
as a cultural hero, alien to the Pharaonic court. According to theologian John Barclay, the Moses
Moses
of Artapanus "clearly bears the destiny of the Jews, and in his personal, cultural and military splendor, brings credit to the whole Jewish people."[53]

Jealousy of Moses' excellent qualities induced Chenephres to send him with unskilled troops on a military expedition to Ethiopia, where he won great victories. After having built the city of Hermopolis, he taught the people the value of the ibis as a protection against the serpents, making the bird the sacred guardian spirit of the city; then he introduced circumcision. After his return to Memphis, Moses
Moses
taught the people the value of oxen for agriculture, and the consecration of the same by Moses
Moses
gave rise to the cult of Apis. Finally, after having escaped another plot by killing the assailant sent by the king, Moses fled to Arabia, where he married the daughter of Raguel [Jethro], the ruler of the district.[54]

Artapanus goes on to relate how Moses
Moses
returns to Egypt with Aaron, and is imprisoned, but miraculously escapes through the name of YHWH
YHWH
in order to lead the Exodus. This account further testifies that all Egyptian temples of Isis
Isis
thereafter contained a rod, in remembrance of that used for Moses' miracles. He describes Moses
Moses
as 80 years old, "tall and ruddy, with long white hair, and dignified."[citation needed] Some historians, however, point out the "apologetic nature of much of Artapanus' work,"[55] with his addition of extra-biblical details, such as his references to Jethro: the non-Jewish Jethro expresses admiration for Moses' gallantry in helping his daughters, and chooses to adopt Moses
Moses
as his son.[56] In Strabo Strabo, a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher, in his Geographica
Geographica
(c. 24 CE), wrote in detail about Moses, whom he considered to be an Egyptian who deplored the situation in his homeland, and thereby attracted many followers who respected the deity. He writes, for example, that Moses
Moses
opposed the picturing of the deity in the form of man or animal, and was convinced that the deity was an entity which encompassed everything – land and sea:[57]

35. An Egyptian priest named Moses, who possessed a portion of the country called the Lower Egypt, being dissatisfied with the established institutions there, left it and came to Judaea with a large body of people who worshipped the Divinity. He declared and taught that the Egyptians
Egyptians
and Africans entertained erroneous sentiments, in representing the Divinity under the likeness of wild beasts and cattle of the field; that the Greeks
Greeks
also were in error in making images of their gods after the human form. For God
God
[said he] may be this one thing which encompasses us all, land and sea, which we call heaven, or the universe, or the nature of things.... 36. By such doctrine Moses
Moses
persuaded a large body of right-minded persons to accompany him to the place where Jerusalem
Jerusalem
now stands....[58]

In Strabo's writings of the history of Judaism
Judaism
as he understood it, he describes various stages in its development: from the first stage, including Moses
Moses
and his direct heirs; to the final stage where "the Temple of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
continued to be surrounded by an aura of sanctity." Strabo's "positive and unequivocal appreciation of Moses' personality is among the most sympathetic in all ancient literature."[59] His portrayal of Moses
Moses
is said to be similar to the writing of Hecataeus who "described Moses
Moses
as a man who excelled in wisdom and courage."[59] Egyptologist Jan Assmann
Jan Assmann
concludes that Strabo
Strabo
was the historian "who came closest to a construction of Moses' religion as monotheistic and as a pronounced counter-religion." It recognized "only one divine being whom no image can represent... [and] the only way to approach this god is to live in virtue and in justice."[60] In Tacitus The Roman historian Tacitus
Tacitus
(c. 56–120 CE) refers to Moses
Moses
by noting that the Jewish religion was monotheistic and without a clear image. His primary work, wherein he describes Jewish philosophy, is his Histories (c. 100), where, according to Arthur Murphy, as a result of the Jewish worship of one God, "pagan mythology fell into contempt."[61] Tacitus
Tacitus
states that, despite various opinions current in his day regarding the Jews' ethnicity, most of his sources are in agreement that there was an Exodus from Egypt. By his account, the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Bocchoris, suffering from a plague, banished the Jews
Jews
in response to an oracle of the god Zeus-Amun.

A motley crowd was thus collected and abandoned in the desert. While all the other outcasts lay idly lamenting, one of them, named Moses, advised them not to look for help to gods or men, since both had deserted them, but to trust rather in themselves, and accept as divine the guidance of the first being, by whose aid they should get out of their present plight.[62]

In this version, Moses
Moses
and the Jews
Jews
wander through the desert for only six days, capturing the Holy Land
Holy Land
on the seventh.[62] In Longinus The Septuagint, the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible, influenced Longinus, who may have been the author of the great book of literary criticism, On the Sublime. The date of composition is unknown, but it is commonly assigned to the late Ist century C.E.[63] The writer quotes Genesis in a "style which presents the nature of the deity in a manner suitable to his pure and great being," however he does not mention Moses
Moses
by name, calling him 'no chance person' (οὐχ ὁ τυχὼν ἀνήρ) but "the Lawgiver" (θεσμοθέτης, thesmothete) of the Jews," a term that puts him on a par with Lycurgus and Minos.[64] Aside from a reference to Cicero, Moses
Moses
is the only non-Greek writer quoted in the work, contextually he is put on a par with Homer,[65] and he is described "with far more admiration than even Greek writers who treated Moses with respect, such as Hecataeus and Strabo.[66] In Josephus In Josephus' (37 – c. 100 CE) Antiquities of the Jews, Moses
Moses
is mentioned throughout. For example Book VIII Ch. IV, describes Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, at the time the Ark of the Covenant was first moved into the newly built temple:

When King Solomon
Solomon
had finished these works, these large and beautiful buildings, and had laid up his donations in the temple, and all this in the interval of seven years, and had given a demonstration of his riches and alacrity therein; ...he also wrote to the rulers and elders of the Hebrews, and ordered all the people to gather themselves together to Jerusalem, both to see the temple which he had built, and to remove the ark of God
God
into it; and when this invitation of the whole body of the people to come to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was everywhere carried abroad, ...The Feast of Tabernacles happened to fall at the same time, which was kept by the Hebrews
Hebrews
as a most holy and most eminent feast. So they carried the ark and the tabernacle which Moses
Moses
had pitched, and all the vessels that were for ministration to the sacrifices of God, and removed them to the temple. ...Now the ark contained nothing else but those two tables of stone that preserved the ten commandments, which God
God
spake to Moses
Moses
in Mount Sinai, and which were engraved upon them...[67]

According to Feldman, Josephus
Josephus
also attaches particular significance to Moses' possession of the "cardinal virtues of wisdom, courage, temperance, and justice." He also includes piety as an added fifth virtue. In addition, he "stresses Moses' willingness to undergo toil and his careful avoidance of bribery. Like Plato's philosopher-king, Moses
Moses
excels as an educator."[68] In Numenius Numenius, a Greek philosopher who was a native of Apamea, in Syria, wrote during the latter half of the 2nd century CE. Historian
Historian
Kennieth Guthrie writes that "Numenius is perhaps the only recognized Greek philosopher who explicitly studied Moses, the prophets, and the life of Jesus..."[69] He describes his background:

Numenius was a man of the world; he was not limited to Greek and Egyptian mysteries, but talked familiarly of the myths of Brahmins and Magi. It is however his knowledge and use of the Hebrew scriptures which distinguished him from other Greek philosophers. He refers to Moses
Moses
simply as "the prophet", exactly as for him Homer
Homer
is the poet. Plato
Plato
is described as a Greek Moses.[70]

In Justin Martyr The Christian saint and religious philosopher Justin Martyr
Justin Martyr
(103–165 CE) drew the same conclusion as Numenius, according to other experts. Theologian Paul Blackham notes that Justin considered Moses
Moses
to be "more trustworthy, profound and truthful because he is older than the Greek philosophers."[71] He quotes him:

I will begin, then, with our first prophet and lawgiver, Moses... that you may know that, of all your teachers, whether sages, poets, historians, philosophers, or lawgivers, by far the oldest, as the Greek histories show us, was Moses, who was our first religious teacher.[71]

Abrahamic religions Judaism

Moses
Moses
on the Knesset Menorah

Most of what is known about Moses
Moses
from the Bible
Bible
comes from the books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.[72] The majority of scholars consider the compilation of these books to go back to the Persian period, 538–332 BCE, but based on earlier written and oral traditions.[73][74] There is a wealth of stories and additional information about Moses
Moses
in the Jewish apocrypha
Jewish apocrypha
and in the genre of rabbinical exegesis known as Midrash, as well as in the primary works of the Jewish oral law, the Mishnah
Mishnah
and the Talmud. Moses
Moses
is also given a number of bynames in Jewish tradition. The Midrash
Midrash
identifies Moses
Moses
as one of seven biblical personalities who were called by various names.[75] Moses' other names were: Jekuthiel (by his mother), Heber (by his father), Jered (by Miriam), Avi Zanoah (by Aaron), Avi Gedor (by Kohath), Avi Soco (by his wet-nurse), Shemaiah ben Nethanel (by people of Israel).[76] Moses
Moses
is also attributed the names Toviah (as a first name), and Levi
Levi
(as a family name) (Vayikra Rabbah 1:3), Heman,[77] Mechoqeiq (lawgiver)[78] and Ehl Gav Ish (Numbers 12:3).[79] In another exegesis, Moses
Moses
had ascended to the first heaven until the seventh, even visited Paradise
Paradise
and Hell
Hell
alive, after he saw the Divine vision in Mount Horeb.[80] Jewish historians who lived at Alexandria, such as Eupolemus, attributed to Moses
Moses
the feat of having taught the Phoenicians their alphabet,[81] similar to legends of Thoth. Artapanus of Alexandria explicitly identified Moses
Moses
not only with Thoth/Hermes, but also with the Greek figure Musaeus (whom he called "the teacher of Orpheus"), and ascribed to him the division of Egypt into 36 districts, each with its own liturgy. He named the princess who adopted Moses
Moses
as Merris, wife of Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Chenephres.[82] To Orthodox Jews, Moses
Moses
is called Moshe Rabbenu, `Eved HaShem, Avi haNeviim zya"a: "Our Leader Moshe, Servant of God, Father of all the Prophets (may his merit shield us, amen)".[83] In the orthodox view, Moses
Moses
received not only the Torah, but also the revealed (written and oral) and the hidden (the `hokhmat nistar teachings, which gave Judaism
Judaism
the Zohar
Zohar
of the Rashbi, the Torah
Torah
of the Ari haQadosh and all that is discussed in the Heavenly Yeshiva between the Ramhal and his masters). He is also considered the greatest prophet.[84][85] " Moses
Moses
was one hundred and twenty (120) years old when he died" (Deut. 34:7), and no one knows his burial place to this day (Deut. 34:6). Arising in part from his age and that "his eye had not dimmed, and his vigor had not diminished," the phrase "may you live to 120" has become a common blessing among Jews, especially since 120 is elsewhere stated as the maximum age for Noah's descendants (one interpretation of Genesis 6:3).

Prophet
Prophet
Moses

Moses
Moses
striking the rock

Prophet, Saint, Seer, Lawgiver, Apostle to Pharaoh, Reformer

Born Goshen, Lower Egypt

Died Mount Nebo, Moab

Venerated in Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Bahá'í Faith

Feast Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
& Catholic Church: Sept 4

Attributes Tablets of the Law

Christianity Moses
Moses
is mentioned more often in the New Testament
New Testament
than any other Old Testament figure. For Christians, Moses
Moses
is often a symbol of God's law, as reinforced and expounded on in the teachings of Jesus. New Testament writers often compared Jesus' words and deeds with Moses' to explain Jesus' mission. In Acts 7:39–43, 51–53, for example, the rejection of Moses
Moses
by the Jews
Jews
who worshipped the golden calf is likened to the rejection of Jesus
Jesus
by the Jews
Jews
that continued in traditional Judaism.[86][87] Moses
Moses
also figures in several of Jesus' messages. When he met the Pharisee Nicodemus
Nicodemus
at night in the third chapter of the Gospel of John, he compared Moses' lifting up of the bronze serpent in the wilderness, which any Israelite
Israelite
could look at and be healed, to his own lifting up (by his death and resurrection) for the people to look at and be healed. In the sixth chapter, Jesus
Jesus
responded to the people's claim that Moses
Moses
provided them manna in the wilderness by saying that it was not Moses, but God, who provided. Calling himself the "bread of life", Jesus
Jesus
stated that He was provided to feed God's people.[citation needed] Moses, along with Elijah, is presented as meeting with Jesus
Jesus
in all three Gospel accounts of the Transfiguration of Jesus
Transfiguration of Jesus
in Matthew 17, Mark 9, and Luke 9, respectively. Jesus
Jesus
refers to the scribes and the Pharisees
Pharisees
of the Temple as "seated in the chair of Moses" (Greek: επι της μωυσεως καθεδρας, epi tēs Mōuseōs kathedras) [88]

Moses
Moses
appearing at the Transfiguration of Jesus

His relevance to modern Christianity
Christianity
has not diminished. Moses
Moses
is considered to be a saint by several churches; and is commemorated as a prophet in the respective Calendars of Saints of the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Roman Catholic Church, and the Lutheran churches on September 4. In Eastern Orthodox liturgics for September 4, Moses
Moses
is commemorated as the "Holy Prophet
Prophet
and God-seer Moses, on Mount Nebo".[89][90][Note 4] The Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
also commemorates him on the Sunday of the Forefathers, two Sundays before the Nativity.[92] The Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
commemorates him as one of the Holy Forefathers in their Calendar of Saints on July 30.[93] Mormonism Main article: Book of Moses Members of The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
of Latter-day Saints (colloquially called Mormons) generally view Moses
Moses
in the same way that other Christians do. However, in addition to accepting the biblical account of Moses, Mormons
Mormons
include Selections from the Book of Moses
Moses
as part of their scriptural canon.[94] This book is believed to be the translated writings of Moses, and is included in the Pearl of Great Price.[95] Latter-day Saints are also unique in believing that Moses
Moses
was taken to heaven without having tasted death (translated). In addition, Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery
Oliver Cowdery
stated that on April 3, 1836, Moses
Moses
appeared to them in the Kirtland Temple
Kirtland Temple
(located in Kirtland, Ohio) in a glorified, immortal, physical form and bestowed upon them the "keys of the gathering of Israel from the four parts of the earth, and the leading of the ten tribes from the land of the north."[96] Islam Main article: Moses
Moses
in Islam See also: Biblical narratives and the Qur'an §  Moses
Moses
(Mūsā موسى)

Musa Mūsa   ٰمُوسَى Moses

Ten Commandments Tawrat Ṣuḥuf Mūsā [Biblical and Quranic narratives Prophets and messengers in Islam Golden calf Asiya

Balaam Samiri

Ulu'l azm prophets

Category Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Moses
Moses
is mentioned more in the Quran
Quran
than any other individual and his life is narrated and recounted more than that of any other Islamic prophet.[97] In general, Moses
Moses
is described in ways which parallel the Islamic prophet Muhammad,[98] and "his character exhibits some of the main themes of Islamic theology," including the "moral injunction that we are to submit ourselves to God."[citation needed] Moses
Moses
is defined in the Quran
Quran
as both prophet (nabi) and messenger (rasul), the latter term indicating that he was one of those prophets who brought a scripture and law to his people.[citation needed] Huston Smith
Huston Smith
describes an account in the Quran
Quran
of meetings in heaven between Moses
Moses
and Muhammad, which Huston states were "one of the crucial events in Muhammad's life," and resulted in Muslims observing 5 daily prayers.[99] Moses
Moses
is mentioned 502 times in the Quran; passages mentioning Moses include 2.49–61, 7.103–160, 10.75–93, 17.101–104, 20.9–97, 26.10–66, 27.7–14, 28.3–46, 40.23–30, 43.46–55, 44.17–31, and 79.15–25. and many others. Most of the key events in Moses' life which are narrated in the Bible
Bible
are to be found dispersed through the different Surahs of the Quran, with a story about meeting Khidr
Khidr
which is not found in the Bible.[97] In the Moses
Moses
story related by the Quran, Jochebed
Jochebed
is commanded by God to place Moses
Moses
in an ark and cast him on the waters of the Nile, thus abandoning him completely to God's protection.[97][100] The Pharaoh's wife Asiya, not his daughter, found Moses
Moses
floating in the waters of the Nile. She convinced the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
to keep him as their son because they were not blessed with any children.[citation needed]

Maqam El-Nabi Musa, Jericho.

The Quran's account has emphasized Moses' mission to invite the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
to accept God's divine message[101] as well as give salvation to the Israelites.[97][102] According to the Quran, Moses
Moses
encourages the Israelites
Israelites
to enter Canaan, but they are unwilling to fight the Canaanites, fearing certain defeat. Moses
Moses
responds by pleading to Allah that he and his brother Aaron
Aaron
be separated from the rebellious Israelites. After which the Israelites
Israelites
are made to wander for 40 years.[103] According to Islamic tradition, Moses
Moses
is buried at Maqam El-Nabi Musa, Jericho.[citation needed] Baha'i Faith Moses
Moses
is one of the most important of God's messengers in the Bahá'í Faith being designated a Manifestation of God.[104] An epithet of Moses
Moses
in Baha'i scriptures is the One Who Conversed with God.[105] Important figures in the Baha’i religion, such as Abdul’l-Baha, have highlighted the fact that Moses, like Abraham, had none of the makings of a great man of history, but through God's assistance he was able achieve many great things. He is described as having been "for a long time a shepherd in the wilderness," of having had a stammer, and of being "much hated and detested" by the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
and the ancient Egyptians
Egyptians
of his time. He is said to have been raised in an oppressive household, and to have been known, in Egypt, as a man who had committed murder – though he had done so in order to prevent an act of cruelty.[106] Nevertheless, like Abraham, through the assistance of God, he achieved great things and gained renown even beyond the Levant. Chief among these achievements was the freeing of his people, the Hebrews, from bondage in Egypt and leading "them to the Holy Land." He is viewed as the one who bestowed on Israel 'the religious and the civil law' which gave them "honour among all nations," and which spread their fame to different parts of the world.[106] Furthermore, through the law, Moses
Moses
is believed to have led the Hebrews
Hebrews
'to the highest possible degree of civilization at that period.’ Abdul’l-Baha asserts that the ancient Greek philosophers regarded "the illustrious men of Israel as models of perfection." Chief among these philosophers, he says, was Socrates
Socrates
who "visited Syria, and took from the children of Israel the teachings of the Unity of God
God
and of the immortality of the soul."[106] Moses
Moses
is further described as paving the way for Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
and his ultimate revelation, and as a teacher of truth, whose teachings were in line with the customs of his time.[107] Legacy Politics and law

Statue of Moses
Moses
at the Library of Congress

In a metaphorical sense in the Christian tradition, a "Moses" has been referred to as the leader who delivers the people from a terrible situation. Among the Presidents of the United States known to have used the symbolism of Moses
Moses
were Harry S. Truman, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush
George W. Bush
and Barack Obama, who referred to his supporters as "the Moses
Moses
generation."[108] In subsequent years, theologians linked the Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments
with the formation of early democracy. Scottish theologian William Barclay described them as "the universal foundation of all things… the law without which nationhood is impossible. …Our society is founded upon it.[109] Pope Francis
Pope Francis
addressed the United States Congress
United States Congress
in 2015 stating that all people need to "keep alive their sense of unity by means of just legislation... [and] the figure of Moses
Moses
leads us directly to God
God
and thus to the transcendent dignity of the human being.[110] American history

Pilgrims John Carver, William Bradford, and Miles Standish, at prayer during their voyage to America. Painting by Robert Walter Weir.

Pilgrims References to Moses
Moses
were used by the Puritans, who relied on the story of Moses
Moses
to give meaning and hope to the lives of Pilgrims seeking religious and personal freedom in America. John Carver was the first governor of Plymouth colony
Plymouth colony
and first signer of the Mayflower
Mayflower
Compact, which he wrote in 1620 during the ship Mayflower's three-month voyage. He inspired the Pilgrims with a "sense of earthly grandeur and divine purpose," notes historian Jon Meacham,[111] and was called the "Moses of the Pilgrims."[112] Early American writer James Russell Lowell noted the similarity of the founding of America by the Pilgrims to that of ancient Israel by Moses:

Next to the fugitives whom Moses
Moses
led out of Egypt, the little shipload of outcasts who landed at Plymouth are destined to influence the future of the world.[113]

Following Carver's death the following year, William Bradford was made governor. He feared that the remaining Pilgrims would not survive the hardships of the new land, with half their people having already died within months of arriving. Bradford evoked the symbol of Moses
Moses
to the weakened and desperate Pilgrims to help calm them and give them hope: "Violence will break all. Where is the meek and humble spirit of Moses?"[114] William G. Dever explains the attitude of the Pilgrims: "We considered ourselves the 'New Israel,' particularly we in America. And for that reason we knew who we were, what we believed in and valued, and what our 'manifest destiny' was."[115][116] Founding Fathers of the United States

First proposed seal of the United States, 1776

On July 4, 1776, immediately after the Declaration of Independence was officially passed, the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
asked John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
to design a seal that would clearly represent a symbol for the new United States. They chose the symbol of Moses
Moses
leading the Israelites
Israelites
to freedom.[117] The Founding Fathers of the United States inscribed the words of Moses
Moses
on the Liberty Bell: "Proclaim Liberty thro' all the Land to all the Inhabitants thereof." ( Leviticus
Leviticus
25) Upon the death of George Washington
George Washington
in 1799, two thirds of his eulogies referred to him as "America's Moses," with one orator saying that "Washington has been the same to us as Moses
Moses
was to the Children of Israel."[118] Benjamin Franklin, in 1788, saw the difficulties that some of the newly independent American states were having in forming a government, and proposed that until a new code of laws could be agreed to, they should be governed by "the laws of Moses," as contained in the Old Testament.[119] He justified his proposal by explaining that the laws had worked in biblical times: "The Supreme Being… having rescued them from bondage by many miracles, performed by his servant Moses, he personally delivered to that chosen servant, in the presence of the whole nation, a constitution and code of laws for their observance.[120] John Adams, 2nd President of the United States, stated why he relied on the laws of Moses
Moses
over Greek philosophy for establishing the United States Constitution: "As much as I love, esteem, and admire the Greeks, I believe the Hebrews
Hebrews
have done more to enlighten and civilize the world. Moses
Moses
did more than all their legislators and philosophers.[111] Swedish historian Hugo Valentin credited Moses
Moses
as the "first to proclaim the rights of man."[121] Slavery and civil rights Historian
Historian
Gladys L. Knight describes how leaders who emerged during slavery time and after often personified the Moses
Moses
symbol. "The symbol of Moses
Moses
was empowering in that it served to amplify a need for freedom."[122] Therefore, when Abraham
Abraham
Lincoln was assassinated in 1865 after freeing the slaves, Black Americans said they had lost "their Moses".[123] Lincoln biographer Charles Carleton Coffin
Charles Carleton Coffin
writes, "The millions whom Abraham
Abraham
Lincoln delivered from slavery will ever liken him to Moses, the deliverer of Israel."[124] Similarly, Harriet Tubman, who rescued approximately seventy enslaved family and friends, was also described as the "Moses" of her people.[125] In the 1960s, a leading figure in the civil rights movement was Martin Luther King Jr., who was called "a modern Moses," and often referred to Moses
Moses
in his speeches: "The struggle of Moses, the struggle of his devoted followers as they sought to get out of Egypt. This is something of the story of every people struggling for freedom."[126] In popular culture Literature

Thomas Mann's novella The Tables of the Law
The Tables of the Law
(1944) is a retelling of the story of the Exodus from Egypt, with Moses
Moses
as its main character.[citation needed]

In Freud

Freud believed that Moses
Moses
was a former adherent to the religion of the sun disc Aten
Aten
instituted by the pharaoh Akhenaten
Akhenaten
(shown above), a notion now discredited by modern scholars.

Sigmund Freud, in his last book, Moses
Moses
and Monotheism
Monotheism
in 1939, postulated that Moses
Moses
was an Egyptian nobleman who adhered to the monotheism of Akhenaten. Following a theory proposed by a contemporary biblical critic, Freud believed that Moses
Moses
was murdered in the wilderness, producing a collective sense of patricidal guilt that has been at the heart of Judaism
Judaism
ever since. " Judaism
Judaism
had been a religion of the father, Christianity
Christianity
became a religion of the son", he wrote. The possible Egyptian origin of Moses
Moses
and of his message has received significant scholarly attention.[127][page needed][128] Opponents of this view observe that the religion of the Torah
Torah
seems different from Atenism
Atenism
in everything except the central feature of devotion to a single god,[129] although this has been countered by a variety of arguments, e.g. pointing out the similarities between the Hymn to Aten
Aten
and Psalm 104.[127][page needed][130] Freud's interpretation of the historical Moses
Moses
is not well accepted among historians, and is considered pseudohistory by many.[131][page needed] Art Further information: Finding of Moses

Sculpture in the U.S. House of Representatives.

Depiction on U.S. government buildings

Moses
Moses
is depicted in several U.S. government buildings because of his legacy as a lawgiver. In the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
stands a large statue of Moses
Moses
alongside a statue of the Paul the Apostle. Moses
Moses
is one of the 23 lawgivers depicted in marble bas-reliefs in the chamber of the U.S. House of Representatives
U.S. House of Representatives
in the United States Capitol. The plaque's overview states: " Moses
Moses
(c. 1350–1250 B.C.) Hebrew prophet and lawgiver; transformed a wandering people into a nation; received the Ten Commandments."[132] The other twenty-two figures have their profiles turned to Moses, which is the only forward-facing bas-relief.[133][134]

Statue by Michelangelo Buonarotti
Michelangelo Buonarotti
— in Basilica San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome

Moses
Moses
appears eight times in carvings that ring the Supreme Court Great Hall ceiling. His face is presented along with other ancient figures such as Solomon, the Greek god Zeus
Zeus
and the Roman goddess of wisdom, Minerva. The Supreme Court Building's east pediment depicts Moses
Moses
holding two tablets. Tablets representing the Ten Commandments can be found carved in the oak courtroom doors, on the support frame of the courtroom's bronze gates and in the library woodwork. A controversial image is one that sits directly above the Chief Justice of the United States' head. In the center of the 40-foot-long Spanish marble carving is a tablet displaying Roman numerals
Roman numerals
I through X, with some numbers partially hidden.[135]

Michelangelo's statue

Michelangelo's statue of Moses
Moses
in the Church of San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, is one of the most familiar masterpieces in the world.[citation needed] The horns the sculptor included on Moses' head are the result of a mistranslation of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
into the Latin
Latin
Vulgate
Vulgate
Bible with which Michelangelo
Michelangelo
was familiar. The Hebrew word taken from Exodus means either a "horn" or an "irradiation." Experts at the Archaeological Institute of America show that the term was used when Moses
Moses
"returned to his people after seeing as much of the Glory of the Lord as human eye could stand," and his face "reflected radiance."[136] In early Jewish art, moreover, Moses
Moses
is often "shown with rays coming out of his head."[137] Another author explains, "When Saint
Saint
Jerome
Jerome
translated the Old Testament into Latin, he thought no one but Christ
Christ
should glow with rays of light — so he advanced the secondary translation.[138][139] However, writer J. Stephen Lang points out that Jerome's version actually described Moses
Moses
as "giving off hornlike rays," and he "rather clumsily translated it to mean 'having horns.'"[140] It has also been noted that he had Moses
Moses
seated on a throne, yet Moses
Moses
was never given the title of a King nor ever sat on such thrones.[141] Film and television

Moses
Moses
was portrayed by Theodore Roberts
Theodore Roberts
in Cecil B. DeMille's 1923 silent film The Ten Commandments. Moses
Moses
appeared as the central character in the 1956 DeMille movie, also called The Ten Commandments, in which he was portrayed by Charlton Heston. A television remake was produced in 2006.[citation needed]

Burt Lancaster
Burt Lancaster
played Moses
Moses
in the 1975 television miniseries Moses the Lawgiver.[citation needed]

In the 1981 comedy film History of the World, Part I, Moses
Moses
was portrayed by Mel Brooks.[142]

Sir Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
was the narrator of the 2007 animated film, The Ten Commandments.[citation needed]

Moses
Moses
appeared as the central character in the 1998 DreamWorks Pictures' animated movie, The Prince of Egypt. He was voiced by Val Kilmer.[143]

In the 2009 miniseries Battles BC, Moses
Moses
was portrayed by Cazzey Louis Cereghino.[144]

In the 2013 television miniseries The Bible, Moses
Moses
was portrayed by actor William Houston.[145]

Christian Bale
Christian Bale
portrayed Moses
Moses
in Ridley Scott's 2014 film Exodus: Gods and Kings[146] which portrayed Moses
Moses
and Rameses II
Rameses II
as being raised by Seti I
Seti I
as cousins.[citation needed]

Guilherme Winter
Guilherme Winter
portrayed Moses
Moses
in Alexandre Avancini and Vivian De Oliveira 2015-2016 Brazilian miniseries Moisés y los diez mandamientos (original title: Os Dez Mandamentos).

Criticism of Moses Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
and Numbers 31:13-18 In the late eighteenth century, the deist Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
commented at length on Moses' Laws in The Age of Reason
The Age of Reason
(1794, 1795, and 1807). Paine considered Moses
Moses
to be a "detestable villain", and cited Numbers 31:13–18 as an example of his "unexampled atrocities".[147] In the passage, the Jewish army had returned from conquering the Midianites, and Moses
Moses
has gone down to meet it:

And Moses, and Eleazar
Eleazar
the priest, and all the princes of the congregation, went forth to meet them without the camp; and Moses
Moses
was wroth with the officers of the host, with the captains over thousands, and captains over hundreds, which came from the battle; and Moses
Moses
said unto them, Have ye saved all the women alive? behold, these caused the children of Israel, through the counsel of Balaam, to commit trespass against the Lord in the matter of Peor, and there was a plague among the congregation of the Lord. Now, therefore, kill every male among the little ones, and kill every woman that hath known a man by lying with him; but all the women-children, that have not known a man by lying with him, keep alive for yourselves.[148]

The prominent atheist Richard Dawkins
Richard Dawkins
also made reference to these verses in his 2006 book, The God
God
Delusion, concluding that Moses
Moses
was "not a great role model for modern moralists".[149] However, some Jewish sources defend Moses' role. The Chasam Sofer emphasizes that this war was not fought at Moses' behest, but was commanded by God
God
as an act of revenge against the Midianite women,[150] who, according to the Biblical account, had seduced the Israelites
Israelites
and led them to sin. Rabbi
Rabbi
Joel Grossman argued that the story is a "powerful fable of lust and betrayal", and that Moses' execution of the women was a symbolic condemnation of those who seek to turn sex and desire to evil purposes.[151] Alan Levin, an educational specialist with the Reform movement, has similarly suggested that the story should be taken as a cautionary tale, to "warn successive generations of Jews
Jews
to watch their own idolatrous behavior".[152] See also

Ahmose I Ahmose-ankh Ahmose, son of Ebana Comparison of the founders of religious traditions Crossing the Red Sea The Exodus Hyksos Moses
Moses
in Islam Ramose (prince) Table of prophets of Abrahamic religions Thutmose (prince)

References

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Singer, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "Moses". Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company. 

Informational notes

^ Hebrew: מֹשֶׁה‎, Modern Mōše Tiberian Mōše ISO 259-3 Moše; Syriac: ܡܘܫܐ‎ Mūše; Arabic: موسى‎ Mūsā; Greek: Mωϋσῆς Mōÿsēs ^ Saint
Saint
Augustine records the names of the kings when Moses
Moses
was born in the City of God:

"When Saphrus reigned as the fourteenth king of Assyria, and Orthopolis as the twelfth of Sicyon, and Criasus as the fifth of Argos, Moses
Moses
was born in Eygpt,..."[12]

Orthopolis reigned as the 12th King of Sicyon
Sicyon
for 63 years, from 1596–1533; and Criasus reigned as the 5th King of Argos
Argos
for 54 years, from 1637–1583.[13] ^ According to Manetho the place of his birth was at the ancient city of Heliopolis.[25] ^ According to the Orthodox Menaion, September 4 was the day that Moses
Moses
saw the Land of Promise.[91]

Citations

^ Numbers 12:1 ^ "Moses". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ Deuteronomy 34:10 ^ Maimonides, 13 principles of faith, 7th principle . ^ Exodus 1:10 ^ Douglas K. Stuart (15 June 2006). Exodus: An Exegetical and Theological Exposition of Holy Scripture. B&H Publishing Group. pp. 110–113.  ^ Exodus 4:10 ^ a b William G. Dever 'What Remains of the House That Albright Built?,' in George Ernest Wright, Frank Moore Cross, Edward Fay Campbell, Floyd Vivian Filson (eds.) The Biblical Archaeologist, American Schools of Oriental Research, Scholars Press, Vol. 56, No 1, 2 March 1993 pp.25-35, p.33: 'the overwhelming scholarly consensus today is that Moses
Moses
is a mythical figure.' ^ Seder Olam Rabbah[full citation needed] ^ Jerome's Chronicon (4th century) gives 1592 for the birth of Moses ^ The 17th-century Ussher chronology
Ussher chronology
calculates 1571 BC (Annals of the World, 1658 paragraph 164) ^ St Augustine. The City of God. Book XVIII. Chapter 8 - Who Were Kings When Moses
Moses
Was Born, And What Gods Began To Be Worshipped Then. ^ Hoeh, Herman L (1967), Compendium of World History (dissertation), 1, The Faculty of the Ambassador College, Graduate School of Theology, 1962 . ^ Deuteronomy 33: 1 ^ a b Christopher B. Hays, Hidden Riches: A Sourcebook for the Comparative Study of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
and Ancient Near East, Presbyterian Publishing Corp, 2014 p. 116. ^ Naomi E. Pasachoff, Robert J. Littman, A Concise History of the Jewish People, Rowman & Littlefield, (1995) 2005 p.5. ^ Exodus 2:10 ^ a b c Lorena Miralles Maciá, "Judaizing a Gentile Biblical Character through Fictive Biographical Reports: The Case of Bityah, Pharaoh's Daughter, Moses' Mother, according to Rabbinic Interpretations", in Constanza Cordoni, Gerhard Langer (eds.), Narratology, Hermeneutics, and Midrash: Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Narratives from Late Antiquity through to Modern Times, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht/University of Vienna Press, 2014 pp. 145–175. ^ Dozeman 2009, pp. 81–2. ^ a b c Franz V. Greifenhagen, Egypt on the Pentateuch's Ideological Map: Constructing Biblical Israel's Identity, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2003 pp.60ff. p.62 n.65. p.63. ^ Rivka Ulmer, Egyptian Cultural Icons in Midrash, de gruyter 2009 p. 269. ^ Benjamin Edidin Scolnic, If the Egyptians
Egyptians
Drowned in the Red Sea where are Pharaoh's Chariots?: Exploring the Historical Dimension of the Bible, University Press of America 2005 p. 82. ^ Jeffrey K. Salkin, Righteous Gentiles in the Hebrew Bible: Ancient Role Models for Sacred Relationships, Jewish Lights Publishing, 2008 pp.47 ff., p.54. ^ Maurice D. Harris Moses: A Stranger Among Us, Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2012 pp. 22–24 ^ McClintock, John; James, Strong (1882), "Mo'ses", Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature, VI.— ME-NEV, New York: Harper & Brothers, pp. 677–87 . ^ Schmidt, Nathaniel (Feb 1896), "Moses: His Age and His Work. II", The Biblical World, 7 (2): 105–19, esp. 108, It was the prophet's call. It was a real ecstatic experience, like that of David
David
under the baka-tree, Elijah
Elijah
on the mountain, Isaiah
Isaiah
in the temple, Ezekiel
Ezekiel
on the Khebar, Jesus
Jesus
in the Jordan, Paul on the Damascus road. It was the perpetual mystery of the divine touching the human. . ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews
Jews
Vol III : Chapter I (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. ^ Rad, Gerhard von; Hanson, K. C; Neill, Stephen (2012). Moses. Cambridge, U.K.: James Clarke. ISBN 978-0-227-17379-4. Retrieved 2017-06-09.  ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews
Jews
Vol III : The Symbolical Significance of the Tabernacle
Tabernacle
(Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews
Jews
Vol III : Ingratitude Punished (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. ^ Hamilton 2011, p. xxv. ^ William G. Dever (10 May 2001). What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It?: What Archeology Can Tell Us About the Reality of Ancient Israel. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-8028-2126-3.  ^ Meyers 2005, pp. 5–6. ^ Timothy D. Finlay, The Birth Report Genre in the Hebrew Bible, Forschungen zum Alten Testament, Vol.12 Mohr Siebeck, 2005 p.236 ^ J.K. Hoffmeier, 'The Egyptian Origins of Israel: Recent Developments in Historiography,' in Thomas E. Levy, Thomas Schneider, William H.C. Propp (eds.) Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience, Springer, 2015 pp.196-208 p.202. ^ Kenneth Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament, Rev.ed. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003 pp.241ff. ^ a b c George W. Coats, Moses: Heroic Man, Man of God, A&C Black, 1988 pp.10ff (p.11 Albright; pp.29-30, Noth). ^ Michael R.Stead, The Intertextuality of Zechariah 1–8: Ideals and Realities, T&T Clark 2009 p.42 ^ Judges 1:16;3:11; Numbers 10:29); Exodus 6:2-3 ^ Mark S. Smith, The Early History of God: Yahweh
Yahweh
and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2002 p.34. ^ Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst (eds.) Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2nd edition 1999 p.912. ^ Eckart Otto, Mose: Geschichte und Legende, C.H.Beck, 2006 pp.25-27. ^ Manfred Görg, "Mose – Name und Namensträger. Versuch einer historischen Annäherung" in Mose. Ägypten und das Alte Testament, edited by E. Otto, Verlag Katholisches Bibelwerk, Stuttgart, 2000. ^ Rolf Krauss, Das Moses-Rätsel. Auf den Spuren einer biblischen Erfindung, Ullstein Verlag, München 2001. ^ Jan Assmann, 'Tagsüber parliert er als Ägyptologe, nachts reißt er die Bibel auf,' Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
2 February 2002. ^ Aidan Dodson, Poisoned Legacy: The Fall of the 19th Egyptian Dynasty American University in Cairo Press 2010 p.72. ^ Peter J. Leithart, 1 & 2 Kings, Brazos Press, 2006 pp.178ff., 181-2. ^ Jan Assmann, Moses
Moses
the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt in Western Monotheism, Harvard University Press, 2009 pp.31-34. ^ Shmuel 1976, p. 1102. ^ Shmuel 1976, p. 1103. ^ Hammer, Reuven (1995), The Classic Midrash: Tannaitic Commentaries on the Bible, Paulist Press, p. 15 . ^ a b c Droge 1989, p. 18. ^ Barclay, John M. G. Jews
Jews
in the Mediterranean Diaspora: From Alexander to Trajan (323 BCE – 117 CE), University of California Press (1996) p. 130 ^ "Moses". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2010-03-02.  ^ Feldman 1998, p. 40. ^ Feldman 1998, p. 133. ^ Shmuel 1976, p. 1132. ^ Strabo. The Geography, 16.2.35-36, Translated by H.C. Hamilton and W. Falconer in 1854, pp. 177–78, ^ a b Shmuel 1976, p. 1133. ^ Assmann 1997, p. 38. ^ Tacitus, Cornelius. The works of Cornelius Tacitus: With an essay on his life and genius by Arthur Murphy, Thomas Wardle Publ. (1842) p. 499 ^ a b Tacitus, Cornelius. Tacitus, The Histories, Volume 2, Book V. Chapters 5, 6 p. 208. ^ Henry J. M. Day, Lucan and the Sublime: Power, Representation and Aesthetic Experience, Cambridge University Press, 2013 p.12. ^ Louis H. Felkdman, Jew and Gentile in the Ancient World: Attitudes and Interactions from Alexander to Justinian, Princeton University Press 1996 p.239. ^ Feldman, Louis H (1998), Josephus's Interpretation of the Bible, University of California Press, p. 133 . ^ Shmuel 1976, p. 1140. ^ Josephus, Flavius (1854), "IV", The works: Comprising the Antiquities of the Jews, VIII, trans. by William Whiston, pp. 254–55 . ^ Feldman 1998, p. 130. ^ Guthrie 1917, p. 194. ^ Guthrie 1917, p. 101. ^ a b Blackham 2005, p. 39. ^ Van Seters 2004, p. 194. ^ Finkelstein, I., Silberman, NA., The Bible
Bible
Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts, p.68 ^ Jean-Louis Ska, The Exegesis
Exegesis
of the Pentateuch: Exegetical Studies and Basic Questions, Forschungen zum Alten Testament, Vol 66, Mohr Siebeck, 2009 p.260. ^ Midrash
Midrash
Rabbah, Ki Thissa, XL. 3-3, Lehrman, p. 463 ^ Yalkut Shimoni, Shemot 166 to Chronicles I 4:18, 24:6; also see Vayikra Rabbah 1:3; Chasidah p.345 ^ Rashi to Bava Batra 15s, Chasidah p. 345 ^ Bava Batra 15a on Deuteronomy 33:21, Chasidah p. 345 ^ Rashi to Berachot 54a, Chasidah p. 345 ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews
Jews
Vol. II : The Ascension of Moses; Moses
Moses
Visits Paradise
Paradise
and Hell
Hell
(Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. ^ Eusebius, Praeparatio evangelica ix. 26 ^ Eusebius, l.c. ix. 27 ^ Honorifics for the dead in Judaism. ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews
Jews
Vol. III : Moses
Moses
excels all pious men (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. ^ " Judaism
Judaism
101: Moses, Aaron
Aaron
and Miriam". Jew FAQ. Retrieved 2010-03-02.  ^ Larkin, William J. (1995). Acts (IVP New Testament
New Testament
Commentary Series). Intervarsity Press Academic. ISBN 978-0830818051.  ^ " Bible
Bible
Gateway passage: Acts 7 - New International Version". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 2017-01-08.  ^ Matthew 23:2 ^ Great Synaxaristes: (in Greek) Ὁ Προφήτης Μωϋσῆς. 4 Σεπτεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ. ^ Holy Prophet
Prophet
and God-seer Moses. OCA - Lives of the Saints. ^ "September 4: The Holy God-seer Moses
Moses
the Prophet
Prophet
and Aaron
Aaron
His Brother". In: The Menaion: Volume 1, The Month of September. Transl. from the Greek by the Holy Transfiguration Monastery. Boston, Massachusetts, 2005. p. 67. ^ THE SUNDAY OF THE HOLY FOREFATHERS. St John's Orthodox Church, Colchester, Essex, England. ^ "Տոնական օրեր". Armenian Church (in Armenian). Retrieved 31 August 2017.  ^ Skinner, Andrew C. (1992), "Moses", in Ludlow, Daniel H, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 958–959, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140  ^ Taylor, Bruce T. (1992), "Book of Moses", in Ludlow, Daniel H, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 216–217, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140  ^ The Doctrine and Covenants
Doctrine and Covenants
110:11 ^ a b c d Keeler 2005, pp. 55–66. ^ Keeler 2005, pp. 55–56, describes Moses
Moses
from the Muslim perspective: :"Among prophets, Moses
Moses
has been described as the one 'whose career as a messenger of God, lawgiver and leader of his community most closely parallels and foreshadows that of Muhammad', and as 'the figure that in the Koran was presented to Muhammad
Muhammad
above all others as the supreme model of saviour and ruler of a community, the man chosen to present both knowledge of the one God, and a divinely revealed system of law'. We find him clearly in this role of Muhammad's forebear in a well-known tradition of the miraculous ascension of the Prophet, where Moses
Moses
advises Muhammad
Muhammad
from his own experience as messenger and lawgiver." ^ Smith, Huston (1991), The World's Religions, Harper Collins, p. 245, ISBN 9780062508119 . ^ Quran 28:7 ^ Quran 79:17–19 ^ Quran 20:47–48 ^ Quran 5:20 ^ Historical Context of the Bábi and Bahá'í Faiths, Bahá'i . ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1988). Epistle to the Son of the Wolf. Wilmette, Illinois: Baháí Publishing Trust. p. 104. ISBN 9780877430483.  ^ a b c Clifford, Laura (1937). Some Answered Questions. New York: Baha'i Publishing Trust. pp. 14–15.  ^ McMullen, Michael (2000), The Bahá'í: The Religious Construction of a Global Identity, p. 256 . ^ Ifil, Gwen (2009), The Breakthrough: Politics and Race in the Age of Obama, Random House, p. 58 . ^ Barclay, William (1998) [1973], The Ten Commandments, Westminster John Knox Press, p. 4 . ^ " Pope Francis
Pope Francis
addresses Congress", Vox, Sept. 24, 2015 ^ a b Meacham 2006, p. 40. ^ Talbot, Archie Lee (1930), A New Plymouth Colony at Kennebeck, Brunswick: Library of Congress . ^ Lowell, James Russell (1913), The Round Table, Boston: Gorham Press, pp. 217–18, Next to the fugitives whom Moses
Moses
led out of Egypt, the little shipload of outcasts who landed at Plymouth are destined to influence the future of the world. The spiritual thirst of mankind has for ages been quenched at Hebrew fountains; but the embodiment in human institutions of truths uttered by the Son of Man eighteen centuries ago was to be mainly the work of Puritan thought and Puritan self-devotion. …If their municipal regulations smack somewhat of Judaism, yet there can be no nobler aim or more practical wisdom than theirs; for it was to make the law of man a living counterpart of the law of God, in their highest conception of it.  ^ Arber, Edward (1897), The Story of the Pilgrim Fathers, Houghton, Mifflin & Co., p. 345 . ^ Dever 2006, pp. ix, 234. ^ Moses, Adolph (1903), Yahvism and Other Discourses, Louisville Council of Jewish Women, p. 93, [The pilgrims were clearly] animated by the true spirit of the Hebrew prophets and law-givers. They walked by the light of the Scriptures, and were resolved to form a Commonwealth in accordance with the social laws and ideas of the Bible. …they were themselves the true descendants of Israel, spiritual children of the prophets. . ^ Feiler 2009, p. 35. ^ Feiler 2009, p. 102. ^ Franklin, Benjamin (1834), Franklin, William Temple, ed., Memoirs (ebook)format= requires url= (help), 2, Philadelphia: McCarty & Davis, p. 504 . ^ Franklin 1834, p. 211. ^ Shuldiner, David
David
Philip (1999), Of Moses
Moses
and Marx, Greenwood, p. 35 . ^ Knight, Gladys L. Icons of African American Protest Vol I, Greenwood (2009) p. 183 ^ Hodes, Martha (2015). Mourning Lincoln. Yale University Press. pp. 164, 237. ISBN 9780300213560.  ^ Coffin, Charles Carleton (2012) [1893], Abraham
Abraham
Lincoln (reprint), Ulan Press, p. 534 . ^ Jones, Joyce Stokes; Galvin, Michele Jones (1999–2012), Beyond the Underground. Aunt Harriet, Moses
Moses
of Her People . ^ King, Martin Luther Jr (2000) [1957, 1968], The Papers, Univ. of California Press, p. 155, I want to preach this morning from the subject, 'The Birth of a New Nation.' And I would like to use as a basis for our thinking together, a story that has long since been stenciled on the mental sheets of succeeding generations. It is the story of the Exodus, the story of the flight of the Hebrew people from the bondage of Egypt, through the wilderness and finally, to the Promised Land. …The struggle of Moses, the struggle of his devoted followers as they sought to get out of Egypt. And I've looked over. And I've seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land.   ^ a b Assmann 1997. ^ Yerushalmi, Y, Freud's Moses
Moses
(monograph) . ^ "Order of the Aten
Aten
Temple". Atenism. Archived from the original on 2006-09-01.  ^ Atwell, James E. (2000). "An Egyptian Source for Genesis 1". Journal of Theological Studies. 51 (2): 441–77. doi:10.1093/jts/51.2.441.  ^ Bernstein, Richard J. (1998). Freud and the Legacy of Moses. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-63096-7.  ^ " Moses
Moses
relieve portrait", Architect of the Capitol ^ "Relief Portraits of Lawgivers: Moses". Architect of the Capitol. 2009-02-13. Archived from the original on 2010-03-02. Retrieved 2010-03-02.  ^ Courtroom Friezes: North and South Walls: Information Sheet (PDF), Supreme Court of the United States . ^ "In the Supreme Court itself, Moses
Moses
and his law on display", Religion News Service, Christian index, archived from the original on 2009-12-07 . ^ MacLean, Margaret. (ed) Art and Archaeology, Vol. VI, Archaeological Institute of America (1917) p. 97 ^ Devore, Gary M. (2008). Walking Tours of Ancient Rome: A Secular Guidebook to the Eternal City. Mercury Guides. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-615-19497-4.  ^ Thomason, Dustin; Caldwell, Ian (2005). The Rule of Four. New York: Random House. p. 151. ISBN 0-440-24135-9.  ^ Gross, Kenneth (2005). The Dream of the Moving Statue. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press. p. 245. ISBN 0-271-02900-5.  ^ Lang, J. Stephen (2003). What the Good Book Didn't Say: Popular Myths and Misconceptions About the Bible. New York: Citadel Press. p. 114. ISBN 0-8065-2460-X.  ^ Boitani, Piero (1999). The Bible
Bible
and its Rewritings. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 126. ISBN 0-19-818487-5.  ^ "History of the World: Part I". IMDb.  ^ "Prince of Egypt". IMDb.  ^ Battles BC, Bryan McGowan, Cazzey Louis Cereghino, Brad C. Wilcox, retrieved 2017-12-09  ^ "The Bible". IMDB.  ^ "Exodus: Gods and Kings". IMDB.  ^ Paine, Thomas (1796) The Age of Reason, part II. ^ Numbers 31:13–18 ^ Dawkins, Richard (2006). The God
God
Delusion Chapter 7. Bantam Press. ISBN 0-59305548-9 ^ Aliya-by-Aliya Sedra Summary, Torah
Torah
Tidbits, OU, archived from the original on 2003-08-02 . ^ Grossman, Joel (2008), "Matot" Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine.. Temple Beth Am Library Minyan. ^ Levin, Alan J. "Some messages are hard to deliver". My Jewish Learning.

Further reading

Asch, Sholem (1958), Moses, New York: Putnam, ISBN 0-7426-9137-3 . Assmann, Jan (1997), Moses
Moses
the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt in Western Monotheism, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-58738-3 . Peter Barenboim, «Biblical Roots of Separation of Powers», Moscow, 2005, ISBN 5-94381-123-0, Barzel, Hillel (1974), "Moses: Tragedy and Sublimity", in Gros Louis, Kenneth RR; Ackerman, James S; Warshaw, Thayer S, Literary Interpretations of Biblical Narratives, Nashville: Abingdon Press, pp. 120–40, ISBN 0-687-22131-5 . Blackham, Paul (2005), "The Trinity in the Hebrew Scriptures", in Metzger, Paul Louis, Trinitarian Soundings in Systematic Theology (essay), Continuum International . Buber, Martin (1958), Moses: The Revelation and the Covenant, New York: Harper . Card, Orson Scott (1998), Stone Tables, Deseret Book Co, ISBN 1-57345-115-0 . Chasidah, Yishai (1994), "Moses", Encyclopedia of Biblical Personalities: Anthologized from the Talmud, Midrash
Midrash
and Rabbinic Writings, Brooklyn: Shaar Press, pp. 340–99 . Cohen, Joel (2003), Moses: A Memoir, Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, ISBN 0-8091-0558-6 . Churchill, Winston (November 8, 1931), "Moses", Sunday Chronicle, National Churchill Museum, Thoughts, 205 . Daiches, David
David
(1975), Moses: The Man and his Vision, New York: Praeger, ISBN 0-275-33740-5 . Dever, William G (2002), What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It?, William B. Eerdmans, ISBN 0-8028-2126-X . ——— (2006) [2003], Who Were the Early Israelites, and Where Did They Come From?, Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans  Dozeman, Thomas B (2009), Commentary on Exodus, William B Eerdmans, ISBN 9780802826176  Droge, Arthur J (1989), Homer
Homer
or Moses?: Early Christian Interpretations of the History of Culture, Mohr Siebeck . Fast, Howard (1958), Moses, Prince of Egypt, New York: Crown . Feiler, Bruce (2009), America's Prophet: Moses
Moses
and the American Story, William Morrow . Feldman, Louis H (1998), Josephus's Interpretation of the Bible, University of California Press . Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2001), The Bible Unearthed, New York: Free Press, ISBN 0-684-86912-8 . ———; ——— (2001b), The Bible
Bible
Unearthed, New York: Simon & Schuster . Franklin, Benjamin (1834), Franklin, William Temple, ed., Memoirs (ebook)format= requires url= (help), 2, Philadelphia: McCarty & Davis . Freud, Sigmund (1967), Moses
Moses
and Monotheism, New York: Vintage, ISBN 0-394-70014-7 . Gregory of Nyssa
Gregory of Nyssa
(1978), The Life of Moses, The Classics of Western Spirituality, Transl. Abraham
Abraham
J. Malherbe and Everett Ferguson. Preface by John Meyendorff, Paulist Press, ISBN 978-0-80912112-0 . 208 pp. Guthrie, Kenneth Sylvan (1917), Numenius of Apamea: The Father of Neo-Platonism, George Bell & Sons  Halter, Marek (2005), Zipporah, Wife of Moses, New York: Crown, ISBN 1-4000-5279-3 . Hoffmeier, James K (1996), " Moses
Moses
and the Exodus", Israel in Egypt: The Evidence for the Authenticity of the Exodus Tradition, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 135–63 . Hamilton, Victor (2011), Exodus: An Exegetical Commentary, Baker Books, ISBN 9781441240095 . Ingraham, Joseph Holt (2006) [New York: A.L. Burt, 1859], The Pillar of Fire: Or Israel in Bondage (reprint), Ann Arbor, MC: Scholarly Publishing Office, University of Michigan
Michigan
Library, ISBN 1-4255-6491-7 . Keeler, Annabel (2005), " Moses
Moses
from a Muslim
Muslim
Perspective", in Solomon, Norman; Harries, Richard; Winter, Tim, Abraham's Children: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conversation, T&T Clark, pp. 55–66, ISBN 9780567081711 . Kirsch, Jonathan. Moses: A Life. New York: Ballantine, 1998. ISBN 0-345-41269-9. Kohn, Rebecca. Seven Days to the Sea: An Epic Novel of the Exodus. New York: Rugged Land, 2006. ISBN 1-59071-049-5. Freedman, H, ed. (1983), Midrash
Midrash
Rabbah (10 volumes)format= requires url= (help), Lehman, S.M. (translator), London: The Soncino Press . Mann, Thomas (1943), "Thou Shalt Have No Other Gods Before Me", The Ten Commandments, New York: Simon & Schuster, pp. 3–70 . Meacham, Jon (2006), American Gospel: God, the Founding Fathers, and the Making of a Nation, Random House . Salibi, Kamal (1985), "The Bible
Bible
Came from Arabia", Jonathan Cape, London . Meyers, Carol (2005). Exodus. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521002912.  Sandmel, Samuel
Samuel
(1973), Alone Atop the Mountain, Garden City, NY: Doubleday, ISBN 0-385-03877-1 . Van Seters, John (2004), "Moses", in Barton, John, The Biblical World, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 9780415350914  ——— (1994), The Life of Moses: The Yahwist as Historian
Historian
in Exodus-Numbers, Peeters Publishers, ISBN 90-390-0112-X . Shmuel, Safrai (1976), Stern, M, ed., The Jewish People in the First Century, Van Gorcum Fortress Press  Ska, Jean Louis (2009), The Exegesis
Exegesis
of the Pentateuch: Exegetical Studies and Basic Questions, Mohr Siebeck, pp. 30–31, 260, ISBN 978-3-16-149905-0  Smith, Huston (1991), The World's Religions, Harper Collins, ISBN 9780062508119  Southon, Arthur Eustace (1954) [London: Cassell & Co., 1937], On Eagles' Wings (reprint), New York: McGraw-Hill . van der Toorn, K.; Becking, Bob; van der Horst, Pieter Willem (1999), Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible, ISBN 9780802824912 . Wiesel, Elie (1976), "Moses: Portrait of a Leader", Messengers of God: Biblical Portraits & Legends, New York: Random House, pp. 174–210, ISBN 0-394-49740-6 . Wildavsky, Aaron
Aaron
(2005), Moses
Moses
as Political Leader, Jerusalem: Shalem Press, ISBN 965-7052-31-9 . Wilson, Dorothy Clarke (1949), Prince of Egypt, Philadelphia: Westminster Press .

External links

Look up משה in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Moses.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Moses

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Moses

The Geography, Book XVI, Chapter II The entire context of the cited chapter of Strabo's work

Moses Levite

New title Lawgiver Succeeded by Joshua

v t e

Prophets in the Hebrew Bible

Pre-Patriarchal

Abel Kenan Enoch Noah (in rabbinic literature)

Patriarchs / Matriarchs

Abraham Isaac Jacob Levi Joseph Sarah Rebecca Rachel Leah

Israelite
Israelite
prophets in the Torah

Moses (in rabbinic literature) Aaron Miriam Eldad and Medad Phinehas

Mentioned in the Former Prophets

Joshua Deborah Gideon Eli Elkanah Hannah Abigail Samuel Gad Nathan David Solomon Jeduthun Ahijah Shemaiah Elijah Elisha Iddo Hanani Jehu Micaiah Jahaziel Eliezer Zechariah ben Jehoiada Huldah

Major

Isaiah (in rabbinic literature) Jeremiah Ezekiel Daniel (in rabbinic literature)

Minor

Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah (in rabbinic literature) Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Noahide

Beor Balaam Job (in rabbinic literature)

Other

Amoz Beeri Baruch Agur Uriah Buzi Mordecai Esther (in rabbinic literature) Oded Azariah

Italics indicate persons whose status as prophets is not universally accepted.

v t e

Prophets in the Quran

آدم إدريس نوح هود صالح إبراهيم لوط إسماعيل

Adam Adam

Idris Enoch (?)

Nuh Noah

Hud Eber
Eber
(?)

Saleh Salah
Salah
(?)

Ibrahim Abraham

Lut Lot

Ismail Ishmael

إسحاق يعقوب يوسف أيوب شُعيب موسى هارون ذو الكفل داود

Is'haq Isaac

Yaqub Jacob

Yusuf Joseph

Ayyub Job

Shuayb Jethro (?)

Musa Moses

Harun Aaron

Dhul-Kifl Ezekiel
Ezekiel
(?)

Daud David

سليمان إلياس إليسع يونس زكريا يحيى عيسى مُحمد

Sulaiman Solomon

Ilyas Elijah

Al-Yasa Elisha

Yunus Jonah

Zakaria Zechariah

Yahya John

Isa Jesus

Muhammad Muhammad

Note: Muslims believe that there were many prophets sent by God
God
to mankind. The Islamic prophets above are only the ones mentioned by name in the Quran.

v t e

Ark of the Covenant
Ark of the Covenant
topics

People

Moses Kohanim High Priest of Israel Israelites Levites Bezalel Tribe of Judah Oholiab Kehath Tribe of Levi Jeremiah Joshua Samuel Solomon Menelik I

Contents

Tablets of Stone Ten Commandments Manna Aaron's rod Cherub

Locations

Mount Sinai Jericho Jordan River Holy of Holies Tabernacle Ai Shiloh Gibeah Gilgal Eben-Ezer Philistia Beth Shemesh Kiriath-Jearim Temple Mount Dome of the Rock Well of Souls Cathedral of Chartres Tana Qirqos Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion

Related

The Sign and the Seal
The Sign and the Seal
(1992 book)

v t e

Saints of the Catholic Church

Virgin Mary

Mother of God
God
(Theotokos) Immaculate Conception Perpetual virginity Assumption Marian apparition

Guadalupe Laus Miraculous Medal Lourdes Fatima

Titles of Mary

Apostles

Andrew Barnabas Bartholomew James of Alphaeus James the Greater John Jude Matthew Matthias Paul Peter Philip Simon Thomas

Archangels

Gabriel Michael Raphael

Confessors

Anatolius Chariton the Confessor Edward the Confessor Maximus the Confessor Michael of Synnada Paphnutius the Confessor Paul I of Constantinople Salonius Theophanes the Confessor

Disciples

Apollos Mary Magdalene Priscilla and Aquila Silvanus Stephen Timothy Titus Seventy disciples

Doctors

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Evangelists

Matthew Mark Luke John

Church Fathers

Alexander of Alexandria Alexander of Jerusalem Ambrose
Ambrose
of Milan Anatolius Athanasius of Alexandria Augustine of Hippo Caesarius of Arles Caius Cappadocian Fathers Clement of Alexandria Clement of Rome Cyprian
Cyprian
of Carthage Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem Damasus I Desert Fathers Desert Mothers Dionysius of Alexandria Dionysius of Corinth Dionysius Ephrem the Syrian Epiphanius of Salamis Fulgentius of Ruspe Gregory the Great Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Hilary of Poitiers Hippolytus of Rome Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons Isidore of Seville Jerome
Jerome
of Stridonium John Chrysostom John of Damascus Maximus the Confessor Melito of Sardis Quadratus of Athens Papias of Hierapolis Peter Chrysologus Polycarp
Polycarp
of Smyrna Theophilus of Antioch Victorinus of Pettau Vincent of Lérins Zephyrinus

Martyrs

Canadian Martyrs Carthusian Martyrs Forty Martyrs of England and Wales Four Crowned Martyrs Great Martyr The Holy Innocents Irish Martyrs Joan of Arc Lübeck martyrs Korean Martyrs Martyrology Martyrs of Albania Martyrs of China Martyrs of Japan Martyrs of Laos Martyrs of Natal Martyrs of Otranto Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War Maximilian Kolbe Perpetua and Felicity Saints of the Cristero War Stephen Three Martyrs of Chimbote Uganda Martyrs Vietnamese Martyrs

Patriarchs

Adam Abel Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph Joseph (father of Jesus) David Noah Solomon Matriarchs

Popes

Adeodatus I Adeodatus II Adrian III Agapetus I Agatho Alexander I Anacletus Anastasius I Anicetus Anterus Benedict II Boniface I Boniface IV Caius Callixtus I Celestine I Celestine V Clement I Cornelius Damasus I Dionysius Eleuterus Eugene I Eusebius Eutychian Evaristus Fabian Felix I Felix III Felix IV Gelasius I Gregory I Gregory II Gregory III Gregory VII Hilarius Hormisdas Hyginus Innocent I John I John XXIII John Paul II Julius I Leo I Leo II Leo III Leo IV Leo IX Linus Lucius I Marcellinus Marcellus I Mark Martin I Miltiades Nicholas I Paschal I Paul I Peter Pius I Pius V Pius X Pontian Sergius I Silverius Simplicius Siricius Sixtus I Sixtus II Sixtus III Soter Stephen I Stephen IV Sylvester I Symmachus Telesphorus Urban I Victor I Vitalian Zachary Zephyrinus Zosimus

Prophets

Agabus Amos Anna Baruch ben Neriah David Dalua Elijah Ezekiel Habakkuk Haggai Hosea Isaiah Jeremiah Job Joel John the Baptist Jonah Judas Barsabbas Malachi Melchizedek Micah Moses Nahum Obadiah Samuel Seven Maccabees and their mother Simeon Zechariah (prophet) Zechariah (NT) Zephaniah

Virgins

Agatha of Sicily Agnes of Rome Bernadette Soubirous Brigid of Kildare Cecilia Clare of Assisi Eulalia of Mérida Euphemia Genevieve Kateri Tekakwitha Lucy of Syracuse Maria Goretti Mother Teresa Narcisa de Jesús Rose of Lima

See also

Military saints Virtuous pagan

Catholicism portal Saints portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 805492 LCCN: n79058331 ISNI: 0000 0001 0777 5288 GND: 118641190 SELIBR: 194421 NLA: 49682355 NKC: ola2002113

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