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MOSCOW (/ˈmɒskoʊ/ or /ˈmɒskaʊ/ ; Russian : Москва́, tr. _Moskva_; IPA: ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city of Russia , with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.8 million within the urban area . Moscow has the status of a Russian federal city .

Moscow is a major political, economic, cultural, and scientific centre of Russia and Eastern Europe , as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent . By broader definitions Moscow is among the world\'s largest cities , being the 14th largest metro area , the 18th largest agglomeration , the 15th largest urban area , and the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013 , Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies , being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network , and is also one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index . Moscow is the northernmost and coldest megacity and metropolis on Earth . It is home to the Ostankino Tower , the tallest free standing structure in Europe ; the Federation Tower , the tallest skyscraper in Europe; and the Moscow International Business Center . By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast , the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers (421 to 970 sq mi), and it gained an additional population of 233,000 people. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia , making it Europe's most populated inland city. The city is well known for its architecture, particularly its historic buildings such as Saint Basil\'s Cathedral with its brightly coloured domes. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012. The city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation . Moscow is considered the centre of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists, scientists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums, academic and political institutions and theatres.

Moscow is the seat of power of the Government of Russia , being the site of the Moscow Kremlin , a medieval city-fortress that is today the residence for work of the President of Russia . The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are also one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament (the State Duma and the Federation Council ) also sit in the city.

The city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports , nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro , the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside of Asia in terms of passenger numbers, and the busiest in Europe. It is recognised as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations.

Moscow has acquired a number of epithets , most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome (Третий Рим), The Whitestone One (Белокаменная), The First Throne (Первопрестольная), The Forty Forties (Сорок Сороков), and The Hero City (город-герой). In old Russian the word "Сорок" (_forty_) also meant a church administrative district, which consisted of about forty churches. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" (_moskvich_) for male or "москвичка" (_moskvichka_) for female, rendered in English as _Muscovite_.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Prehistory * 2.2 Early history (1147–1283) * 2.3 Grand Duchy (1283–1547) * 2.4 Tsardom (1547–1721) * 2.5 Empire (1721–1917) * 2.6 Soviet era (1917–1991) * 2.7 Recent history (1991 to present)

* 3 Geography and climate

* 3.1 Location * 3.2 Time

* 3.3 Climate

* 3.3.1 Climate changes

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Population

* 4.2 Religion

* 4.2.1 Religious statistics

* 5 Cityscape

* 5.1 Architecture * 5.2 Parks and landmarks * 5.3 Moscow rings

* 6 Life and culture

* 6.1 Overview * 6.2 Sports * 6.3 Football Clubs * 6.4 Entertainment

* 7 Politics

* 7.1 Executive * 7.2 Moscow City Duma * 7.3 Administrative divisions

* 8 Economy

* 8.1 Overview * 8.2 Industry * 8.3 Living costs

* 9 Science and education

* 10 Transportation

* 10.1 Air * 10.2 Water * 10.3 Railway * 10.4 Metro * 10.5 Moscow Central Circle * 10.6 Bus and trolleybus * 10.7 Monorail * 10.8 Tram * 10.9 Taxi * 10.10 Roads

* 11 Future development

* 12 Media

* 12.1 Newspapers * 12.2 TV and radio

* 13 Famous people

* 14 International relations

* 14.1 Twin towns and sister cities * 14.2 Cooperation agreements * 14.3 Former twin towns and sister cities

* 15 Rankings * 16 See also

* 17 References

* 17.1 Notes

* 18 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River . Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who originally inhabited the area, called the river _Mustajoki_. It has been suggested that the name of the city derives from this term. However there have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. The most linguistically well-grounded and widely accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *_mŭzg_-/_muzg_- from the Proto-Indo-European *_meu_- "wet", so the name _Moskva_ might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh. Its cognates include Russian : музга, _muzga_ "pool, puddle", Lithuanian : _mazgoti_ and Latvian : _mazgāt_ "to wash", Sanskrit : majjati "to drown", Latin : _mergō_ "to dip, immerse". There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa .

The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *_Mosky_, hence it was one of a few Slavic _ū_-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, _Moskovĭ_ (accusative case ), Москви, _Moskvi_ (locative case ), Москвe/Москвѣ, _Moskve/Moskvě_ (genitive case ). From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, _Moskva_, which is a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic _ā_-stem nouns.

However, the form _Moskovĭ_ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German : _Moskau_, French : _Moscou_, Latvian : _Maskava_, Ottoman Turkish : Moskov‎, Tatar : Мәскәү, _Mäskäw_, Kazakh : Мәскеу, _Mäskew_, Chuvash : Мускав, _Muskav_, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name _Moscovia_ has been formed, later it became a colloquial name for Russia used in Western Europe in the 16th–17th centuries. From it as well came English _Muscovy_ and _muscovite_.

Various other theories (of Celtic, Iranian, Caucasic), having little or no scientific ground, are now largely rejected by contemporary linguists.

There has been as well a scholastic etymology that connected the name of Mosoch , a son of Japheth , with the name of the city, so that it was thought that the biblical figure was a forefather of Russians as well as other Slavs. The surface similarity of the name _Russia_ with _Rosh_, an obscure biblical tribe or country, which is mentioned alongside with Mosoch in Ezekiel (38:2–3, 39:1), strengthened up such etymologies.

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Moscow and Timeline of Moscow

PREHISTORY

The oldest evidence of humans on the territory of Moscow dates from the Neolithic (Schukinskaya site on the Moscow River ). Within the modern bounds of the city other late evidence was discovered (the burial ground of the Fatyanovskaya culture , the site of the Iron Age settlement of the Dyakovo culture ), on the territory of the Kremlin , Sparrow Hills , Setun River and Kuntsevskiy forest park, etc.

In the 9th century, the Oka River was part of the Volga trade route , and the upper Volga watershed became an area of contact between the indigenous Finno-Ugric such as the Merya and the expanding Volga Bulgars (particularly the second son of Khan Kubrat who expanded the borders of the Old Great Bulgaria ), Scandinavian ( Varangians ) and Slavic peoples.

The earliest East Slavic tribes recorded as having expanded to the upper Volga in the 9th to 10th centuries are the Vyatichi and Krivichi . The Moskva River was incorporated as part of Rostov-Suzdal into the Kievan Rus in the 11th century. By AD 1100, a minor settlement had appeared on the mouth of the Neglinnaya River .

EARLY HISTORY (1147–1283)

Further information: Kievan Rus and Vladimir-Suzdal The principality on the northeastern periphery of Kievan Rus\' , Vladimir-Suzdal , grew into the Grand Duchy of Moscow

The first known reference to Moscow dates from 1147 as a meeting place of Yuri Dolgoruky and Sviatoslav Olgovich . At the time it was a minor town on the western border of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality.

In 1156, Knjaz Yury Dolgoruky fortified the town with a timber fence and a moat. In the course of the Mongol invasion of Rus , the Mongols under Batu Khan burned the city to the ground and killed its inhabitants.

The timber fort _na Moskvě_ "on the Moscow river" was inherited by Daniel , the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky , in the 1260s, at the time considered the least valuable of his father's possessions. Daniel was still a child at the time, and the big fort was governed by _tiuns_ (deputies), appointed by Daniel's paternal uncle, Yaroslav of Tver .

Daniel came of age in the 1270s and became involved in the power struggles of the principality with lasting success, siding with his brother Dmitry in his bid for the rule of Novgorod. From 1283 he acted as the ruler of an independent principality alongside Dmitry, who became Grand Duke of Vladimir. Daniel has been credited with founding the first Moscow monasteries, dedicated to the Lord's Epiphany and to Saint Daniel.

GRAND DUCHY (1283–1547)

Main article: Grand Duchy of Moscow

Moscow Kremlin in the late 16th century Siege of Moscow (1382) Red Square

Spassky Cathedral, 1357 (the oldest extant building in Moscow) Spasskaya Tower was built in 1491

Daniel I ruled Moscow as Grand Duke until 1303 and established it as a prosperous city which would eclipse its parent principality of Vladimir by the 1320s.

On the right bank of the Moskva River, at a distance of five miles (8.0 kilometres) from the Kremlin, not later than in 1282, Daniel founded the first monastery with the wooden church of St. Daniel-Stylite. Now it is the Danilov Monastery. Daniel died in 1303, at the age of 42. Before his death he became a monk and, according to his will, was buried in the cemetery of the St. Daniel Monastery.

Moscow was stable and prosperous for many years and attracted a large number of refugees from across Russia. The Rurikids maintained large landholdings by practicing primogeniture , whereby all land was passed to the eldest sons, rather than dividing it up among all sons. By 1304, Yury of Moscow contested with Mikhail of Tver for the throne of the principality of Vladimir . Ivan I eventually defeated Tver to become the sole collector of taxes for the Mongol rulers, making Moscow the capital of Vladimir-Suzdal . By paying high tribute, Ivan won an important concession from the Khan .

While Khan of the Golden Horde initially attempted to limit Moscow's influence, when the growth of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania began to threaten all of Russia, the Khan strengthened Moscow to counterbalance Lithuania, allowing it to become one of the most powerful cities in Russia. In 1380, prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow led a united Russian army to an important victory over the Mongols in the Battle of Kulikovo . Afterwards, Moscow took the leading role in liberating Russia from Mongol domination. In 1480, Ivan III had finally broken the Russians free from Tatar control, and Moscow became the capital of an empire that would eventually encompass all of Russia and Siberia , and parts of many other lands. Ivan III

In 1462 Ivan III, known as Ivan the Great (1440–1505) became Grand Prince of Moscow (then part of the medieval Muscovy state). He began fighting the Tatars, enlarged the territory of Muscovy, and enriched his capital city. By 1500 it had a population of 100,000 and was one of the largest cities in the world. He conquered the far larger principality of Novgorod to the north, which had been allied to the hostile Lithuanians. Thus he enlarged the territory sevenfold, from 430,000 to 2,800,000 square kilometres (170,000 to 1,080,000 square miles). He took control of the ancient " Novgorod Chronicle " and made it a propaganda vehicle for his regime.

The original Moscow Kremlin was built during the 14th century. It was reconstructed by Ivan, who in the 1480s invited architects from Renaissance Italy , such as Petrus Antonius Solarius , who designed the new Kremlin wall and its towers, and Marco Ruffo who designed the new palace for the prince. The Kremlin walls as they now appear are those designed by Solarius, completed in 1495. The Kremlin's Great Bell Tower was built in 1505–08 and augmented to its present height in 1600.

A trading settlement, or _posad_, grew up to the east of the Kremlin, in the area known as _Zaradye_ (Зарядье). In the time of Ivan III, the Red Square , originally named the Hollow Field (Полое поле) appeared.

In 1508–1516, the Italian architect Aleviz Fryazin (Novy) arranged for the construction of a moat in front of the eastern wall, which would connect the Moskva and Neglinnaya and be filled in with water from Neglinnaya. This moat, known as the Alevizov moat and having a length of 541 metres (1,775 feet), width of 36 metres (118 feet), and a depth of 9.5 to 13 metres (31–43 feet) was lined with limestone and, in 1533, fenced on both sides with low, four-metre-thick (13-foot) cogged-brick walls.

TSARDOM (1547–1721)

Further information: Russian Tsardom View of 17th-century Moscow (1922 drawing by Apollinary Vasnetsov )

In the 16th and 17th centuries, the three circular defences were built: Kitay-gorod (Китай-город), the White City (Белый город) and the Earthen City (Земляной город). However, in 1547, two fires destroyed much of the town, and in 1571 the Crimean Tatars captured Moscow , burning everything except the Kremlin. The annals record that only 30,000 of 200,000 inhabitants survived.

The Crimean Tatars attacked again in 1591, but this time were held back by new defence walls, built between 1584 and 1591 by a craftsman named Fyodor Kon . In 1592, an outer earth rampart with 50 towers was erected around the city, including an area on the right bank of the Moscow River. As an outermost line of defence, a chain of strongly fortified monasteries was established beyond the ramparts to the south and east, principally the Novodevichy Convent and Donskoy , Danilov , Simonov , Novospasskiy , and Andronikov monasteries, most of which now house museums. From its ramparts, the city became poetically known as _Bielokamennaya_, the "White-Walled". The limits of the city as marked by the ramparts built in 1592 are now marked by the Garden Ring . Saint Basil\'s Cathedral was built in 1561

Three square gates existed on the eastern side of the Kremlin wall, which in the 17th century, were known as: Konstantino-Eleninsky, Spassky, Nikolsky (owing their names to the icons of Constantine and Helen, the Saviour and St. Nicholas which hung over them). The last two were directly opposite the Red Square, while the Konstantino-Elenensky gate was located behind Saint Basil's Cathedral.

The Russian famine of 1601–03 killed perhaps 100,000 in Moscow. From 1610 through 1612, troops of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth occupied Moscow, as its ruler Sigismund III tried to take the Russian throne. In 1612, the people of Nizhny Novgorod and other Russian cities conducted by prince Dmitry Pozharsky and Kuzma Minin rose against the Polish occupants, besieged the Kremlin, and expelled them . In 1613, the Zemsky sobor elected Michael Romanov tsar, establishing the Romanov dynasty . The 17th century was rich in popular risings, such as the liberation of Moscow from the Polish–Lithuanian invaders (1612), the Salt Riot (1648), the Copper Riot (1662), and the Moscow Uprising of 1682 .

During the first half of the 17th century, the population of Moscow doubled from roughly 100,000 to 200,000. It expanded beyond its ramparts in the later 17th century. By 1682, there were 692 households established north of the ramparts, by Ukrainians and Belarusians abducted from their hometowns in the course of Russo-Polish War (1654–1667) . These new outskirts of the city came to be known as the _Meshchanskaya sloboda _, after Ruthenian _meshchane_ "town people". The term _meshchane_ (мещане) acquired pejorative connotations in 18th-century Russia and today means "petty bourgeois" or "narrow-minded philistine".

The entire city of the late 17th century, including the slobodas which grew up outside of the city ramparts, are contained within what is today Moscow's Central Administrative Okrug .

Numerous disasters befell the city. The plague epidemics ravaged Moscow in 1570–1571, 1592 and 1654–1656. The plague killed upwards of 80% of the people in 1654–55. Fires burned out much of the wooden city in 1626 and 1648.

EMPIRE (1721–1917)

Main article: Moscow Governorate Further information: Russian Empire A panoramic view of Moscow in 1867. (Image with notes). The coat of arms of Moscow Governorate . Moskva riverside in the 19th century.

Moscow ceased to be Russia's capital (except for a brief period from 1728 to 1732 under the influence of the Supreme Privy Council ) when Peter the Great moved his government to the newly built Saint Petersburg on the Baltic coast in 1712.

After losing the status as capital of the empire, the population of Moscow at first decreased, from 200,000 in the 17th century to 130,000 in 1750. But after 1750, the population grew more than tenfold over the remaining duration of the Russian Empire, reaching 1.8 million by 1915. Book shops at the Spassky bridge. By Apollinary Vasnetsov Loan of the City of Moscow, issued 1912

By 1700, the building of cobbled roads had begun. In November 1730, the permanent street light was introduced, and by 1867 many streets had a gaslight. In 1883, near the Prechistinskiye Gates , arc lamps were installed. In 1741 Moscow was surrounded by a barricade 25 miles (40 kilometres) long, the Kamer-Kollezhskiy barrier , with 16 gates at which customs tolls were collected. Its line is traced today by a number of streets called _val_ (“ramparts”). Between 1781–1804 the Mytischinskiy water-pipe (the first in Russia) was built. In 1813, following the destruction of much of the city during French occupation, a Commission for the Construction of the City of Moscow was established. It launched a great program of rebuilding, including a partial replanning of the city-centre. Among many buildings constructed or reconstructed at this time were the Grand Kremlin Palace and the Kremlin Armoury , the Moscow University , the Moscow Manege (Riding School), and the Bolshoi Theatre . In 1903 the Moskvoretskaya water-supply was completed.

In the early 19th century, the Arch of Konstantino-Elenensky gate was paved with bricks, but the Spassky Gate was the main front gate of the Kremlin and used for royal entrances. From this gate, wooden and (following the 17th-century improvements) stone bridges stretched across the moat. Books were sold on this bridge and stone platforms were built nearby for guns – "raskats". The Tsar Cannon was located on the platform of the Lobnoye mesto .

The road connecting Moscow with St. Petersburg, now the M10 highway , was completed in 1746, its Moscow end following the old Tver road which had existed since the 16th century. It became known as _Peterburskoye Schosse _ after it was paved in the 1780s. Petrovsky Palace was built in 1776–1780 by Matvey Kazakov as a railway station specifically reserved for royal journeys from Saint Petersburg to Moscow, while coaches for lesser classes arrived and departed from Vsekhsvyatskoye station.

When Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812, the Moscovites were evacuated. It is suspected that the Moscow fire was principally the effect of Russian sabotage. Napoleon’s _ Grande Armée _ was forced to retreat and was nearly annihilated by the devastating Russian winter and sporadic attacks by Russian military forces. As many as 400,000 of Napoleon's soldiers died during this time. Moscow plague riot of 1771

Moscow State University was established in 1755. Its main building was reconstructed after the 1812 fire by Domenico Giliardi . The _ Moskovskiye Vedomosti _ newspaper appeared from 1756, originally in weekly intervals, and from 1859 as a daily newspaper.

The Arbat Street had been in existence since at least the 15th century, but it was developed into a prestigious area during the 18th century. It was destroyed in the fire of 1812 and was rebuilt completely in the early 19th century. French invasion of Russia in 1812, Fire of Moscow , painting by A.F. Smirnov 1813

In the 1830s, general Alexander Bashilov planned the first regular grid of city streets north from Petrovsky Palace. Khodynka field south of the highway was used for military training. Smolensky Rail station (forerunner of present-day Belorussky Rail Terminal ) was inaugurated in 1870. Sokolniki Park , in the 18th century the home of the tsar's falconers well outside of Moscow, became contiguous with the expanding city in the later 19th century and was developed into a public municipal park in 1878. The suburban Savyolovsky Rail Terminal was built in 1902. In January 1905, the institution of the City Governor, or Mayor , was officially introduced in Moscow, and Alexander Adrianov became Moscow's first official mayor.

When Catherine II came to power in 1762, the city's filth and smell of sewage was depicted by observers as a symptom of disorderly life styles of lower-class Russians recently arrived from the farms. Elites called for improving sanitation, which became part of Catherine's plans for increasing control over social life. National political and military successes from 1812 through 1855 calmed the critics and validated efforts to produce a more enlightened and stable society. There was less talk about the smell and the poor conditions of public health. However, in the wake of Russia's failures in the Crimean War in 1855–56, confidence in the ability of the state to maintain order in the slums eroded, and demands for improved public health put filth back on the agenda.

SOVIET ERA (1917–1991)

Further information: Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Plan of Moscow, 1917 December 1941. Fresh forces going to the front from Moscow. Kalininsky Prospekt in New Arbat Avenue, built in 1968. Soviet poster, issued on the 800th anniversary of Moscow. The inscription reads: "Glory to you, invincible Moscow, beauty and pride of the Russian people".

External video Song from the Soviet "New Moscow" film

Following the success of the Russian Revolution of 1917 , Vladimir Lenin , fearing possible foreign invasion, moved the capital from Saint Petersburg back to Moscow on 5 March 1918. The Kremlin once again became the seat of power and the political centre of the new state.

With the change in values imposed by communist ideology , the tradition of preservation of cultural heritage was broken. Independent preservation societies, even those that defended only secular landmarks such as Moscow-based OIRU were disbanded by the end of the 1920s. A new anti-religious campaign, launched in 1929, coincided with collectivization of peasants; destruction of churches in the cities peaked around 1932. In 1937 several letters were written to the CCCP to rename Moscow to "Stalindar" or "Stalinodar", one from an elderly pensioner whose dream was to "live in Stalinodar" and had selected the name to represent the "gift" (dar) of the genius of Stalin . Stalin rejected this suggestion, and after it was suggested again to him by Nikolai Yezhov , he was "outraged", saying "What do I need this for?". This was following Stalin banning the renaming of places in his name in 1936.

During the Great Patriotic War , the Soviet State Committee of Defence and the General Staff of the Red Army were located in Moscow. In 1941, 16 divisions of the national volunteers (more than 160,000 people), 25 battalions (18,000 people) and 4 engineering regiments were formed among the Muscovites. In November 1941, German Army Group Centre was stopped at the outskirts of the city and then driven off in the course of the Battle of Moscow . Many factories were evacuated, together with much of the government, and from October 20 the city was declared to be in a state of siege. Its remaining inhabitants built and manned antitank defences, while the city was bombarded from the air. On 1 May 1944 a medal "For the defence of Moscow" and in 1947 another medal "In memory of the 800th anniversary of Moscow" were instituted.

Both German and Soviet casualties during the battle of Moscow have been a subject of debate, as various sources provide somewhat different estimates. Total casualties between 30 September 1941, and 7 January 1942, are estimated to be between 248,000 and 400,000 for the Wehrmacht and between 650,000 and 1,280,000 for the Red Army.

During the postwar years, there was a serious housing crisis, solved by the invention of high-rise apartments . There are over 11,000 of these standardised and prefabricated apartment blocks, housing the majority of Moscow's population, making it by far the city with the most high-rise buildings. Apartments were built and partly furnished in the factory before being raised and stacked into tall columns. The popular Soviet-era comic film _ Irony of Fate _ parodies this construction method.

The city of Zelenograd was built in 1958 at 37 kilometres (23 miles) from the city centre to the north-west, along the Leningradskoye Shosse , and incorporated as one of Moscow's administrative okrugs . Moscow State University moved to its campus on Sparrow Hills in 1953.

In 1959 Nikita Khrushchev launched his anti-religious campaign . By 1964 over 10 thousand churches out of 20 thousand were shut down (mostly in rural areas) and many were demolished. Of 58 monasteries and convents operating in 1959, only sixteen remained by 1964; of Moscow's fifty churches operating in 1959, thirty were closed and six demolished.

On 8 May 1965 due to the actual 20th anniversary of the victory in World War II Moscow was awarded a title of the Hero City . In 1980 it hosted the Summer Olympic Games .

The MKAD ring road was opened in 1961. It had four lanes running 109 kilometres (68 miles) along the city borders. The MKAD marked the administrative boundaries of the city of Moscow until the 1980s, when outlying suburbs beyond the ring road began to be incorporated. In 1980, it hosted the Summer Olympic Games , which were boycotted by the United States and several other Western countries due to the Soviet Union's involvement in Afghanistan in late 1979. In 1991 Moscow was the scene of a coup attempt by conservators opposed to the liberal reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev .

RECENT HISTORY (1991 TO PRESENT)

VDNKh , In current times

When the USSR was dissolved in the same year, Moscow remained the capital of the Russian SFSR (on 25 December 1991 the Russian SFSR was renamed the Russian Federation ). Since then a market economy has emerged in Moscow, producing an explosion of Western-style retailing, services, architecture, and lifestyles.

The city has continued to grow during the 1990s to 2000s, its population rising from below nine to above ten million. Mason and Nigmatullina argue that Soviet-era urban-growth controls (before 1991) produced controlled and sustainable metropolitan development, typified by the greenbelt built in 1935. Since then however, there has been a dramatic growth of low-density suburban sprawl, created by a heavy demand for single-family dwellings as opposed to crowded apartments. In 1995–1997 the MKAD ring road was widened from the initial four to ten lanes. In December 2002 Bulvar Dmitriya Donskogo became the first Moscow Metro station that opened beyond the limits of MKAD. The Third Ring Road , intermediate between the early 19th-century Garden Ring and the Soviet-era outer ring road, was completed in 2004. The greenbelt is becoming more and more fragmented, and satellite cities are appearing at the fringe. Summer dachas are being converted into year-round residences, and with the proliferation of automobiles there is heavy traffic congestion. Multiple old churches and other examples of architectural heritage that had been demolished during the Stalin era have been restored, such as Cathedral of Christ the Saviour .

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

LOCATION

Satellite image of Moscow and suburbs Moscow aerial view

Moscow is situated on the banks of the Moskva River , which flows for just over 500 km (311 mi) through the East European Plain in central Russia. 49 bridges span the river and its canals within the city's limits. The elevation of Moscow at the All- Russia Exhibition Center (VVC), where the leading Moscow weather station is situated, is 156 metres (512 feet). Teplostanskaya highland is the city's highest point at 255 metres (837 feet). The width of Moscow city (not limiting MKAD ) from west to east is 39.7 km (24.7 mi), and the length from north to south is 51.8 km (32.2 mi).

TIME

Main article: Moscow Time

Moscow serves as the reference point for the timezone used in most of European Russia , including Saint Petersburg, Belarus, and the Republic of Crimea . The areas operate in what is referred to in international standards as _ Moscow Standard Time (MSK, мск)_, which is 3 hours ahead of UTC , or UTC+3 . Daylight saving time is no longer observed. Moscow Time (UTC+3)

CLIMATE

Main article: Climate of Moscow

Moscow has a hemiboreal climate (Köppen climate classification _Dfb_) with long, cold (although average by Russian standards) winters usually lasting from mid-November through the end of March, and warm summers. Weather can fluctuate widely with temperatures ranging from −25 °C (−13 °F) in the city and −30 °C (−22 °F) in suburbs to above 5 °C (41 °F) in the winter, and from 10 to 35 °C (50 to 95 °F) in the summer.

Typical high temperatures in the warm months of June, July and August are around a comfortable 20 to 26 °C (68 to 79 °F), but during heat waves (which can occur between May and September), daytime high temperatures often exceed 30 °C (86 °F), sometimes for a week or two at a time. In the winter, average temperatures normally drop to approximately −10 °C (14 °F), though almost every winter there are periods of warmth with day temperatures rising above 0 °C (32 °F), and periods of cooling with night temperatures falling below −30 °C (−22 °F). These periods usually last about a week or two.

The highest temperature ever recorded was 38.2 °C (100.8 °F) at the VVC weather station and 39.0 °C (102.2 °F) in the center of Moscow and Domodedovo airport on July 29, 2010 during the unusual 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat wave . Record high temperatures were recorded for January, March, April, May, July, August, November and December in 2007 – 2014. The average July temperature from 1981–2010 is 19.2 °C (66.6 °F). The lowest ever recorded temperature was −42.2 °C (−44.0 °F) in January 1940. Snow, which is present for about five months a year, often begins to fall mid October, while snow cover lies in November and melts in the beginning of April.

On average Moscow has 1731 hours of sunshine per year, varying from a low of 8% in December to 52% from May to August. Between 2004 and 2010, the average was between 1800 and 2000 hours with a tendency to more sunshine in summer months, up to record 411 hours in July 2014, 79% of possible sunshine.

Temperatures in the centre of Moscow are often significantly higher than in the outskirts and nearby suburbs, especially in winter. For example, if the average February temperature in the north-east of Moscow is −6.7 °C (19.9 °F), in the suburbs it's about −9 °C (16 °F). The temperature difference between the centre of Moscow and nearby areas of Moscow Oblast can sometimes be more than 10 °C (18 °F) on frosty winter nights.

CLIMATE DATA FOR MOSCOW (VVC ) NORMALS 1981–2010, RECORDS 1879 – THE PRESENT

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 8.6 (47.5) 8.3 (46.9) 19.7 (67.5) 28.9 (84) 33.2 (91.8) 34.9 (94.8) 38.2 (100.8) 37.3 (99.1) 32.3 (90.1) 24.0 (75.2) 16.2 (61.2) 9.6 (49.3) 38.2 (100.8)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) −4 (25) −3.7 (25.3) 2.6 (36.7) 11.3 (52.3) 18.6 (65.5) 22.0 (71.6) 24.3 (75.7) 21.9 (71.4) 15.7 (60.3) 8.7 (47.7) 0.9 (33.6) −3 (27) 9.6 (49.3)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −6.5 (20.3) −6.7 (19.9) −1 (30) 6.7 (44.1) 13.2 (55.8) 17.0 (62.6) 19.2 (66.6) 17.0 (62.6) 11.3 (52.3) 5.6 (42.1) −1.2 (29.8) −5.2 (22.6) 5.8 (42.4)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −9.1 (15.6) −9.8 (14.4) −4.4 (24.1) 2.2 (36) 7.7 (45.9) 12.1 (53.8) 14.4 (57.9) 12.5 (54.5) 7.4 (45.3) 2.7 (36.9) −3.3 (26.1) −7.6 (18.3) 2.1 (35.8)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −42.1 (−43.8) −38.2 (−36.8) −32.4 (−26.3) −21 (−6) −7.5 (18.5) −2.3 (27.9) 1.3 (34.3) −1.2 (29.8) −8.5 (16.7) −16.1 (3) −32.8 (−27) −38.8 (−37.8) −42.1 (−43.8)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 52 (2.05) 41 (1.61) 35 (1.38) 37 (1.46) 49 (1.93) 80 (3.15) 85 (3.35) 82 (3.23) 68 (2.68) 71 (2.8) 55 (2.17) 52 (2.05) 707 (27.86)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 0.8 0.7 3 9 13 14 15 15 15 12 6 2 105.5

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS 18 15 9 1 0.1 0 0 0 0.1 2 10 17 72.2

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 83 80 74 67 64 70 74 77 81 81 84 85 76.7

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 33 72 128 170 265 279 271 238 147 78 32 18 1,731

PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 14 27 35 40 53 53 52 51 38 24 13 8 34

Source:

Climate Changes

Below is the 1961–1990 normals table. The annual temperature rose from 5.0 °C (41.0 °F) to 5.8 °C (42.4 °F) in the new 1981–2010 normals. In 2015, the average annual temperature reached a record of 7.5 °C (45.5 °F)

CLIMATE DATA FOR MOSCOW (VVC ) NORMALS 1961–1990

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) −6.3 (20.7) −4.2 (24.4) 1.5 (34.7) 10.4 (50.7) 18.4 (65.1) 21.7 (71.1) 23.1 (73.6) 21.5 (70.7) 15.4 (59.7) 8.2 (46.8) 1.1 (34) −3.5 (25.7) 8.9 (48)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −7.5 (18.5) −6.4 (20.5) −1.8 (28.8) 5.8 (42.4) 13.1 (55.6) 16.6 (61.9) 20.0 (68) 18.8 (65.8) 14.7 (58.5) 8.9 (48) 2.0 (35.6) −4.4 (24.1) 6.4 (43.5)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −12.3 (9.9) −11.1 (12) −5.6 (21.9) 1.7 (35.1) 7.6 (45.7) 11.5 (52.7) 13.5 (56.3) 12.0 (53.6) 7.1 (44.8) 2.0 (35.6) −3.3 (26.1) −8.6 (16.5) 1.2 (34.2)

Source:

Moscow, being in the mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere, is a place with the most expressed signs of global warming . Thus the climate becomes less stable, but the average yearly temperature is growing. So, the period from July until the beginning of August has become considerably warmer. During these time periods of extreme heat are often observed in the city (2001, 2002, 2003, 2010 , 2011). With a southern part of Central Russia , after few last years hot summer seasons, climate of city gets dfa trends. Winter also became significantly milder: for example, the average January temperature in the early 1900s was −12.0 °C (10.4 °F), while now it is about −7.0 °C (19.4 °F). At the end of January–February it is often colder, with frosts reaching −30.0 °C (−22.0 °F) a few nights per year (2006, 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013). The last decade was the warmest in the history of meteorological observations of Moscow. Temperature changes in the city are depicted in the table below:

CLIMATE DATA FOR MOSCOW (LAST DECADE, SEPTEMBER 2006 – AUGUST 2016, VVC )

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) −5.5 (22.1) −3.5 (25.7) 3.2 (37.8) 11.6 (52.9) 20.1 (68.2) 22.7 (72.9) 25.8 (78.4) 23.7 (74.7) 16.5 (61.7) 8.6 (47.5) 2.6 (36.7) −1.7 (28.9) 10.4 (50.7)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −7.4 (18.7) −5.8 (21.6) −0.1 (31.8) 7.1 (44.8) 14.7 (58.5) 17.7 (63.9) 20.6 (69.1) 18.8 (65.8) 12.6 (54.7) 6.1 (43) 1.1 (34) −3.6 (25.5) 6.9 (44.4)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −9.2 (15.4) −8.1 (17.4) −3.5 (25.7) 2.5 (36.5) 9.4 (48.9) 12.6 (54.7) 15.4 (59.7) 13.9 (57) 8.7 (47.7) 3.7 (38.7) −0.3 (31.5) −4.6 (23.7) 3.4 (38.1)

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 37 65 142 213 274 299 323 242 171 88 33 14 1,901

Source: weatheronline.co.uk

WIND DIRECTION IN MOSCOW FROM 2002 TO 2012 (AVERAGE VALUES)

North Northeast East South East Southern Southwest West Northwest

15% 6,8% 7,8% 12,2% 12,6% 14,6% 16,4% 14,5%

_Source: world-weather.ru_

DEMOGRAPHICS

POPULATION

See also: Ethnic groups in Moscow

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1897 1,038,625 —

1926 2,019,500 +94.4%

1939 4,137,000 +104.9%

1959 5,032,000 +21.6%

1970 6,941,961 +38.0%

1979 7,830,509 +12.8%

1989 8,967,332 +14.5%

2002 10,382,754 +15.8%

2010 11,503,501 +10.8%

2013 11,794,282 +2.5%

2015 12,197,596 +3.4%

Population size may be affected by changes in administrative divisions.

According to the results of the 2010 Census, the population of Moscow was 11,503,501; up from 10,382,754 recorded in the 2002 Census .

At the time of the official 2010 Census, the ethnic makeup of the city's population whose ethnicity was known (10,835,092 people) was:

* Russian: 9,930,410 (91.65%) * Ukrainian: 154,104 (1.42%) * Tatar: 149,043 (1.38%) * Armenian: 106,466 (0.98%) * Azeri: 57,123 (0.5%) * Belarusian: 39,225 (0.4%) * Georgian: 38,934 (0.4%) * Uzbek: 35,595 (0.3%) * Tajik: 27,280 (0.2%) * Moldovan: 21,699 (0.2%) * Mordvin: 17,095 (0.2%) * Chechen: 14,524 (0.1%) * Chuvash: 14,313 (0.1%) * Ossetian: 11,311 (0.1%) * Others: 164,825 (1.6%) * 668,409 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.

The official population of Moscow is based on those holding "permanent residency ." According to Russia's Federal Migration Service, Moscow holds 1.8 million official "guests" who have temporary residency on the basis of visas or other documentation, giving a legal population of 13.3 million. The number of undocumented migrants , the vast majority originating from Central Asia , is estimated to be an additional 1 million people, giving a total population of about 14.3 million.

Total fertility rate:

* 2009 – 1.22 * 2010 – 1.25 * 2011 – 1.25 * 2012 – 1.32 * 2013 – 1.33 * 2014 – 1.34 * 2015 – 1.41

* 2016 – 1.44

* Births (2016): 145 252 (11.8 per 1000) * Deaths (2016): 123 623 (10.0 per 1000)

RELIGION

Cathedral of Christ the Saviour , demolished during the Soviet period, was reconstructed during 1990–2000 A preserved part of the original Christ the Saviour Cathedral

Christianity is the predominant religion in the city, of which the Russian Orthodox Church is the most popular. Moscow is Russia's capital of Eastern Orthodox Christianity , which has been the country’s traditional religion and was deemed a part of Russia's "historical heritage" in a law passed in 1997. Other religions practiced in Moscow include Armenian Apostolicism , Buddhism , Hinduism , Catholicism , Islam , Judaism , Yazidism , Old Believers , Protestantism , and Rodnovery .

The Patriarch of Moscow serves as the head of the church and resides in the Danilov Monastery . Moscow was called the "city of 40 times 40 churches"—_"город сорока сороков церквей"_—prior to 1917. In 1918 the Bolshevik government declared Russia a secular state , which in practice meant that religion was repressed and society was to become atheistic. During the period of 1920-1930s a great number of churches in Moscow were demolished , including historical Chudov Monastery in the Kremlin, dating from the 14th century, Kazansky Cathedral on the Red Square, the Cathedral of Christ the Savior , constructed in the 19th century in memory of a victory over Napoleon's army in 1812, and many more. This continued even after the Second World War, in 1940-1970s, when persecutions against religion in the Soviet Union became less severe. Most of the surviving churches and monasteries were closed and then used as clubs, offices, factories or even warehouses. Since the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 many of the destroyed churches have been restored and traditional religions are once again gaining popularity. Among the churches reconstructed in the 1990s is an impressive new Cathedral of Christ the Savior which once more has become a landmark. It was built on the site of the old demolished cathedral, where there had been a huge open swimming-pool until 1994.

The Moscow mufti council claimed that Muslims numbered around 1.5 million of 10.5 millions of the city's population in 2010. There are four mosques in the city.

Moscow Cathedral Mosque has been built at the site of the former one. It was officially inaugurated on September 23, 2015. The new mosque has the capacity of ten thousand worshippers. President of Russia Vladimir Putin , President of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan , President of the State of Palestine Mahmoud Abbas and local Muslim leaders participated in the inauguration ceremony of this mosque.

Religious Statistics

Religions and beliefs in Moscow (2012) RELIGION OR BELIEF %

Russian Orthodox Church 55

Russian Old Believers 1

Orthodox Christianity, but do not adhere to the Russian Orthodox Church and Russian Old Believers 2

Christianity, but do not adhere to any church 3

Roman Catholics

Central Bank of Russia *

Sberbank *

Moscow Exchange *

Gazprom *

Lukoil *

Rosneft

LIVING COSTS

Triumph Palace , tallest apartment building in Europe.

During Soviet times, apartments were lent to people by the government according to the square meters-per-person norm (some groups, including people's artists, heroes and prominent scientists had bonuses according to their honors). Private ownership of apartments was limited until the 1990s, when people were permitted to secure property rights to the places they inhabited. Since the Soviet era, estate owners have had to pay the service charge for their residences, a fixed amount based on persons per living area.

The price of real estate in Moscow continues to rise. Today, one could expect to pay $4000 on average per square meter (11 sq ft) on the outskirts of the city or US$6,500–$8,000 per square meter in a prestigious district. The price sometimes may exceed US$40,000 per square meter in a flat. It costs about US$1200 per month to rent a 1-bedroom apartment and about US$1000 per month for a studio in the center of Moscow.

A typical one-bedroom apartment is about thirty square metres (320 square feet ), a typical two-bedroom apartment is forty-five square metres (480 square feet), and a typical three-bedroom apartment is seventy square metres (750 square feet). Many cannot move out of their apartments, especially if a family lives in a two-room apartment originally granted by the state during the Soviet era. Some city residents have attempted to cope with the cost of living by renting their apartments while staying in dachas (country houses) outside the city.

In 2006, Mercer Human Resources Consulting named Moscow the world's most expensive city for expatriate employees , ahead of perennial winner Tokyo, due to the stable Russian ruble as well as increasing housing prices within the city. Moscow also ranked first in the 2007 edition and 2008 edition of the survey. However, Tokyo has overtaken Moscow as the most expensive city in the world, placing Moscow at third and behind Osaka at second. Critics of their methodology argue that this survey replicates the lifestyle that a senior executive would have in Washington DC, counting certain very expensive brand name foreign goods, but disregarding the many lines that are far cheaper in Russia, e.g. household staff, drivers, nannies, etc.

In 2008, Moscow ranked top on the list of most expensive cities for the third year in a row.

In 2014, according to Forbes, Moscow ranked the 9th most expensive city in the world. Forbes ranked Moscow the 2nd most expensive city the year prior.

SCIENCE AND EDUCATION

Further information: Education in Russia Russian Academy of Sciences

There are 1696 high schools in Moscow, as well as 91 colleges. Besides these, there are 222 institutions of higher education, including 60 state universities and the Lomonosov Moscow State University , which was founded in 1755. The main university building located in Vorobyovy Gory ( Sparrow Hills ) is 240 metres (790 ft) tall and when completed, was the tallest building on the continent. The university has over 30,000 undergraduate and 7,000 postgraduate students, who have a choice of twenty-nine faculties and 450 departments for study. Additionally, approximately 10,000 high school students take courses at the university, while over two thousand researchers work. The Moscow State University library contains over nine million books, making it one of the largest libraries in all of Russia. Its acclaim throughout the international academic community has meant that over 11,000 international students have graduated from the university, with many coming to Moscow to learn the Russian language .

The I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University named after Ivan Sechenov or formerly known as Moscow Medical Academy (1stMSMU ) is a medical university situated in Moscow, Russia. It was founded in 1785 as the faculty of the Moscow state University. It is a Russian Federal Agency for Health and Social Development. It is one of the largest medical universities in Russia and Europe. More than 9200 students are enrolled in 115 academic departments. It offers courses for post-graduate studies. Moscow State University

Moscow is one of the financial centers of the Russian Federation and CIS countries and is known for its business schools. Among them are the Finance Academy under the Government of RF ; Plekhanov Russian University of Economics ; The State University of Management , and the State University - Higher School of Economics . They offer undergraduate degrees in management, finance, accounting, marketing, real estate and economic theory, as well as Masters programs and MBAs .Most of them have branches in other regions of Russia and countries around the world. Entrance to the Moscow Conservatory

Bauman Moscow State Technical University , founded in 1830, is located in the center of Moscow and provides 18,000 undergraduate and 1,000 postgraduate students with an education in science and engineering, offering technical degrees. Since it opened enrollment to students from outside of Russia in 1991, Bauman Moscow State Technical University has increased its number of international students up to two hundred.

The Moscow Conservatory , founded in 1866 is a prominent music school in Russia, whose graduates include Sergey Rachmaninoff , Alexander Scriabin , Aram Khachaturian , Mstislav Rostropovich , and Alfred Schnittke .

The Gerasimov All-Russian State Institute of Cinematography , abbreviated as VGIK, is the world's oldest educational institution in Cinematography , founded by Vladimir Gardin in 1919. Sergei Eisenstein , Vsevolod Pudovkin , and Aleksey Batalov were among its most distinguished professors and Mikhail Vartanov , Sergei Parajanov , Andrei Tarkovsky , Nikita Mikhalkov , Eldar Ryazanov , Alexander Sokurov , Yuriy Norshteyn , Aleksandr Petrov , Vasily Shukshin , Konrad Wolf among graduates. Bauman Moscow State Technical University Gerasimov Institute of Cinematography

Moscow State Institute of International Relations , founded in 1944, remains Russia's best- known school of international relations and diplomacy, with six schools focused on international relations. Approximately 4,500 students make up the university's student body and over 700,000 Russian and foreign-language books — of which 20,000 are considered rare — can be found in the library of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations.

Other institutions are the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology , also known as Phystech , the Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Complex , founded in 1988 by Russian eye surgeon Svyatoslav Fyodorov , the Moscow Aviation Institute , the Moscow Motorway Institute (State Technical University), and the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute . Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology has taught numerous Nobel Prize winners, including Pyotr Kapitsa , Nikolay Semyonov , Lev Landau and Alexander Prokhorov , while the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute is known for its research in nuclear physics . The highest Russian military school is the Combined Arms Academy of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation .

Although Moscow has a number of famous Soviet-era higher educational institutions, most of which are more oriented towards engineering or the fundamental sciences, in recent years Moscow has seen a growth in the number of commercial and private institutions that offer classes in business and management . Many state institutions have expanded their education scope and introduced new courses or departments. Institutions in Moscow, as well as the rest of post-Soviet Russia, have begun to offer new international certificates and postgraduate degrees, including the Master of Business Administration . Student exchange programs with different (especially, European ) countries have also become widespread in Moscow's universities, while schools within the Russian capital also offer seminars, lectures and courses for corporate employees and businessmen.

Moscow is one of the largest science centers in Russia. The headquarters of the Russian Academy of Sciences are located in Moscow as well as research and applied science institutions. The Kurchatov Institute , Russia's leading research and development institution in the fields of nuclear energy, where the first nuclear reactor in Europe was built, the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics , Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics , Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems and Steklov Institute of Mathematics are all situated in Moscow.

There are 452 libraries in the city, including 168 for children. The Russian State Library , founded in 1862 is the national library of Russia. The library is home to over 275 km (171 mi) of shelves and 42 million items, including over 17 million books and serial volumes, 13 million journals, 350,000 music scores and sound records, and 150,000 maps, making it the largest library in Russia and one of the largest in the world. Items in 247 languages comprise 29% of the collection.

The State Public Historical Library, founded in 1863, is the largest library specialising in Russian history . Its collection contains four million items in 112 languages (including 47 languages of the former USSR), mostly on Russian and world history, heraldry , numismatics , and the history of science .

In regards to primary and secondary education, Clifford J. Levy of _ The New York Times _ said " Moscow has some strong public schools, but the system as a whole is dispiriting, in part because it is being corroded by the corruption that is a post-Soviet scourge. Parents often pay bribes to get their children admitted to better public schools. There are additional payoffs for good grades." View of the Moskva River . Left: Bogdan Khmelnitsky Bridge . Centre: Square of Europe and Kiyevsky Rail Terminal with Moskva City behind. Right: Borodinsky Bridge with the offices of the Government of the Russian Federation behind.

TRANSPORTATION

Main article: Transportation in Moscow

AIR

Sheremetyevo International Airport Domodedovo International Airport Vnukovo International Airport

There are five primary commercial airports serving Moscow:

* Sheremetyevo International Airport (SVO) * Domodedovo International Airport (DME) * Vnukovo International Airport (VKO) * Zhukovsky International Airport (ZIA) * Ostafyevo International Airport (OSF)

Sheremetyevo International Airport is the most common entry point for foreign visitors, handling 60% of all international flights. It is also a home to all SkyTeam members, and the main hub for Aeroflot . (itself a member of SkyTeam.) Domodedovo International Airport is the leading airport in Russia in terms of passenger throughput, and is the primary gateway to long-haul domestic and CIS destinations and its international traffic rivals Sheremetyevo. Most of Star Alliance members use Domodedovo as their international hub. Vnukovo International Airport handles flights of Turkish Airlines , Lufthansa , Wizz Air and others. Ostafyevo International Airport caters primarily to business aviation.

Moscow's airports vary in distances from the MKAD beltway: Domodedovo is the farthest at 22 km (14 mi); Vnukovo is 11 km (7 mi); Sheremetyevo is 10 km (6 mi); and Ostafievo, the nearest, is about 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from MKAD.

There are a number of smaller airports close to Moscow (19 in Moscow Oblast) such as Myachkovo Airport , that are intended for private aircraft, helicopters and charters.

WATER

North River Terminal

Moscow has two passenger terminals, ( South River Terminal and North River Terminal or Rechnoy vokzal), on the river and regular ship routes and cruises along the Moskva and Oka rivers, which are used mostly for entertainment. The North River Terminal , built in 1937, is the main hub for long-range river routes. There are three freight ports serving Moscow.

RAILWAY

Leningradsky Rail Terminal Kazansky Rail Terminal Paveletskaya railway station

Train stations to serve the city. Moscow's nine rail terminals (or _vokzals_) are:

* Belorussky Rail Terminal * Kazansky Rail Terminal * Kiyevsky Rail Terminal * Kursky Rail Terminal * Leningradsky Rail Terminal * Paveletsky Rail Terminal * Rizhsky Rail Terminal * Savyolovsky Rail Terminal * Yaroslavsky Rail Terminal

The terminals are located close to the city center, along the metro ringline 5 or close to it, and connect to a metroline to the centre of town. Each station handles trains from different parts of Europe and Asia. There are many smaller railway stations in Moscow. As train tickets are cheap, they are the preferred mode of travelling for Russians, especially when departing to Saint Petersburg, Russia's second-largest city. Moscow is the western terminus of the Trans-Siberian Railway , which traverses nearly 9,300 kilometres (5,800 mi) of Russian territory to Vladivostok on the Pacific coast.

Suburbs and satellite cities are connected by commuter elektrichka (electric rail) network. Elektrichkas depart from each of these terminals to the nearby (up to 140 km or 87 mi) large railway stations.

During the 2010s, the Moscow (Little) Ring Railway was converted to be used for frequent passenger service; it is fully integrated with Moscow Metro; the passenger service started on September 10, 2016. There is a connecting railway line on the North side of the town which connects Belorussky terminal with other railway lines. This is used by some suburban trains.

The Greater Ring of the Moscow Railway forms a ring around the main part of Moscow.

METRO

Main article: Moscow Metro Moscow Metro route map, 2017, with planned stations

Moscow metro system is famous for its art, murals , mosaics , and ornate chandeliers . It started operation in 1935 and immediately became the centrepiece of the transportation system. More than that it was a Stalinist device to awe and reward the populace, and give them an appreciation of Soviet realist art. It became the prototype for future Soviet large-scale technologies. Lazar Kaganovich was in charge; he designed the subway so that citizens would absorb the values and ethos of Stalinist civilisation as they rode. The artwork of the 13 original stations became nationally and internationally famous. For example, the Sverdlov Square subway station featured porcelain bas-reliefs depicting the daily life of the Soviet peoples, and the bas-reliefs at the Dynamo Stadium sports complex glorified sports and the physical prowess of the powerful new "Homo Sovieticus." (Soviet man). The metro was touted as the symbol of the new social order—a sort of Communist cathedral of engineering modernity. Soviet workers did the labour and the art work, but the main engineering designs, routes, and construction plans were handled by specialists recruited from the London Underground. The Britons called for tunnelling instead of the "cut-and-cover" technique, the use of escalators instead of lifts, and designed the routes and the rolling stock. The paranoia of Stalin and the NKVD was evident when the secret police arrested numerous British engineers for espionage—that is for gaining an in-depth knowledge of the city's physical layout. Engineers for the Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Company were given a show trial and deported in 1933, ending the role of British business in the USSR.

Today, the Moscow Metro comprises twelve lines, mostly underground with a total of 203 stations. The Metro is one of the deepest subway systems in the world; for instance the Park Pobedy station, completed in 2003, at 84 metres (276 ft) underground, has the longest escalators in Europe. The Moscow Metro is one of the world\'s busiest metro systems, serving about ten million passengers daily. (300,000,000 people every month) Facing serious transportation problems, Moscow has plans for expanding its Metro. In 2016, the authorities launched a new circle metro railway that contributed to solving transportation issues.

*

Arbatskaya *

Kiyevskaya *

Komsomolskaya *

Mayakovskaya station *

Novokuznetskaya station *

Novoslobodskaya

MOSCOW CENTRAL CIRCLE

Main article: Moscow Central Circle

Moscow Central Circle is a 54-kilometre-long (34 mi) urban-metro railway orbital line that encircles historical Moscow.

It was built alongside of Little Ring of the Moscow Railways , taking some of its tracks into itself as well.

The MCC opened for passenger use on 10 September 2016.

The line is operated by the Moscow Government owned company MKZD through the Moscow Metro , with the Federal Government owned Russian Railways selected as the operation subcontractor. The track infrastructure and most platforms are owned by Russian Railways, while most station buildings are owned by MKZD.

BUS AND TROLLEYBUS

As Metro stations outside the city center are far apart in comparison to other cities, up to 4 kilometres (2.5 mi), a bus network radiates from each station to the surrounding residential zones. Moscow has a bus terminal for long-range and intercity passenger buses (Central Bus Terminal ) with daily turnover of about 25 thousand passengers serving about 40% of long-range bus routes in Moscow.

Every major street in the city is served by at least one bus route. Many of these routes are doubled by a trolleybus route and have trolley wires over them.

With the total line length of almost 600 kilometres (370 miles) of single wire, 8 depots, 104 routes and 1740 vehicles, the Moscow trolleybus system is the largest in the world . Opened on November 15, 1933 it is also the world's 6th oldest operating trolleybus system.

* * * *

MONORAIL

Main article: Moscow Monorail

The Moscow Metro operates a short monorail line . The line connects Timiryazevskaya metro station and Ulitsa Sergeya Eisensteina , passing close to VVTs . The line opened in 2004. No additional fare is needed (first metro-monorail transfer in 90 minutes does not charge).

* * * *

TRAM

_ Moscow Tram Network

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Moscow has an extensive tram system, which first opened in 1899. The newest line was built in 1984. Its daily usage by Muscovites is low, making up for approximately 5% of trips, because many vital connections in the network have been withdrawn. Trams still remain important in some districts as feeders to Metro stations. The trams also provide important cross links between metro lines, for example between Universitet station of Sokolnicheskaya Line (#1 red line) and Profsoyuznaya station of Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line (#6 orange line) or between Voykovskaya and Strogino .

There are three tram networks in the city:

* Krasnopresnenskoye depot network with the westernmost point at Strogino (depot location) and the easternmost point near platform Dmitrovskaya. This network became separated in 1973, but until 1997 it could easily have been reconnected by about one kilometre (0.62 miles) of track and three switches. The network has the highest usage in Moscow and no weak points based on turnover except to-depot lane (passengers serviced by bus) and tram ring at Dmitrovskaya (because now it is neither a normal transfer point nor a repair terminal). * The Apakov depot services the south-western part from the Varshavsky lane – Simferopolsky boulevard in the east to the Universitet station in the west and Boulevard lane at the center. This network is connected only by the four-way Dubininskaya and Kozhevnicheskaya streets. A second connection by Vostochnaya (Eastern) street was withdrawn in 1987 due to fire at Dinamo plant and has not been recovered, and remains lost (Avtozavodsky bridge) at 1992. The network may be serviced anyway by another depot (now route 35, 38). * Main three depot networks with railway gate and tram-repair plant.

In addition, tram advocates have suggested that the new rapid transit services (metro to City, Butovo light metro, Monorail) would be more effective as at-grade tram lines and that the current problems with trams are only due to poor management and operation, not the technical properties of trams. New tram models have been developed for the Moscow network despite the lack of expansion.

*

*

KTM-19K *

Tatra T3 *

VarioLF *

KTM 71-630

TAXI

Taxi service market in Moscow has changed dramatically over the years 2014–2015. New technology and service platforms Yandex.Taxi, Uber and Gett (ex-GetTaxi) displaced many private drivers and small service providers. By the beginning of 2015 newcomers were servicing more than 50% of all taxi orders in Moscow and are still rapidly growing. A taxi can be called using a smartphone, tablet or PC in 5–15 minutes. Commercial taxi services are available. In addition, route taxis are in widespread use.

ROADS

Traffic congestion

There are over 2.6 million cars in the city daily. Recent years have seen the growth in the number of cars, which have caused traffic jams and lack of parking space to become major problems.

The MKAD , along with the Third Transport Ring and the future Fourth Transport Ring, is one of only three freeways that run within Moscow city limits. There are several other roadway systems that form concentric circles around the city.

FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

Moscow International Business Center

The Moscow International Business Center is a projected new part of central Moscow. Situated in Presnensky District , located at the Third Ring , the Moscow City area is under intense development. The goal of MIBC is to create a zone, the first in Russia, and in all of Eastern Europe, that will combine business activity, living space and entertainment. The project was conceived by the Moscow government in 1992.

The construction of Moscow-City takes place on the Krasnopresnenskaya embankment. The whole project takes up to one square kilometre (250 acres). The area is the only spot in downtown Moscow that can accommodate a project of this magnitude. Today, most of the buildings there are old factories and industrial complexes.

The Federation Tower , completed in 2016, is the tallest building in Europe. Also to be included in the project are a water park and other recreational facilities; business and entertainment complexes, office and residential buildings, the transport network and the new site of the Moscow government . The construction of four new metro stations in the territory has been completed, two of which have opened and two others are reserved for future metro lines crossing MIBC , some additional stations were planned. A rail shuttle service, directly connecting MIBC with the Sheremetyevo International Airport is also planned. Major thoroughfares through Moscow-City are the Third Ring and Kutuzovsky Prospekt . Three metro stations were initially planned for the Filyovskaya Line . The station Delovoi Tsentr opened in 2005, and was later renamed Vystavochnaya in 2009. The branch extended to the Mezhdunarodnaya station in 2006, and all work on third station, Dorogomilovskaya (between Kiyevskaya and Delovoi Tsentr), has been postponed. There are plans to extend the branch as far as the Savyolovskaya station, on the Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya Line .

A Fourth Ring freeway (in addition to Moscow Automobile Ring Road, Garden Ring and the Third Ring) has been designed and is being built around Moscow. It is to be completed by 2012 and will have a total length of 61 kilometres (38 mi).

A rail connection linking the international airports at Vnukovo and Sheremetyevo with downtown terminals is also planned.

In March 2009 the Russian business newspaper _Kommersant_ reported that because of the worldwide economic crisis, which started in 2008 and spread globally, many of the construction projects in Moscow (especially in the Moscow International Business Center ) are frozen and may be cancelled altogether—like the ambitious "Russia Tower" in "Moscow-city".

* Skyscrapers in Moscow International Business Center

*

OKO *

IQ-quarter *

Eurasia *

Mercury City Tower *

Federation Tower *

Naberezhnaya Tower *

City of Capitals *

Imperia Tower *

Evolution Tower

MEDIA

See also: Media of Russia RIA Novosti headquarters in Moscow

Moscow is home to nearly all of Russia's nationwide television networks , radio stations , newspapers and magazines.

NEWSPAPERS

Further information: List of newspapers in Russia

English-language media include _ The Moscow Times _ and _ Moscow News _, which are, respectively, the largest and oldest English-language weekly newspapers in all of Russia. _ Kommersant _, _ Vedomosti _ and _ Novaya Gazeta _ are Russian-language media headquartered in Moscow. _Kommersant_ and _Vedomosti_ are among the country's leading and oldest Russian-language business newspapers.

TV AND RADIO

See also: Television in Russia and Radio in Russia Ostankino Technical Center View from Imperia Tower to Ostankino Tower

Other media in Moscow include the _ Echo of Moscow _, the first Soviet and Russian private news radio and information agency, and NTV , one of the first privately owned Russian television stations. The total number of radio stations in Moscow in the FM band is near 50.

MOSCOW TELEVISION NETWORKS:

* Channel One * Russia-1 * Russia-2 * NTV * TV Tsentr * Channel 5 * Rossiya Kultura * Russia-24

* Public Television of Russia * REN TV * STS * TNT * TV-3 * Zvezda * Domashny * Carousel

* Peretz * Euronews * 2x2 * Pyatnica! * Disney Channel * RBC * Moskva 24 * Dozhd

* RU.TV * Petersburg – Channel 5

MOSCOW RADIO STATIONS:

* "Russian (Russkoye) Radio" * " Europa Plus " * "DFM" * "NRJ (Russia)" * " Radio Maximum " * "Voice of Russia (in English)" * "Radio Freedom (Svoboda)" * "Megapolis FM" * "Radio Kultura (Culture)" * "Pioneer FM" * "Zvezda" * "Komsomolskaya Pravda" * "Orpheus" * "Monte Carlo" * "Love Radio"

* "Govorit Moskva" * "Radio Dacha" * " Nashe Radio " * "Radio 7" * "Humor FM" * "Retro FM" * "Ultra" * "Keks FM" * "Carnival" * "Dobrye Pesni (Good Songs)" * "Voyage FM" * "Kino FM" * "Finam FM" * "First Popular" * "Politseiskaya Volna (Police Wave)"

* "Radio Sport" * " Radio Rossii " * "Radio Podmoskovye" * "Radiocompany Moscow" * "UFM" * "Mayak" * "Business FM" * "Autoradio" * "Moya Semia (My Family)" * "XFM" * "Fresh Radio" * "Silver Rain" * "Chanson" * " M-Radio " * "Orphey"

* " Echo of Moscow " * "Radio Jazz" * "Classic Radio" * "Vesti FM" * "City FM" * "Relax FM" * " Kommersant FM" * "Rock FM" * "Children's Radio" * "Radio Alla" * "Best FM" * "Next FM" * "Hit FM" * "Radio Record"

FAMOUS PEOPLE

Further information: Category:People from Moscow Main article: List of people from Moscow Alexander Pushkin , the founder of modern Russian literature Fyodor Dostoyevsky was born in Moscow in 1821 Alexander Suvorov was born in Moscow in 1730

Some of the notable people are Boris Pasternak and Fyodor Dostoyevsky (writers), and Sergey Brin , (co-founder of Google).

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

_ This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2015)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia

TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES

_ This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2015)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

LIST OF TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES OF MOSCOW

* _ Algiers , Algeria * _ Almaty , Kazakhstan * Amman , Jordan * _ Ankara , Turkey (1992) * Astana , Kazakhstan * _ Baku , Azerbaijan * _ Bangkok , Thailand (1997) * Banja Luka , Bosnia and Herzegovina * Beijing , China * Beirut , Lebanon * _ Berlin , Germany * Bratislava , Slovakia * _ Brest , Belarus * _ Bucharest , Romania * _ Buenos Aires, Argentina (1990) * Cairo , Egypt * _ Chicago , United States (1997) * Cusco , Peru * _ Donetsk , Ukraine * _ Dubai , United Arab Emirates * Düsseldorf , Germany * Ensenada , Mexico * _ Ganja , Azerbaijan

* Hanoi , Vietnam * _ Havana , Cuba * _ Helsinki , Finland * _ Ho Chi Minh City , Vietnam * Ingolstadt , Germany * _ Jakarta , Indonesia * _ Jelgava , Latvia * _ Kharkiv , Ukraine * _ Kolomna , Russia * _ Kraków , Poland * _ La Paz , Bolivia * _ Limoges , France * _ Ljubljana , Slovenia * London , United Kingdom * _ Madrid , Spain * _ Manila , Philippines * Mumbai , India * _ Naryan-Mar , Russia * _ New Dehli , India * Nicosia , Cyprus * _ Pazardzhik , Bulgaria * _ Podgorica , Montenegro * _ Prague , Czech Republic * Pyongyang , North Korea

* _ Ramallah , Palestine * _ Rostov-on-Don , Russia * _ Rasht , Iran * _ Reykjavík , Iceland * Reynosa , Mexico * _ Riga , Latvia * _ São Paulo , Brazil * _ Santiago , Chile * _ Seoul , South Korea * Slavonski Brod , Croatia * _ Sofia , Bulgaria * _ Tallinn , Estonia * _ Tel Aviv , Israel * _ Tehran , Iran * _ Tirana , Albania * Tokyo , Japan * Tunis , Tunisia * Ulaanbaatar , Mongolia * _ Uzhhorod , Ukraine * _ Valenciennes , France * _ Vilnius , Lithuania * _ Warsaw , Poland * Yerevan , Armenia * Zagreb , Croatia

COOPERATION AGREEMENTS

Moscow has cooperation agreements with:

* Lisbon , Portugal * Tehran , Iran * Amsterdam , The Netherlands

FORMER TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES

* Kiev , Ukraine

RANKINGS

The international rankings of Moscow are:

* The most populous city in Russia, and the most populous city entirely in Europe * The most populated inland city in Europe * World's northernmost megacity * City with the largest trolleybus system in the world * Major city with the most forest within its borders * City with the busiest subway system in Europe, and the third busiest worldwide * City with the highest building in Europe ( Mercury Tower ) * City with the highest structure in Europe ( Ostankino Tower )

SEE ALSO

* Russia portal * Moscow portal

* 1904 Moscow tornado * List of churches in Moscow * List of cities proper by population * List of Moscow tourist attractions * List of museums in Moscow * List of shopping malls in Moscow * Mayor of Moscow * Moscow metropolitan area * Moscow Millionaire Fair * Moscow, East Ayrshire * Pokrovsky Hills

REFERENCES

NOTES

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Retrieved July 3, 2006. * ^ "Holidays and significant dates of Moscow". _ Moscow City Government_. Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ "The Moscow City Mayor". Government of Moscow. Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. Retrieved March 18, 2010. * ^ "The Moscow Statute". _ Moscow City Duma_. Moscow City Government. June 28, 1995. Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2010. The supreme and exclusive legislative (representative) body of the state power in Moscow is the Moscow City Duma. * ^ 03.08.2011 "О совместных предложениях Правительства Москвы и Правительства Московской области по изменению границ столицы Российской Федерации — города Москвы" Check url= value (help ). Mos.ru. October 25, 2010. Retrieved July 9, 2014. * ^ Rosstat . (in Russian) * ^ "Major Agglomerations of the World – Population Statistics and Maps". _citypopulation.de_. * ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation . Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 _On Calculating Time_, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 _On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time"_. Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.). * ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia . * ^ Geromel, Ricardo. " Forbes Top 10 Billionaire Cities – Moscow Beats New York Again". Retrieved August 24, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ . "Expansion of Moscow borders to help it develop harmonically: mayor, Itar-tass, July 1, 2012". Itar-tass.com. 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"Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" . _Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All- Russia Population Census)_ (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service . Retrieved June 29, 2012. * ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" (XLS). _Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года _ (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. * ^ "Перепись-2010: русских становится больше". Perepis-2010.ru. December 19, 2011. Retrieved February 10, 2012. * ^ ""Российская газета" о мигрантах в Москве". Rg.ru. Retrieved December 22, 2010. * ^ "Каталог публикаций::Федеральная служба государственной статистики". Gks.ru. May 8, 2010. Retrieved July 9, 2014. * ^ Bell, Imogen (2003). _Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia_. 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* ^ http://mrd.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_ts/mrd/ru/statistics/grp/ * ^ https://www.statista.com/statistics/412824/euro-to-ruble-average-annual-exchange-rate/ * ^ https://www.brookings.edu/research/global-metro-monitor/ * ^ 0 border:inherit; padding:inherit;">url= value (help ). IMF Russia Economy. March 11, 2010. Retrieved March 11, 2010. * ^ "Gross regional product per capita in regions of the Russian Federation in 1998 to 2013". Retrieved 15 February 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ "BOFIT Weekly 42/2010" (PDF). Bank of Finland's Institute for Economies in Transition. October 22, 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 27, 2010. * ^ "Average monthly salaries". Federal Service on State Statistics. Archived from the original on August 24, 2007. Retrieved September 7, 2007. * ^ Aleksandrov, Yuri (December 11, 2005). Новые лимитчики (IN RUSSIAN). NEW TIMES. ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON NOVEMBER 6, 2007. RETRIEVED JULY 7, 2006. * ^ "Russia\'s billionaires hit by financial crisis". www.financemarkets.co.uk. Archived from the original on April 20, 2013. Retrieved May 22, 2009. * ^ "Mexico\'s Carlos Slim still tops Forbes\' richest list". March 9, 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-11-11. * ^ "The Official Site of the Moscow Cristall distillery". Eng.kristall.ru. Retrieved June 11, 2012. * ^ See also: (in Russian) The Official Site of the Moscow Interrepublican Vinery. Retrieved on July 7, 2006. * ^ See also: (in Russian) The Official Site of the Moscow Jewelry Factory. Retrieved on July 7, 2006. * ^ See also: (in Russian) The Official Site of the Experimental Moscow Jewelry Atelier Jewellerprom. Retrieved on July 7, 2006 * ^ "US$4,500 for a Square Meter of Apartment Space. The Moscow Times". Waybackmachine.org. July 19, 2011. Retrieved June 10, 2012. * ^ (in Russian) The absolute record of realty cost is broken * ^ Humphries, Conor (June 20, 2006). "Dividing the Spoils of the Boom". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on 2007-08-17. Retrieved July 14, 2006. * ^ "Costs of realty in Moscow (2006)" (in Russian). Mosday.ru. * ^ Sahadi, Jeanne (June 23, 2006). "World\'s most expensive cities". CNNMoney. Retrieved July 4, 2006. * ^ "Worldwide Cost of Living survey 2009". Mercer.com. July 7, 2009. Archived from the original on June 15, 2010. Retrieved June 15, 2010. * ^ World\'s most expensive cities – Buy a House: MLS Listings & Home Buying Tips – MSN Real Estate Archived August 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Jacobs, Deborah L. "The Most Expensive Cities In The World". _forbes.com_. * ^ "MSU History". Moscow State University. Retrieved July 6, 2006.

* ^ Templeton, John Marks (October 1, 1997). _Is Progress Speeding Up?: Our Multiplying Multitudes of Blessings_. p. 99. ISBN 1-890151-02-5 . * ^ Fedorov, I.B. "General (English)". МГТУ им.Н.Э.Баумана (Bauman Moscow State Technical University). Retrieved July 6, 2006. * ^ "International Relations". международная деятельность МГТУ (Bauman Moscow State Technical University). Archived from the original on 2002-07-30. Retrieved July 6, 2006. * ^ "The Official Site of the Moscow Conservatory". Mosconsv.ru. Retrieved June 11, 2012. * ^ "Facts and Figures". MGIMO ( Moscow State Institute of International Relations). Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved July 6, 2006. * ^ " Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI)". International Centre for Relativistic Astrophysics. Retrieved August 4, 2006. * ^ "The official homepage of the Russian State Library". Rsl.ru. Retrieved June 11, 2012. * ^ Краткая статистическая справка (IN RUSSIAN). RUSSIAN STATE LIBRARY. JANUARY 1, 2006. RETRIEVED AUGUST 4, 2006. * ^ "Stacks". The Russian State Library. Retrieved August 4, 2006. * ^ (in Russian) Official site of the State Public Historical Library Archived August 23, 2006, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Levy, Clifford J. (September 15, 2011). "My Family\'s Experiment in Extreme Schooling". Nytimes.com. Retrieved May 21, 2012.

* ^ _A_ _B_ " Moscow Airports". Go-Russia. October 7, 2007. Retrieved October 7, 2007. * ^ (in Russian) Airport Myachkovo changed the owners * ^ "Getting to Russia: Arriving by Train". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on July 8, 2006. Retrieved July 3, 2006. * ^ Isabel Wünsche, "Homo Sovieticus: The Athletic Motif in the Design of the Dynamo Metro Station," _Studies in the Decorative Arts_ (2000) 7#2 pp 65–90 * ^ Andrew Jenks, "A Metro on the Mount," _Technology & Culture_ (2000) 41#4 pp 697-723p * ^ Michael Robbins, " London Underground and Moscow Metro," _Journal of Transport History,_ (1997) 18#1 pp 45–53. * ^ Gordon W. Morrell, "Redefining Intelligence and Intelligence-Gathering: The Industrial Intelligence Centre and the Metro-Vickers Affair, Moscow 1933," _Intelligence and National Security_ (1994) 9#3 pp 520–533. * ^ Московский метрополитен (IN RUSSIAN). ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON JULY 14, 2006. RETRIEVED JULY 4, 2006. * ^ https://rbth.com/politics_and_society/2016/09/09/how-moscows-new-light-rail-system-will-make-life-easier-for-passengers_628517 * ^ See also: (in Russian) Realty news. Retrieved on July 22, 2006. * ^ "Гонки на такси: на чем быстрее и дешевле ездить". _rbc.ru_. * ^ Оцифрованные шашки: как технологии перекроили рынок такси / РБК Инновации Archived August 5, 2015, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Москва-Сити начинается строительство Города столиц (IN RUSSIAN). LENTA.RU. DECEMBER 23, 2005. RETRIEVED MAY 24, 2009. * ^ "Вербепрне Йнкэжн Опнахбюер Днпнцс – Цюгерю.Ru". Gazeta.ru. Retrieved June 10, 2012.

* ^ Четвертое транспортное кольцо Москвы (IN RUSSIAN). PRIME-REALTY.RU. RETRIEVED JUNE 10, 2012. * ^ "Plan of the Fourth Transport Road". Roads.ru. Retrieved December 22, 2010. * ^ "Издательский дом "Коммерсантъ"". Kommersant.ru. Retrieved May 5, 2009. * ^ "Ъ-Санкт-Петербург – Девелопер на перепутье". Kommersant.ru. Retrieved May 5, 2009. * ^ Ольга Ъ-Сичкарь. "Ъ – Mirax Group проявила дар убеждения". Kommersant.ru. Retrieved May 5, 2009. * ^ "Ъ—ПИК построил меньше, а AFI Development получила убыток". Kommersant.ru. Retrieved May 5, 2009. * ^ "Advertising Information". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on July 6, 2006. Retrieved July 6, 2006. * ^ " Almaty official site". _freenet.kz_. Archived from the original on March 4, 2009. * ^ "Kardeş Kentleri Lists ve 5 Mayıs Avrupa Günü Kutlaması __" (in Turkish). Ankara Büyükşehir Belediyesi – Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved July 21, 2013. * ^ "Sister Cities of Ankara". _ankara.bel.tr_. * ^ Bangkok Metropolitan Administration; City of Moscow (19 June 1997). "Protocol of friendly ties between the cities of Bangkok and Moscow" (PDF). * ^ Градови партнери . _ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE OF THE CITY OF BANJA LUKA_ (IN SERBIAN). ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON SEPTEMBER 17, 2011. RETRIEVED AUGUST 9, 2013. * ^ http://www.ebeijing.gov.cn/Sister_Cities/Sister_City/ * ^ "Sergei Sobyanin, Beijing Mayor Wang Anshun sign 2014–2016 programme of cooperation between Moscow and Beijing governments – Moscow investment portal". _investmoscow.ru_. * ^ " Berlin – City Partnerships". _Der Regierende Bürgermeister Berlin_. Archived from the original on May 21, 2013. Retrieved September 17, 2013. * ^ "Listado de ciudades hermanas" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 16, 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2010. * ^ http://chicagosistercities.com. "Sister Cities". _chicagosistercities.com_. * ^ "Sister Cities of Dubai". Sistercities.info. * ^ "Twin Towns". www.amazingdusseldorf.com. Retrieved October 29, 2009. * ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". _Azerbaijans.com_. Retrieved August 9, 2013. * ^ "CÁC ĐỊA PHƯƠNG NƯỚC NGOÀI ĐÃ THIẾT LẬP QUAN HỆ HỮU NGHỊ HỢP TÁC VỚI TPHCM". mofahcm.gov.vn. 9 October 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2011. * ^ "Medmestno in mednarodno sodelovanje". _Mestna občina Ljubljana ( Ljubljana City)_ (in Slovenian). Archived from the original on June 26, 2013. Retrieved July 27, 2013. * ^ "About Manila: Sister Cities". City of Manila. Retrieved 24 November 2016. * ^ " Moscow and New Delhi twin cities strengthen friendly ties". Sep 7, 2012. Retrieved Aug 3, 2016. * ^ "Partnerská města HMP" . _Portál "Zahraniční vztahy" _ (in Czech). July 18, 2013. Archived from the original on June 25, 2013. Retrieved August 5, 2013. * ^ Moscow and Reykjavík sister cities. Archived January 7, 2009, at the Wayback Machine .. Retrieved on March 11, 2008 * ^ "International Cooperation: Sister Cities". _ Seoul Metropolitan Government_. www.seoul.go.kr. Archived from the original on December 10, 2007. Retrieved January 26, 2008. * ^ " Seoul -Sister Cities ". _ Seoul Metropolitan Government (archived April 25, 2012)_. Archived from the original on March 25, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2013. * ^ "Sister Cities(States) of Tokyo Tokyo Metropolitan Government". _metro.tokyo.jp_. * ^ "Cooperation Internationale" (in French). © 2003–2009 City of Tunis Portal. Archived from the original on May 8, 2008. Retrieved July 31, 2009. * ^ "Miasta partnerskie Warszawy". _um.warszawa.pl_. Biuro Promocji Miasta. May 4, 2005. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved August 29, 2008. * ^ " Yerevan – Partner Cities". _ Yerevan Municipality Official Website_. © 2005—2013 www.yerevan.am. Archived from the original on November 5, 2013. Retrieved November 4, 2013. * ^ "Lisboa – Geminações de Cidades e Vilas" . _Associação Nacional de Municípios Portugueses _ (in Portuguese). Retrieved August 23, 2013. * ^ "Acordos de Geminação, de Cooperação e/ou Amizade da Cidade de Lisboa" . _Camara Municipal de Lisboa_ (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on October 31, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2013. * ^ "Kyiv and Moscow – no longer twin cities". 3 May 2016. Retrieved August 3, 2016.

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* 1Claimed by Ukraine and considered by most of the international community to be part of Ukraine * 2Administratively subordinated to Tyumen Oblast * 3Administratively subordinated to Arkhangelsk Oblast

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