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The Maniq language Ten'edn, known in some of the previous literature as Tonga, is an aboriginal Mon–Khmer language
Mon–Khmer language
of Thailand
Thailand
and Malaya. It goes by the name Mos in Thailand, which it shares with Kensiu. (The name Maniq is also shared with Kensiu.) According to Benjamin (2012), Maniq (Məniʔ, Maniʔ) can refer to the following three or more speech varieties.

Tonga' (Toŋaʔ) Mos (Mɔs) Teanean (Ten'en, Tɛnʔɛn, Tean-ean)

Examples of odor terms in Maniq language:-[3]

Maniq language Jahai language Number of objects Examplars

caŋə

9 tubers ( Dioscorea
Dioscorea
spp.) (4), food (1), cooked food (1), cooked meat (1), rice (1), wild pig (Sus scrofa) (1), cooked wild pig (1), fresh meat (1), white sun (1)

caŋɛs

8 animal hair (1), hair of dusky leaf monkey (Trachypithecus obscurus) (1), hair of banded leaf monkey (Presbytis femoralis) (1), hair of pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) (1), burnt hair (1), burnt animal hair (1), roasted animal fat (1), sun (1)

caŋus

9 soap (3), washing oneself (2), fruit ( Goniothalamus
Goniothalamus
sp.) (1), leaves (1), Uvaria
Uvaria
sp. (1), clothes (1), talcum powder (1), sun (1), medicine to drink (1)

hamis

2 sun (6), air/smoke coming from the sun (2)

haʔĩt haʔɛ̃t 10 dead animal (3), rotting animal (3), animal (1), plantain squirrel (Callosciurus notatus) (1), Prevost’s squirrel (Callosciurus prevostii) (1), (wac caw ‘kind of squirrel’) (1), bats (1), flying fox (Pteropus cf. vampyrus) (1), tuber ( Dioscorea
Dioscorea
daunea) (1), bamboo tube (1)

kamɛh

6 (taluŋ ‘kind of millipede A’) (5), (caŋwɔɲ ‘kind of millipede B’) (1), (kaʔɔʔ basiŋ ‘kind of millipede C’) (1), Ipoh poison (Antiaris toxicaria) (1), flying fox (Pteropus cf. vampyrus) (1), forest (1)

kamloh

3 smoke from fire (3), old shelter (1), bathing (1)

lspəs ltpɨt 14 tuber ( Dioscorea
Dioscorea
orbiculata) (2), bearcat (Arctictis binturong) (2), tuber ( Dioscorea
Dioscorea
filiformis) (1), tuber ( Dioscorea
Dioscorea
calcicola) (1), tubers ( Dioscorea
Dioscorea
spp.) (1), new shelter (1), clean and dry clothes (1), fruit (Ficus chartacea) (1), forest (1), tree (1), animal (1), food (1), medicine to drink (1), white sun (1)

palɛŋ plʔeŋ 11 blood (3), animal blood (1), blood of wild pig (Sus scrofa) (1), blood of pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) (1), blood of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) (1), blood of bearcat (Arctictis binturong) (1), raw meat (1), (pɔʔ batew ‘fern sp.’) (1), (smkam ‘plant sp.’) (1), searching for food (1), sun (1)

paʔɔ̞̃ʔ

16 tuber ( Dioscorea
Dioscorea
daunea) (2), mushroom (2), pouring water (1), fetching water (1), mud (1), digging tubers in mud (1), cooking muddy tubers (1), wet or dirty clothes (1), rotting bamboo tube (1), soil (1), searching for food (1), petai (Parkia speciosa) (1), Parkia timoriana (1), sweat (1), urine (1), old shelter (1)

miʔ bayɔ̞̃ɸ

12 old shelter (3), soil (2), shelter (1), mushrooms (1), skin of a dead animal (1), rotten wood (1), bamboo tube for water (1), drinking water from a bamboo tube (1), rotten leaf (1), head of banded leaf monkey (Presbytis femoralis) (1), head of pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) (1), head of stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides) (1)

miʔ danɔw

10 mushrooms (3), rotten wood (2), rotten mushrooms (1), old shelter (1), animal bones (1), durian seed (1), snakes (1), forest (1), searching for food (1), soil (1)

miʔ huhũɸ

10 snakes (2), soil (2), searching for tubers (1), digging tubers (1), mushrooms (1), sweat (1), rotten wood (1), walking in the forest (1), making fire (1), smoke (1)

miʔ latɨŋ

10 soil (2), burning fire (1), (tanɔl ‘kind of fire wood A’) (1), (ɲeʔɲeʔ ‘kind of fire wood B’) (1), (tŋwaŋ ‘kind of flower’) (1), (kabɨʔ lɨkhɨ ‘kind of fruit’) (1), (bacen ‘food item (unknown)’) (1), mushrooms (1), tree (1), walking in the forest (1)

miʔ ɲətuʔ

7 tree sap (1), leaves (1), garlic (1), soil (1), forest (1), searching for food (1), (kabɨʔ ɲɛʔɲɛʔ ‘kind of fruit) (1)

See also[edit]

Jahai language

References[edit]

^ Maniq at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tonga (Thailand)". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Ewelina Wnuk & Asifa Majid (April 2014). "Revisiting the limits of language: The odor lexicon of Maniq" (PDF). Cognition Volume 131, Issue 1. p. 128. Retrieved 2017-07-12. 

Peterson, Mary M. 2012. Notes on Ten-edn (Tonga-Mos) and Kensiw Borrowings. Mon Khmer Studies 40:19-35. Benjamin, Geoffrey. 2012. ‘The Aslian languages of Malaysia
Malaysia
and Thailand: an assessment.’ In: Peter K. Austin & Stuart McGill (eds), Language Documentation and Description, Volume 11. London: Endangered Languages Project, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), pp.136–230. <www.elpublishing.org/PID/131>. External links[edit]

http://projekt.ht.lu.se/rwaai RWAAI (Repository and Workspace for Austroasiatic Intangible Heritage) http://hdl.handle.net/10050/00-0000-0000-0003-66FA-7@view Maniq in RWAAI Digital Archive

v t e

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1 Extinct languages. 2 Nearly extinct languages.

v t e

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Kintaq Kuy Mlabri Mon Nyah Kur Palaung Ten'edn Thavung Vietnamese

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v t e

Austroasiatic languages

Bahnaric

North

Jeh Halang Kayong Kaco’ Takua Monom Todrah Sedang Rengao Hrê Duan Katua

West

Lavi Jru' Laven Su' Juk Nyaheun Sapuan Oi Brao

Central

Alak Tariang Tampuan Bahnar Chrau Koho Stieng Ra’ong Mnong Mel? Khaonh? Thmon?

East

Cua

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Katu Phuong Bru Kuy Pacoh Ta’Oi

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Vietnamese Mường Nguồn Cuoi Thavưng Chứt Arem Maleng Kri

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Khmu Mlabri Phai Mal Ksingmul O’du Phray Phong Khao

Palaungic

Danau Palaung Riang Lamet Kiorr Kuan

Angkuic

Hu U Man Met Mok Muak Sa-aak Va Tai Loi

Waic

Blang Lawa Wa Meung Yum Savaiq

Bit-Khang

Bit Quang Lam Kháng Bumang

Khasic

Khasi Pnar War Lyngngam

Mangic

Mang Bolyu Bugan

Khmeric

Khmer Northern Khmer Western Khmer Khmer Khe

Pearic

Pear Suoi Saoch Chong Samre Somray Kasong

Monic

Mon Nyah Kur

Aslian

Jahaic

Cheq Wong Batek Jahai Jedek Minriq Mintil Kintaq Kensiu Ten'edn Wila'

Senoic

Semai Temiar Lanoh Sabüm Semnam

Jah Hut

Jah Hut

Semelaic

Temoq Semelai Semaq Beri Mah Meri

(unclassified)

Kenaboi

Nicobaric

Car Chaura Teressa Central Nicobarese Nancowry Camorta Katchal Southern Nicobarese

Shompen

Shompen

Munda

North

Korku Korwa Santali Turi Birhor Mundari Ho Koda Kol Asur Birjia Agariya

South

Kharia Juang Gta’ Remo Gutob Gorum Sora Juray Lodhi

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