Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.5 (out of 1,000) in a population of 1,000 would mean 9.5 deaths per year in that entire population, or 0.95% out of the total. It is distinct from "morbidity", which is either the prevalence or incidence of a disease, and also from the incidence rate (the number of newly appearing cases of the disease per unit of time). In the generic form, mortality rates are calculated as:
displaystyle d/p*10^ n
where d represents the deaths occurring within a given time period and p represents the size of the population in which the deaths occur.
1 Related measures of mortality 2 Use in epidemiology
2.1 Census data and vital statistics 2.2 Household surveys 2.3 Sampling
3 Mortality statistics 4 See also 5 References 6 Sources 7 External links
Related measures of mortality Other specific measures of mortality include:
Measures of Mortality 
Crude death rate – the total number of deaths per year per 1,000 people. As of 2017[update] the crude death rate for the whole world is 8.33 per 1,000 (up from 7.8 per 1,000 in 2016) according to the current CIA World Factbook.
Maternal mortality ratio
Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) – a proportional comparison to the numbers of deaths that would have been expected if the population had been of a standard composition in terms of age, gender, etc.
Age-specific mortality rate
Cause-specific mortality rate – the mortality rate for a specified cause of death. Sun, Hongbing, “Temperature Dependence of Multiple Sclerosis in the United States.” Multiple Sclerosis Journal. Vol. 23, no. 14, Dec. 2017 In this study the research found that Patients with MS are sensitive to heat temperatures which cause remains unknown. This study finds that the mortality rate in the USA in areas of the northern states is higher than the southern states. This study finds that MS caused 55,129 deaths within the 48 states between 1999 and 2014. The study was unable to find a clear correlation between temperature and MS deaths, however, it is suggested that more deaths are seen in the northern, low-temperature states due to an increased use of heat within homes themselves. This infers that due to the increased home temperatures people suffering from MS could be more sensitive to that opposed to the actual environmental temperatures.
Cumulative death rate: a measure of the (growing) proportion of a group that die over a specified period (often as estimated by techniques that account for missing data by statistical censoring).
Case fatality rate (CFR) – the proportion of cases of a particular medical condition that lead to death. Tuner, Paul J., et al. “Fatal Anaphylaxis: Mortality Rate and Risk Factors.” The Journal of Allergy and clinical Immunology: In practice, vol. 5, no. 5, 2017. According to this research, only 5% of the US Population experiences anaphylactic reactions, but less than 1% of them end up fatal. With the increased education and research of anaphylaxis, health-care providers have been distributing auto-injectors of epinephrine to patients that experience anaphylaxis, which is a factor in preventing fatal anaphylaxis.
Benson, Michael D. “Amniotic Fluid Embolism Mortality Rate.” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Research: vol. 43, no. 11, 2017. Nine studies were combined to measure over 17 million births with a recorded Amniotic Fluid Embolism Mortality Rate of 20.4%. One of the risk factors involved with AFE was a maternal age of 35 or greater. An important factor to note is that this particular topic has not been researched extensively and there are multiple different definitions of AFE and what is needed to diagnose it depending on the country or physician. Further research on this topic overall is necessary to provide more accurate data.
Sex-specific mortality rate - Total number of deaths in a population of a specific sex within a given time interval
Use in epidemiology
In most cases, there are few ways, if at all possible to obtain exact
mortality rates, so epidemiologists use estimation to predict correct
mortality rates. Mortality rates are usually difficult to predict due
to language barriers, health infrastructure related issues, conflict,
and other reasons.
World historical and predicted crude death rates (1950–2050) UN, medium variant, 2012 rev.
Years CDR Years CDR
1950–1955 19.1 2000–2005 8.4
1955–1960 17.3 2005–2010 8.1
1960–1965 16.2 2010–2015 8.1
1965–1970 12.9 2015–2020 8.1
1970–1975 11.6 2020–2025 8.1
1975–1980 10.6 2025–2030 8.3
1980–1985 10.0 2030–2035 8.6
1985–1990 9.4 2035–2040 9.0
1990–1995 9.1 2040–2045 9.4
1995–2000 8.8 2045–2050 9.7
The ten countries with the highest crude death rate, according to the
CIA World Factbook
1 Lesotho 14.9
2 Bulgaria 14.5
3 Lithuania 14.5
4 Ukraine 14.4
5 Latvia 14.4
6 Guinea-Bissau 14.1
7 Chad 14.0
8 Afghanistan 13.7
9 Serbia 13.6
10 Russia 13.6
See list of countries by death rate for worldwide statistics. According to the World Health Organization, the ten leading causes of death in 2015 (ranked by death per 100,000 population) were:
Ischaemic heart disease
Causes of death vary greatly between developed and less developed countries. See list of causes of death by rate for worldwide statistics.
Scatter plot of the natural logarithm of the crude death rate against the natural log of per capita real GDP. The slope of the trend line is the elasticity of the crude death rate with respect to per capita real income. It indicates that a 10% increase in per capita real income is associated with a 1.5% decrease in the crude death rate. Source: World Development Indicators.
Biodemography Compensation law of mortality Demography Gompertz–Makeham law of mortality List of causes of death by rate List of countries by birth rate List of countries by death rate List of countries by life expectancy Maximum life span Micromort Mortality displacement Risk adjusted mortality rate Vital statistics Medical statistics Weekend effect
^ Porta, M, ed. (2014). "
Crude death rate (per 1,000 population) based on World Population
Prospects The 2008 Revision, United Nations. Retrieved 22 June 2010
Rank Order –
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Birth and death rates.
DeathRiskRankings: Calculates risk of dying in the next year using MicroMorts and displays risk rankings for up to 66 causes of death[permanent dead link] Data regarding death rates by age and cause in the United States (from Data360) Complex Emergency Database (CE-DAT): Mortality data from conflict-affected populations Human Mortality Database: Historic mortality data from developed nations Google – public data: Mortality in the U.S.
v t e
Cell death Necrosis
Avascular necrosis Coagulative necrosis Liquefactive necrosis Gangrenous necrosis Caseous necrosis Fat necrosis Fibrinoid necrosis Temporal lobe necrosis
Programmed cell death
AICD Anoikis Apoptosis Autophagy Intrinsic apoptosis Necroptosis Paraptosis Parthanatos Phenoptosis Pseudoapoptosis Pyroptosis
Immunogenic cell death
Ischemic cell death
Abortion Autopsy Brain death
Causes of death by rate Expressions related to death Natural disasters People by cause of death Premature obituaries Preventable causes of death Notable deaths by year Unusual deaths TV actors who died during production
Birthday effect Child mortality Gompertz–Makeham law of mortality Immortality
Mortality salience Perinatal mortality
Stages Pallor mortis Algor mortis Rigor mortis Livor mortis Putrefaction Decomposition Skeletonization Fossilization
Embalming Maceration Mummification Plastination Prosection Taxidermy
Cannibalism Cremation Dismemberment Excarnation Promession Resomation
Beating heart cadaver
Ghosts Near-death experience Near-death studies Necromancy Out-of-body experience Reincarnation research Séance
Personification of death Dying-and-rising god Psychopomp
Spiritual death Suicide
Thanatosensitivity Undead Voodoo death
Category Portal WikiProject
v t e
Clinical research and experimental design
Trial protocols Adaptive clinical trial
Academic clinical trials Clinical study design
Controlled study (EBM I to II-1; A to B)
Randomized controlled trial
Scientific experiment Blind experiment Open-label trial
Observational study (EBM II-2 to II-3; B to C)
Cross-sectional study vs. Longitudinal study, Ecological study Cohort study
occurrence: Incidence (Cumulative incidence) Prevalence
association: absolute (Absolute risk reduction, Attributable risk, Attributable risk percent) relative (Relative risk, Odds ratio, Hazard ratio)
other: Clinical endpoint Virulence Infectivity Mortality rate Morbidity Case fatality rate Specificity and sensitivity Likelihood-ratios Pre/post-test probability
Analysis of clinical trials
Risk–benefit ratio Systematic review Replication Meta-analysis Intention-to-treat analysis
Interpretation of results
Selection bias Survivorship bias Correlation does not imply causation Null result
Category Glossary List of topics