The Info List - Moroccans

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(Arabic: al-Magharibah المغاربة‎, Berber: ⵉⵎⵖⵕⴰⴱⵉⵢⵏ, Imɣṛabiyen) are people inhabiting or originating from Morocco
that share a common Moroccan culture and Maghrebi ancestry. The overwhelming majority of Moroccans
are of Berber descent;[22] however, some also identify as Arabs, Arab-Berbers or Arabised Berbers. In addition to the 33 million Moroccans
in Morocco, there is a large Moroccan diaspora in France, Belgium, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain, and a smaller one in United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
and in other Arab
states. A sizeable part of the Moroccan diaspora is composed of Moroccan Jews.


1 History 2 Ethnic groups 3 Genetic composition 4 Culture 5 Languages 6 See also 7 References


culture    Iberomaurusian

The first anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) in North Africa are the makers of the Aterian, a Middle Stone Age
Middle Stone Age
(or Middle Palaeolithic) stone tool culture. The earliest Aterian
lithic assemblages date to around 145,000 years ago, and were discovered at the site of Ifri n'Ammar in Morocco. This industry was followed by the Iberomaurusian
culture, a backed bladelet industry found throughout the Maghreb. It was originally described in 1909 at the site of Abri Mouillah. Other names for this Cro-Magnon-associated culture include Mouillian and Oranian. The Epipaleolithic
makers were centred in prehistoric sites, such as Taforalt
and Mechta-Afalou. They were succeeded by the Capsians. The Capsian culture
Capsian culture
is often thought to have arrived in Africa from the Near East, although it is also suggested that the Iberomaurusians may have been the progenitors of the Capsians. Around 5000 BC, the populations of North Africa were primarily descended from the makers of the Iberomaurusian
and Capsian cultures, with a more recent intrusion associated with the Neolithic revolution.[23] The proto-Berber tribes evolved from these prehistoric communities during the Late Bronze to Early Iron Age.[24] Ethnic groups[edit] Moroccans
are primarily of Berber origin, like other neighbouring Maghrebians.[22] As such, Berbers
are descendants of the prehistoric populations of Morocco
through the Iberomaurusians and Capsians. The Afroasiatic family may have originated in the Mesolithic
period, perhaps in the context of the Capsian
culture.[25][26] By 5000 BC, the populations of Morocco
were an amalgamation of Ibero-Maurisian
and a minority of Capsian
stock blended with a more recent intrusion associated with the Neolithic revolution.[27] Out of these populations, the proto-Berber tribes formed during the late Paleolithic
era.[28] Berber-speaking groups include the Riffians, Shilha and Zayanes. Arabic-speaking groups include the Jebala in the north and Sahrawiyin in the southeast. A small minority of the population is identified as Haratin
and Gnawa. These are sedentary agriculturalists of non-Berber origin, who inhabit the southern and eastern oases and speak either Berber or Moroccan Arabic. Between the Nile
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
were living Arab
tribes expelled from Arabia
for their turbulence, Banu Hilal
Banu Hilal
and Sulaym, who often plundered farming areas in the Nile
Valley.[29] According to Ibn Khaldun, whole tribes set off with women, children, ancestors, animals and camping equipment.[29] Genetic composition[edit]

Distribution of the haplogroup E1b1b-M81, the most common paternal lineage among Moroccans.

Population Language n E1b1a E1b1b G I  J L N R1a R1b T Reference

(Morocco) AA (Semitic) 49 — 7001855000000000000♠85.5 — 5000000000000000000♠0.0 7001204009999900000♠20.4 — — 5000000000000000000♠0 5000000000000000000♠0 — Semino 2004[30]

(Marrakesh) AA (Berber) 29 — 7001929000000000000♠92.9 — — — — — — — — Semino et al. 2000[31]

(Middle Atlas) AA (Berber) 69 — 7001871000000000000♠87.1 — — — — — — — — Cruciani et al. 2004[32]

(Southern Morocco) AA (Berber) 62 0 98.5% — 0 0 0 0 — — 0 Ahmed Reguig et al. 2014[33]

(North central Morocco) AA (Berber) 40 0 93.8 — 0 0 0 0 — — 0 Alvarez et al. 2009[34]

Riffians (North Morocco) AA (Berber) 54 0 95.9 — 0 0 0 0 — — 0 Dugoujon et al. 2005[35]

Béni-Snassen (fr) (Northern Morocco) AA (Berber) & (Semitic) 67 0 95.1 — 0 0 0 0 — — 0 Dugoujon et al. 2005[35]

Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Morocco

A Moroccan kaftan

Through Moroccan history, the country had many cultural influences (Europe, Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa). The culture of Morocco shares similar traits with those of neighboring countries, particularly Algeria
and Tunisia
and to a certain extent Spain. Morocco
influenced modern day Europe, in several fields, from architecture to agriculture, and the introduction of Moroccan numbers, widely used now in the world[citation needed]]. Each region possesses its own uniqueness, contributing to the national culture. Morocco
has set among its top priorities the protection of its diversity and the preservation of its cultural heritage. The traditional dress for men and women is called djellaba, a long, loose, hooded garment with full sleeves. For special occasions, men also wear a red cap called a bernousse, more commonly known as a fez. Women wear kaftans decorated with ornaments. Nearly all men, and most women, wear balgha (بلغه). These are soft leather slippers with no heel, often dyed yellow. Women also wear high-heeled sandals, often with silver or gold tinsel. Moroccan style is a new trend in decoration, which takes its roots from Moorish architecture. It has been made popular by the vogue of riad renovation in Marrakech. Dar is the name given to one of the most common types of domestic structures in Morocco; it is a home found in a medina, or walled urban area of a city. Most Moroccan homes traditionally adhere to the Dar al-Islam, a series of tenets on Islamic domestic life. Dar exteriors are typically devoid of ornamentation and windows, except occasional small openings in secondary quarters, such as stairways and service areas. These piercings provide light and ventilation. Moroccan cuisine
Moroccan cuisine
primarily consists of a blend of Berber, Moorish and Arab
influences. It is known for dishes like couscous and pastilla, among others. Spices such as cinnamon are also used in Moroccan cooking. Sweets like halwa are popular, as well as other confections. Cuisines from neighbouring areas have also influenced the country's culinary traditions. Additionally, Moroccan craftsmanship has a rich tradition of jewellery-making, pottery, leather-work and woodwork. The music of Morocco
ranges and differs according to the various areas of the country. Moroccan music has a variety of styles from complex sophisticated orchestral music to simple music involving only voice and drums. There are three varieties of Berber folk music: village and ritual music, and the music performed by professional musicians. Chaabi (الشعبي) is a music consisting of numerous varieties which descend from the multifarious forms of Moroccan folk music. Chaabi was originally performed in markets, but is now found at any celebration or meeting. Gnawa
is a form of music that is mystical. It was gradually brought to Morocco
by the Gnawa
and later became part of the Moroccan tradition. Sufi brotherhoods (tarikas) are common in Morocco, and music is an integral part of their spiritual tradition. This music is an attempt at reaching a trance state which inspires mystical ecstasy. Languages[edit] Main article: Languages of Morocco

Linguistic map of Morocco

Morocco's official languages are Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
and Amazigh. The latter is a standardized version of the Berber languages. The majority of the population speaks Moroccan Arabic. More than 12 million Moroccans
speak Berber varieties, either as a first language or bilingually with Moroccan Arabic. Three different Berber dialects are spoken: Riff, Shilha (Chleuh) and Central Atlas Tamazight. Hassaniya Arabic
Hassaniya Arabic
is spoken in the southern part of the country. Morocco
has recently included the protection of Hassaniya in the constitution as part of the July 2011 reforms. French is taught universally and still serves as Morocco's primary language of commerce and economics; it is also widely used in education, sciences, government and most education fields. Spanish is also spoken by some in the northern part of the country as a foreign language. Meanwhile, English is increasingly becoming more popular among the educated, particularly in the science fields. See also[edit]

Moroccan diaspora Genetic history of the Iberian Peninsula Moriscos Expulsion of the Moriscos Media related to People of Morocco
at Wikimedia Commons List of Moroccans


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