Moroccans (Arabic: al-Magharibah المغاربة, Berber:
ⵉⵎⵖⵕⴰⴱⵉⵢⵏ, Imɣṛabiyen) are people inhabiting or
Morocco that share a common Moroccan culture and
Maghrebi ancestry. The overwhelming majority of
Moroccans are of
Berber descent; however, some also identify as Arabs, Arab-Berbers
or Arabised Berbers.
In addition to the 33 million
Moroccans in Morocco, there is a large
Moroccan diaspora in France, Belgium, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands
and Spain, and a smaller one in United Kingdom, United States, Canada,
Arabian Peninsula and in other
Arab states. A sizeable part of the
Moroccan diaspora is composed of Moroccan Jews.
2 Ethnic groups
3 Genetic composition
6 See also
The first anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) in North
Africa are the makers of the Aterian, a
Middle Stone Age
Middle Stone Age (or Middle
Palaeolithic) stone tool culture. The earliest
assemblages date to around 145,000 years ago, and were discovered at
the site of Ifri n'Ammar in Morocco. This industry was followed by the
Iberomaurusian culture, a backed bladelet industry found throughout
the Maghreb. It was originally described in 1909 at the site of Abri
Mouillah. Other names for this Cro-Magnon-associated culture include
Mouillian and Oranian. The
Iberomaurusian makers were
centred in prehistoric sites, such as
Taforalt and Mechta-Afalou. They
were succeeded by the Capsians. The
Capsian culture is often thought
to have arrived in Africa from the Near East, although it is also
suggested that the Iberomaurusians may have been the progenitors of
the Capsians. Around 5000 BC, the populations of North Africa were
primarily descended from the makers of the
Iberomaurusian and Capsian
cultures, with a more recent intrusion associated with the Neolithic
revolution. The proto-Berber tribes evolved from these prehistoric
communities during the Late Bronze to Early Iron Age.
Moroccans are primarily of Berber origin, like other neighbouring
Maghrebians. As such,
Berbers are descendants of the prehistoric
Morocco through the Iberomaurusians and Capsians.
The Afroasiatic family may have originated in the
perhaps in the context of the
Capsian culture. By 5000 BC, the
Morocco were an amalgamation of
Ibero-Maurisian and a
Capsian stock blended with a more recent intrusion
associated with the Neolithic revolution. Out of these
populations, the proto-Berber tribes formed during the late
Berber-speaking groups include the Riffians, Shilha and Zayanes.
Arabic-speaking groups include the Jebala in the north and Sahrawiyin
in the southeast.
A small minority of the population is identified as
Haratin and Gnawa.
These are sedentary agriculturalists of non-Berber origin, who inhabit
the southern and eastern oases and speak either Berber or Moroccan
Nile and the
Red Sea were living
Arab tribes expelled from
Arabia for their turbulence,
Banu Hilal and Sulaym, who often
plundered farming areas in the
Nile Valley. According to Ibn
Khaldun, whole tribes set off with women, children, ancestors, animals
and camping equipment.
Distribution of the haplogroup E1b1b-M81, the most common paternal
lineage among Moroccans.
Semino et al. 2000
Berbers (Middle Atlas)
Cruciani et al. 2004
Berbers (Southern Morocco)
Ahmed Reguig et al. 2014
Berbers (North central Morocco)
Alvarez et al. 2009
Riffians (North Morocco)
Dugoujon et al. 2005
Béni-Snassen (fr) (Northern Morocco)
AA (Berber) & (Semitic)
Dugoujon et al. 2005
Main article: Culture of Morocco
A Moroccan kaftan
Through Moroccan history, the country had many cultural influences
(Europe, Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa). The culture of Morocco
shares similar traits with those of neighboring countries,
Tunisia and to a certain extent Spain.
Morocco influenced modern day Europe, in several fields, from
architecture to agriculture, and the introduction of Moroccan numbers,
widely used now in the world].
Each region possesses its own uniqueness, contributing to the national
Morocco has set among its top priorities the protection of
its diversity and the preservation of its cultural heritage.
The traditional dress for men and women is called djellaba, a long,
loose, hooded garment with full sleeves. For special occasions, men
also wear a red cap called a bernousse, more commonly known as a fez.
Women wear kaftans decorated with ornaments. Nearly all men, and most
women, wear balgha (بلغه). These are soft leather slippers with no
heel, often dyed yellow. Women also wear high-heeled sandals, often
with silver or gold tinsel.
Moroccan style is a new trend in decoration, which takes its roots
from Moorish architecture. It has been made popular by the vogue of
riad renovation in Marrakech. Dar is the name given to one of the most
common types of domestic structures in Morocco; it is a home found in
a medina, or walled urban area of a city. Most Moroccan homes
traditionally adhere to the Dar al-Islam, a series of tenets on
Islamic domestic life. Dar exteriors are typically devoid of
ornamentation and windows, except occasional small openings in
secondary quarters, such as stairways and service areas. These
piercings provide light and ventilation.
Moroccan cuisine primarily consists of a blend of Berber, Moorish and
Arab influences. It is known for dishes like couscous and pastilla,
among others. Spices such as cinnamon are also used in Moroccan
cooking. Sweets like halwa are popular, as well as other confections.
Cuisines from neighbouring areas have also influenced the country's
Additionally, Moroccan craftsmanship has a rich tradition of
jewellery-making, pottery, leather-work and woodwork.
The music of
Morocco ranges and differs according to the various areas
of the country. Moroccan music has a variety of styles from complex
sophisticated orchestral music to simple music involving only voice
and drums. There are three varieties of Berber folk music: village and
ritual music, and the music performed by professional musicians.
Chaabi (الشعبي) is a music consisting of numerous varieties
which descend from the multifarious forms of Moroccan folk music.
Chaabi was originally performed in markets, but is now found at any
celebration or meeting.
Gnawa is a form of music that is mystical. It
was gradually brought to
Morocco by the
Gnawa and later became part of
the Moroccan tradition. Sufi brotherhoods (tarikas) are common in
Morocco, and music is an integral part of their spiritual tradition.
This music is an attempt at reaching a trance state which inspires
Main article: Languages of Morocco
Linguistic map of Morocco
Morocco's official languages are
Classical Arabic and Amazigh. The
latter is a standardized version of the Berber languages.
The majority of the population speaks Moroccan Arabic. More than 12
Moroccans speak Berber varieties, either as a first language
or bilingually with Moroccan Arabic. Three different Berber dialects
are spoken: Riff, Shilha (Chleuh) and Central Atlas Tamazight.
Hassaniya Arabic is spoken in the southern part of the country.
Morocco has recently included the protection of Hassaniya in the
constitution as part of the July 2011 reforms.
French is taught universally and still serves as Morocco's primary
language of commerce and economics; it is also widely used in
education, sciences, government and most education fields.
Spanish is also spoken by some in the northern part of the country as
a foreign language. Meanwhile, English is increasingly becoming more
popular among the educated, particularly in the science fields.
Genetic history of the Iberian Peninsula
Expulsion of the Moriscos
Media related to People of
Morocco at Wikimedia Commons
List of Moroccans
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Demographics of Morocco
Modern Standard Arabic
Standard Moroccan Berber
Kingdom of Nekor
Caliphate of Cordoba
Treaty of Fez
President of the Government
Western Sahara status
Coat of arms
national football team
national rugby union team